Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Embryonic

  • human embryonic
  • late embryonic

  • Terms modified by Embryonic

  • embryonic brain
  • embryonic carcinoma cell
  • embryonic cell
  • embryonic cns
  • embryonic day
  • embryonic death
  • embryonic development
  • embryonic diapause
  • embryonic epidermis
  • embryonic expression
  • embryonic fibroblast
  • embryonic fibroblast cell
  • embryonic forebrain
  • embryonic germ cell
  • embryonic growth
  • embryonic heart
  • embryonic heart development
  • embryonic kidney
  • embryonic kidney cell
  • embryonic lethal
  • embryonic lethality
  • embryonic life
  • embryonic loss
  • embryonic lung
  • embryonic malformation
  • embryonic midline
  • embryonic mortality
  • embryonic mouse
  • embryonic mouse heart
  • embryonic mouse spinal cord
  • embryonic neuron
  • embryonic origin
  • embryonic pattern formation
  • embryonic patterning
  • embryonic period
  • embryonic process
  • embryonic skeletal development
  • embryonic spinal cord
  • embryonic stage
  • embryonic stem
  • embryonic stem cell
  • embryonic stem cell line
  • embryonic stem cell research
  • embryonic structure
  • embryonic survival
  • embryonic tissue
  • embryonic viability

  • Selected Abstracts

    Cooler temperatures increase sensitivity to ultraviolet B radiation in embryos and larvae of the frog Limnodynastes peronii

    Abstract Recent studies suggest that complex interacting processes are driving global amphibian declines. Increased ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation in the solar spectrum associated with ozone depletion has been implicated in declines, and evidence suggests that the effects of UVB radiation on amphibians may be greater at cooler temperatures. We tested the thermal sensitivity of UVB effects on amphibians in a controlled factorial experiment using the striped marsh frog, Limnodynastes peronii as a model species. We compared survival, growth and locomotor performance of embryonic and larval L. peronii reared under low and high UVB exposures at both 20 and 30 °C. Embryonic and larval L. peronii proved extremely sensitive to UVB damage and exhibited greater sensitivity at 20 °C compared with 30 °C. Embryonic survival to Gosner stage 25 was unaffected by UVB exposure at 30 °C, but at 20 °C survival was reduced to 52% under high UVB. Larval survival exhibited a similar trend. At 20 °C, all tadpoles survived under low UVB, whereas under high UVB there was 100% mortality after 15 days of exposure. At 30 °C, 86% survived under low UVB, but only 46% survived under high UVB. Sublethal effects such as, embryonic malformation, retarded larval growth and reduced larval swimming performance were also greater at 20 °C compared with 30 °C. Our results strongly indicate that UVB damage in amphibians is markedly increased at cooler temperatures. Thus, populations of UVB sensitive species occurring at cold climates may be at greater risk of declines due to increased solar UVB radiation. [source]

    Embryonic and fetal globins are expressed in adult erythroid progenitor cells and in erythroid cell cultures

    PRENATAL DIAGNOSIS, Issue 7 2001
    Elizabeth T. Lau
    Abstract The understanding of human hemoglobin ontogeny during development is of biological and clinical importance. Molecular and immunocytological techniques were used to study the expression of embryonic zeta (,), epsilon (,), and fetal gamma (,) globin genes in newborn cord blood, peripheral blood from men, pregnant and non-pregnant women, and in vitro mononuclear cell cultures. We have shown that embryonic and fetal globin mRNA and peptides are expressed in cultured erythroid cells and in circulating blood cells from newborns, adult non-pregnant women and from men. The findings suggest that during erythroid cell differentiation in newborns and adults, there is a transient recapitulation of sequential globin chain expression as found during embryonic and fetal development. Furthermore, these findings underscore the need for caution in using embryonic and fetal globin chains as markers to identify erythroid cells of fetal origin in maternal circulation for prenatal diagnosis. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Guinea Fowl Spleen at Embryonic and Post-Hatch Periods

    B. I. Onyeanusi
    Summary The spleen of the guinea fowl was bean-shaped but without a dented hilus. It is supplied by three short arteries that came from the ventral surface, two on the cranial end and one at the caudal end of the organ. The whole organ had a thin but tough capsule covering the outer surface except at the point of entry of the blood vessels. By day 18 of incubation, the spleen had a thin but well-defined capsule and internal to this been complete network of sinusoids filled with erythrocytes, lymphocytes and granulocytes. By day 19, dark and light staining zones, which could be termed red and white pulps, had appeared. By day 20, the granulocytes with a lot of granules within their cytoplasm, had become the biggest-sized cells in the spleen. At day 21, arteries and veins were noticed clearly in the spleen and many lymphocytes, few granulocytes and reticular cells surrounded these. Red pulp with its sinusoids was now distinct. A giant cell containing three nuclei was seen within the red pulp. At day 1 post-hatch, the capsule was at its greatest thickness so far and muscle cells were seen at the inner most part of the capsule. Granulocytes that had been a constant feature suddenly disappeared. At day 5, the small lymphocytes had dominated the large and medium-sized ones. By 2 weeks, the red and white pulps were virtually equal in distribution but by 3 weeks, the red pulp was convincingly greater. By 7 weeks, plasma cells had appeared in the peripheral splenic cords. Monocytes were observed in the sinusoids. Two germinal centres were identified for the first time in week 13 post-hatch. [source]

    Developmental toxicity of indium: Embryotoxicity and teratogenicity in experimental animals

    Mikio Nakajima
    ABSTRACT Indium, a precious metal classified in group 13 (IIIB) in the periodic table, has been used increasingly in the semiconductor industry. Because indium is a rare metal, technology for indium recycling from transparent conducting films for liquid crystal displays is desired, and its safety evaluation is becoming increasingly necessary. The developmental toxicity of indium in experimental animals was summarized. The intravenous or oral administration of indium to pregnant animals causes growth inhibition and the death of embryos in hamsters, rats, and mice. The intravenous administration of indium to pregnant animals causes embryonic or fetal malformation, mainly involving digit and tail deformities, in hamsters and rats. The oral administration of indium also induces fetal malformation in rats and rabbits, but requires higher doses. No teratogenicity has been observed in mice. Caudal hypoplasia, probably due to excessive cell loss by increased apoptosis in the tailbud, in the early postimplantation stage was considered to account for indium-induced tail malformation as a possible pathogenetic mechanism. Findings from in vitro experiments indicated that the embryotoxicity of indium could have direct effects on the conceptuses. Toxicokinetic studies showed that the embryonic exposure concentration was more critical than the exposure time regarding the embryotoxicity of indium. It is considered from these findings that the risk of the developmental toxicity of indium in humans is low, unless an accidentally high level of exposure or unknown toxic interaction occurs because of possible human exposure routes and levels (i.e. oral, very low-level exposure). [source]

    Delayed embryonic development and impaired cell growth and survival in Actg1 null mice,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2010
    Tina M. Bunnell
    Abstract Actins are among the most highly expressed proteins in eukaryotes and play a central role in nearly all aspects of cell biology. While the intricate process of development undoubtedly requires a properly regulated actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the contributions of different actin isoforms during embryogenesis. Of the six actin isoforms, only the two cytoplasmic actins, ,cyto - and ,cyto -actin, are ubiquitously expressed. We found that ,cyto -actin null (Actg1,/,) mice were fully viable during embryonic development, but most died within 48 h of birth due to respiratory failure and cannibalization by the parents. While no morphogenetic defects were identified, Actg1,/, mice exhibited stunted growth during embryonic and postnatal development as well as delayed cardiac outflow tract formation that resolved by birth. Using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we confirm that ,cyto -actin is not required for cell migration. The Actg1,/, cells, however, exhibited growth impairment and reduced cell viability, defects which perhaps contribute to the stunted growth and developmental delays observed in Actg1,/, embryos. Since the total amount of actin protein was maintained in Actg1,/, cells, our data suggests a distinct requirement for ,cyto -actin in cell growth and survival. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression and alternative splicing of N-RAP during mouse skeletal muscle development,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 12 2008
    Shajia Lu
    Abstract N-RAP alternative splicing and protein localization were studied in developing skeletal muscle tissue from pre- and postnatal mice and in fusing primary myotubes in culture. Messages encoding N-RAP-s and N-RAP-c, the predominant isoforms of N-RAP detected in adult skeletal muscle and heart, respectively, were present in a 5:1 ratio in skeletal muscle isolated from E16.5 embryos. N-RAP-s mRNA levels increased three-fold over the first 3 weeks of postnatal development, while N-RAP-c mRNA levels remained low. N-RAP alternative splicing during myotube differentiation in culture was similar to the pattern observed in embryonic and neonatal muscle, with N-RAP-s expression increasing and N-RAP-c mRNA levels remaining low. In both developing skeletal muscle and cultured myotubes, N-RAP protein was primarily associated with developing myofibrillar structures containing ,-actinin, but was not present in mature myofibrils. The results establish that N-RAP-s is the predominant spliced form of N-RAP present throughout skeletal muscle development. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Myosin light chain kinase colocalizes with nonmuscle myosin IIB in myofibril precursors and sarcomeric Z-lines of cardiomyocytes

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 7 2006
    T. V. Dudnakova
    Abstract Myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) is a key regulator of various forms of cell motility involving actin and myosin II. MLCK is widely present in vertebrate tissues including the myocardium. However, the role of MLCK in cardiomyocyte function is not known. Previous attempts to gain insight into possible roles and identify potential molecular partners were disappointing and equivocal due to cross reactivity of early antibodies with striated muscle MLCK, which has a different genetic locus and a divergent amino acid sequence from the abovementioned enzyme. Using an immunofluorescence approach and a panel of antibodies directed against MLCK, cytoskeletal, and sarcomeric proteins, we localized MLCK to myofibril precursors and Z-lines of sarcomeres in embryonic and adult cardiomyocytes. The same structures contained nonmuscle myosin IIB implicating this protein as a possible target of MLCK. Our results suggest a role for MLCK in cardiomyocyte differentiation and contraction through regulation of nonmuscle myosin IIB. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Correlation between Musashi-1 and c-hairy-1 expression and cell proliferation activity in the developing intestine and stomach of both chicken and mouse

    Rieko Asai
    Musashi-1 (Msi-1) is an RNA-binding protein that plays key roles in the maintenance of neural stem cell states and in their differentiation into neural cells. Msi-1 has also been proposed as a candidate marker gene of mammalian intestinal stem cells and their immediate lineages. In this study, we examined Msi-1 expression in the small intestine and the stomach of both chicken and mouse during embryonic, fetal and postnatal development. In addition, we analyzed the expression of c-hairy-1, a chicken homologue of mouse Hes1, and assessed the proliferative activity of the cells expressing both of these factors. Significantly, during the development of these digestive organs in both species Msi-1 expression showed dynamic changes, suggesting that it is important for digestive organ development, particularly for epithelial differentiation. Based on our observations of the expression patterns of Msi-1 and c-hairy-1 in the adult small intestine, we speculate that Msi-1 is also a stem cell marker of the chicken small intestinal epithelium. [source]

    Development of lymphatic vessels in mouse embryonic and early postnatal hearts

    Juszy, Micha
    Abstract We aimed to study the spatiotemporal pattern of lymphatic system formation in the embryonic and early postnatal mouse hearts. The first sign of the development of lymphatics are Lyve-1,positive cells located on the subepicardial area. Strands of Lyve-1,positive cells occur first along the atrioventricular sulcus of the diaphragmatic surface and then along the great arteries. Lumenized tubules appear, arranged in rows or in a lattice. They are more conspicuous in dorsal atrioventricular junction, along the major venous and coronary artery branches and at the base of the aorta and the pulmonary trunk extending toward the heart apex. At later stages, some segments of the lymphatic vessels are partially surrounded by smooth muscle cells. Possible mechanisms of lymphangiogenesis are: addition of Lyve-1,positive cells to the existing tubules, elongation of the lymphatic lattice, sprouting and coalescence of tubules. We discuss the existence of various subpopulations of endothelial cells among the Lyve-1,positive cells. Developmental Dynamics 237:2973,2986, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Adult bone marrow,derived stem cells for organ regeneration and repair

    Florian Tögel
    Abstract Stem cells have been recognized as a potential tool for the development of innovative therapeutic strategies. There are in general two types of stem cells, embryonic and adult stem cells. While embryonic stem cell therapy has been riddled with problems of allogeneic rejection and ethical concerns, adult stem cells have long been used in the treatment of hematological malignancies. With the recognition of additional, potentially therapeutic characteristics, bone marrow,derived stem cells have become a tool in regenerative medicine. The bone marrow is an ideal source of stem cells because it is easily accessible and harbors two types of stem cells. Hematopoietic stem cells give rise to all blood cell types and have been shown to exhibit plasticity, while multipotent marrow stromal cells are the source of osteocytes, chondrocytes, and fat cells and have been shown to support and generate a large number of different cell types. This review describes the general characteristics of these stem cell populations and their current and potential future applications in regenerative medicine. Developmental Dynamics 236:3321,3331, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Nuclear receptor NR5A2 is required for proper primitive streak morphogenesis

    Cassandre Labelle-Dumais
    Abstract NR5A2, also known as liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) and fetoprotein transcription factor (FTF), is an orphan nuclear receptor involved in the regulation of cholesterol metabolism and steroidogenesis in the adult. NR5A2 was also shown to be expressed during early mouse embryogenesis. Consistent with its early expression pattern, a targeted disruption of this gene leads to embryonic lethality around the gastrulation period. To characterize the embryonic phenotype resulting from NR5A2 loss of function, we undertook morphological and marker gene analyses and showed that NR5A2,/, embryos display growth retardation, epiblast disorganization, a mild embryonic,extraembryonic constriction, as well as abnormal thickening of the proximo-posterior epiblast. We demonstrated that, although initial specification of the anterior,posterior axis occurred in the absence of NR5A2, primitive streak formation was impaired and neither embryonic nor extraembryonic mesoderm was generated. Moreover, although the visceral endoderm does not show major morphological abnormalities in NR5A2,/, embryos, a decrease in the expression level of HNF4 and GATA4 was observed. Aggregation experiments demonstrated that, in the presence of wild-type tetraploid cells, NR5A2 mutant cells in the epiblast are capable of undergoing normal gastrulation. Therefore, our results suggest a requirement for NR5A2 in extraembryonic tissues and identify a novel role of this gene in proper primitive streak morphogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 235:3359,3369, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Maternal expression and function of the Drosophila sox gene Dichaete during oogenesis

    Ashim Mukherjee
    Abstract Members of the Sox family of DNA-binding HMG domain proteins have been shown to regulate gene transcription in a wide range of developmental processes, including sex determination, neurogenesis, and chondrogenesis. However, little is known about their potential functions in developing germline tissues. In Drosophila, the Sox protein Dichaete (a.k.a., Fish-hook) is a member of the SoxB subgroup whose HMG domain shares strong sequence similarity to that of vertebrate Sox2. Dichaete exhibits dynamic expression in embryonic and larval stages and has pleiotropic functions in a variety of tissues. In this study, we extend analyses of Dichaete function and show that expression of Dichaete protein is detected in the developing oocyte during early to mid stages of oogenesis. Strikingly, Dichaete exhibits cytoplasmic distribution and is not detected in the oocyte nucleus. Germline mosaic analyses revealed that the Dichaete gene has maternal functions that influence dorsal/ventral patterning of the egg chamber. Dichaete mutant eggs exhibit defects in formation of the dorsal appendages, differentiation of dorsal/anterior follicle cells, and mislocalization of Gurken protein and gurken mRNA. Dichaete protein was shown to possess RNA-binding capabilities, suggesting a direct post-transcriptional role in regulating RNA functions. Developmental Dynamics 235:2828,2835, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Neuronal leucine-rich repeat 6 (XlNLRR-6) is required for late lens and retina development in Xenopus laevis

    Adam D. Wolfe
    Abstract Leucine-rich repeat proteins expressed in the developing vertebrate nervous system comprise a complex, multifamily group, and little is known of their developmental function in vivo. We have identified a novel member of this group in Xenopus laevis, XlNLRR-6, and through sequence and phylogenetic analysis, have placed it within a defined family of vertebrate neuronal leucine-rich repeat proteins (NLRR). XlNLRR-6 is expressed in the developing nervous system and tissues of the eye beginning at the neural plate stage, and expression continues throughout embryonic and larval development. Using antisense morpholino oligonucleotide (MO) -mediated knockdown of XlNLRR-6, we demonstrate that this protein is critical for development of the lens, retina, and cornea. Reciprocal transplantation of presumptive lens ectoderm between MO-treated and untreated embryos demonstrate that XlNLRR-6 plays autonomous roles in the development of both the lens and retina. These findings represent the first in vivo functional analysis of an NLRR family protein and establish a role for this protein during late differentiation of tissues in the developing eye. Developmental Dynamics 235:1027,1041, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    MAP kinase activation in avian cardiovascular development

    Christine M. Liberatore
    Abstract Signaling pathways mediated by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation have multiple functions in the developing cardiovascular system. The localization of diphosphorylated extracellular signal regulated kinase (dp-ERK) was monitored as an indicator of MAPK activation in the forming heart and vasculature of avian embryos. Sustained dp-ERK expression was observed in vascular endothelial cells of embryonic and extraembryonic origins. Although dp-ERK was not detected during early cardiac lineage induction, MAPK activation was observed in the epicardial, endocardial, and myocardial compartments during heart chamber formation. Endocardial expression of dp-ERK in the valve primordia and heart chambers may reflect differential cell growth associated with RTK signaling in the heart. dp-ERK localization in the epicardium, subepicardial fibroblasts, myocardial fibroblasts, and coronary vessels is consistent with MAPK activation in epicardial-derived cell lineages. The complex temporal,spatial regulation of dp-ERK in the heart supports diverse regulatory functions for RTK signaling in different cell populations, including the endocardium, myocardium, and epicardial-derived cells during cardiac organogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 230:773,780, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Drosophila NAB (dNAB) is an orphan transcriptional co-repressor required for correct CNS and eye development

    Mark Clements
    Abstract The mammalian NAB proteins have been identified previously as potent co-repressors of the EGR family of zinc finger transcription factors. Drosophila NAB (dNAB), like its mammalian counterparts, binds EGR1 and represses EGR1-mediated transcriptional activation from a synthetic promoter. In contrast, dNAB does not bind the Drosophila EGR-related protein klumpfuss. dnab RNA is expressed exclusively in a subset of neuroblasts in the embryonic and larval central nervous system (CNS), as well as in several larval imaginal disc tissues. Here, we describe the creation of targeted deletion mutations in the dnab gene and the identification of additional, EMS-induced dnab mutations by genetic complementation analysis. Null alleles in dnab cause larval locomotion defects and early larval lethality (L1,L2). A putative hypomorphic allele in dnab instead causes early adult lethality due to severe locomotion defects. In the dnab -/- CNS, axon outgrowth/guidance and glial development appear normal; however, a subset of eve+ neurons forms in reduced numbers. In addition, mosaic analysis in the eye reveals that dnab -/- clones are either very small or absent. Similarly, dNAB overexpression in the eye causes eyes to be very small with few ommatidia. These dramatic eye-specific phenotypes will prove useful for enhancer/suppressor screens to identify dnab-interacting genes. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of AMH, SF1, and SOX9 in gonads of genetic female chickens during sex reversal induced by an aromatase inhibitor

    Séverine Vaillant
    Abstract Aromatase inhibitors administered prior to histological signs of gonadal sex differentiation can induce sex reversal of genetic female chickens. Under the effects of Fadrozole (CGS 16949A), a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor, the right gonad generally becomes a testis, and the left gonad a testis or an ovotestis. We have compared the expression pattern of the genes encoding AMH (the anti-Müllerian hormone), SF1 (steroidogenic factor 1), and SOX9 (a transcription factor related to SRY) in these sex-reversed gonads with that in control testes and ovaries, using in situ hybridization with riboprobes on gonadal sections. In control males, the three genes are expressed in Sertoli cells of testicular cords; however, only SOX9 is male specific, since as observed previously AMH and SF1 but not SOX9 are expressed in the control female gonads. In addition to testicular-like cords, sex-reversed gonads present many lacunae with a composite, thick and flat epithelium. We show that during embryonic and postnatal development, AMH, SF1 and SOX9 are expressed in the epithelium of testicular-like cords and in the thickened part but not in the flattened part of the epithelium of composite lacunae. AMH and SF1 but not SOX9 are expressed in follicular cells of ovotestes. Coexpression of the three genes, of which SOX9 is a specific Sertoli-cell marker, provides strong evidence for the transdifferentiation of ovarian into testicular epithelium in gonads of female chickens treated with Fadrozole. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Transplanted neurons form both normal and ectopic projections in the adult brain

    Sanjay S.P. Magavi
    Abstract Transplantation of embryonic or stem cell derived neurons has been proposed as a potential therapy for several neurological diseases. Previous studies reported that transplanted embryonic neurons extended long-distance projections through the adult brain exclusively to appropriate targets. We transplanted E14 lateral ganglionic eminence (LGE) and E15 cortical precursors from embryonic mice into the intact adult brain and analyzed the projections formed by transplanted neurons. In contrast to previous studies, we found that transplanted embryonic neurons formed distinct long-distance projections to both appropriate and ectopic targets. LGE neurons transplanted into the adult striatum formed projections not only to the substantia nigra, a normal target, but also to the claustrum and through all layers of fronto-orbital cortex, regions that do not normally receive striatal input. In some cases, inappropriate projections outnumbered appropriate projections. To examine the relationship between the donor cells and host brain in establishing the pattern of projections, we transplanted cortical precursors into the adult striatum. Despite their heterotopic location, cortical precursors not only predominantly formed projections appropriate for cortical neurons, but they also formed projections to inappropriate targets. Transplantation of GFP-expressing cells into ,-galactosidase-expressing mice confirmed that the axonal projections were not created by the fusion of donor and host cells. These results suggest that repairing the brain using transplantation may be more complicated than previously expected, because exuberant ectopic projections could result in brain dysfunction. Understanding the signals regulating axonal extension in the adult brain will be necessary to harness stem cells or embryonic neurons for effective neuronal-replacement therapies. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008. [source]

    Physiological requirement for the glutamate transporter dEAAT1 at the adult Drosophila neuromuscular junction

    Thomas Rival
    Abstract L -Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain. Specific proteins, the Na+/K+ -dependent high affinity excitatory amino acid transporters (EAATs), are involved in the extracellular clearance and recycling of this amino acid. Type I synapses of the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ) similarly use L -glutamate as an excitatory transmitter. However, the localization and function of the only high-affinity glutamate reuptake transporter in Drosophila, dEAAT1, at the NMJ was unknown. Using a specific antibody and transgenic strains, we observed that dEAAT1 is present at the adult, but surprisingly not at embryonic and larval NMJ, suggesting a physiological maturation of the junction during metamorphosis. We found that dEAAT1 is not localized in motor neurons but in glial extensions that closely follow motor axons to the adult NMJ. Inactivation of the dEAAT1 gene by RNA interference generated viable adult flies that were able to walk but were flight-defective. Electrophysiological recordings of the thoracic dorso-lateral NMJ were performed in adult dEAAT1-deficient flies. The lack of dEAAT1 prolonged the duration of the individual responses to motor nerve stimulation and this effect was progressively increased during physiological trains of stimulations. Therefore, glutamate reuptake by glial cells is required to ensure normal activity of the Drosophila NMJ, but only in adult flies. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006 [source]

    Neuronal differentiation and long-term survival of newly generated cells in the olfactory midbrain of the adult spiny lobster, Panulirus argus

    Manfred Schmidt
    Abstract The fate of continuously generated cells in the soma clusters of the olfactory midbrain of adult spiny lobsters, Panulirus argus, was investigated by in vivo pulse-chase experiments with the proliferation marker 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine (BrdU) combined with immunostainings for neuropeptides of mature neurons. A BrdU injection after a survival time (ST) of 14 h labeled about 100 nuclei in the lateral soma clusters (LC), comprised of projection neurons, and about 30 nuclei in the medial soma clusters (MC), comprised of local interneurons. The BrdU-positive nuclei were confined to small regions at the inside of these clusters, which also contain nuclei in different phases of mitosis and thus represent proliferative zones. After STs of 2 weeks or 3 months, the number of BrdU-positive nuclei was doubled, indicating a mitosis of all originally labeled cells. Dependent on ST, the BrdU-positive nuclei were translocated from the proliferative zones towards the outside of the clusters, where somata of mature neurons reside. Immunostainings with antibodies to the neuropeptides FMRFamide and substance P, both of which label a large portion of somata in the MC and a pair of giant neurons projecting into the LC, revealed that in both clusters the proliferative zones are surrounded by, but are themselves devoid of, labeling. In the MC, some BrdU-positive somata were double-labeled by the FMRFamide antibody after an ST of 3 months, and by the substance P antibody after STs of 6 and 11/14 months, but not after 3 months. In the LC, BrdU-positive somata after an ST of 3 months partially and after 6 and 11/14 months widely overlapped with the arborizations of the giant neurons, indicating the establishment of synaptic input. The experiments show that cells generated in proliferative zones in the LC and MC of adult spiny lobsters after a final mitosis differentiate into neurons within months, survive for at least 1 year, and are integrated into the circuitry of the olfactory midbrain. A new hypothesis about the mechanism of adult neurogenesis in the central olfactory pathway of decapod crustaceans is developed, linking it to neurogenesis during embryonic and larval development. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. J Neurobiol 48: 181,203, 2001 [source]

    Progenitor cells in the adult pancreas

    Andrew M. Holland
    Abstract The ,-cell mass in the adult pancreas possesses the ability to undergo limited regeneration following injury. Identifying the progenitor cells involved in this process and understanding the mechanisms leading to their maturation will open new avenues for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. However, despite steady advances in determining the molecular basis of early pancreatic development, the identification of pancreatic stem cells or ,-cell progenitors and the molecular mechanisms underlying ,-cell regeneration remain unclear. Recent advances in the directed differentiation of embryonic and adult stem cells has heightened interest in the possible application of stem cell therapy in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. Drawing on the expanding knowledge of pancreas development, ,-cell regeneration and stem cell research, this review focuses on progenitor cells in the adult pancreas as a potential source of ,-cells. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Glucose-responsive insulin-producing cells from stem cells

    David J. Kaczorowski
    Abstract Recent success with immunosuppression following islet cell transplantation offers hope that a cell transplantation treatment for type 1 (juvenile) diabetes may be possible if sufficient quantities of safe and effective cells can be produced. For the treatment of type 1 diabetes, the two therapeutically essential functions are the ability to monitor blood glucose levels and the production of corresponding and sufficient levels of mature insulin to maintain glycemic control. Stem cells can replicate themselves and produce cells that take on more specialized functions. If a source of stem cells capable of yielding glucose-responsive insulin-producing (GRIP) cells can be identified, then transplantation-based treatment for type 1 diabetes may become widely available. Currently, stem cells from embryonic and adult sources are being investigated for their ability to proliferate and differentiate into cells with GRIP function. Human embryonic pluripotent stem cells, commonly referred to as embryonic stem (ES) cells and embryonic germ (EG) cells, have received significant attention owing to their broad capacity to differentiate and ability to proliferate well in culture. Their application to diabetes research is of particular promise, as it has been demonstrated that mouse ES cells are capable of producing cells able to normalize glucose levels of diabetic mice, and human ES cells can differentiate into cells capable of insulin production. Cells with GRIP function have also been derived from stem cells residing in adult organisms, here referred to as endogenous stem cell sources. Independent of source, stem cells capable of producing cells with GRIP function may provide a widely available cell transplantation treatment for type 1 diabetes. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of Microcystis aeruginosa and Nodularia spumigena on survival of Eurytemora affinis and the embryonic and larval development of the Baltic herring Clupea harengus membras

    Evald Ojaveer
    Abstract Laboratory experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of two strains of Microcystis aeruginosa and a strain of Nodularia spumigena on the survival of Eurytemora affinis (Copepoda) and on the embryonic and larval development of the Baltic spring-spawning herring Clupea harengus membras. The trials were made in water taken from Pärnu Bay, at a salinity of 3.7,5.1 psu, a constant temperature (15°C ± 1°C in trials with Eurytemora and herring embryos; 18°C ± 2°C with herring larvae), and an oxygen concentration of 8.8,10.4 ppm. The strains tested had a negative impact on the survival of Eurytemora, as well as on the embryonic development and hatching regime of the Baltic herring. In Eurytemora the response depended on the sex of the animals: the survival was clearly higher in females. In the embryonic stages of herring, the influence resulted in an increase in deviations from the normal pattern of development and a higher mortality. The impact of the strains on the larval development of herring was rather moderate. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 18: 236,242, 2003. [source]

    Dual enantioselective effect of the insecticide bifenthrin on locomotor behavior and development in embryonic,larval zebrafish

    Meiqing Jin
    Abstract Bifenthrin (BF) is a synthetic pyrethroid that targets the nervous system of insects and may have adverse effects on the behavior and development of nontarget organisms. However, no reports have been issued on the effects of different enantiomers on locomotor behavior for synthetic pyrethroids (SPs) in zebrafish, and whether locomotor activity is associated with the developmental toxicities remains unclear. In this study, enantioselectivity of BF (1S and 1R) on the acute locomotor activity and developmental toxicities of embryonic,larval zebrafish were first evaluated. The results indicated that 1R -BF was more toxic, causing morphological impairments, with a 96-h median effective concentration (EC50) of 226,µg/L for pericardial edema and 145,µg/L for curved body axis. Administration of 20,µg/L of one enantiomer of BF had differential effects on the locomotor activity of zebrafish larvae at 4 d postfertilization (dpf) under alternating light and dark conditions. Larvae treated with 1R -BF were not sensitive to the alteration of light to dark, and the locomotor activities were reduced to a level similar to that observed in light, which otherwise increased rapidly and markedly. However, 1S -BF did not alter the general pattern of zebrafish response to the light or dark compared with the control. The results demonstrated that the differential effects on development might have contributed to the enantioselectivity in the locomotor activity. The consistency of enantioselectivity with insecticidal activity may also indicate a common mode of action. Furthermore, 1R -BF accelerated the spontaneous movement and hatching process, whereas 1S -BF seemed to be inhibitory. The results suggest the need to link behavioral changes to developmental toxicities in order to achieve more comprehensive health risk assessments of chiral pesticides. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:1561,1567. © 2010 SETAC [source]

    Influence of developmental stage on sensitivity to ammonium nitrate of aquatic stages of amphibians

    Manuel E. Ortiz-Santaliestra
    Abstract In static renewal experiments, we studied how developmental stage influences the effect of ammonium nitrate on embryonic and larval stages of anuran amphibians. The observed lethal effects caused by ammonium nitrate increased with both concentration and duration of exposure. Significant differences were observed in sensitivity to ammonium nitrate as a function of developmental stage in Discoglossus galganoi, Pelobates cultripes, and Bufo calamita. In D. galganoi and P. cultripes, younger individuals displayed greater acute effects from the chemical fertilizer compared with older individuals. For example, 100% of P. cultripes hatchlings died after 4 d of exposure to a nominal concentration of 225.8 mg N-NO3NH4/L, whereas less than 40% of individuals from older larval stages died when exposed to this concentration. A delay of 4 d in the beginning of the exposure to the chemical was enough to cause significant differences in sensitivity. Bufo calamita showed a higher sensitivity in later larval stages after 12 d of exposure. Hyla meridionalis and B. calamita were less sensitive than the other two species. Peak ammonium nitrate concentrations usually occur when amphibians are breeding and, thus, when the most sensitive aquatic stage is in the water. The developmental stage of the test animals should be considered when evaluating the risk of ammonium nitrate to amphibians. [source]

    Comparative effects of pH and Vision® herbicide on two life stages of four anuran amphibian species,

    Andrea N. Edginton
    Abstract Vision®, a glyphosate-based herbicide containing a 15% (weight:weight) polyethoxylated tallow amine surfactant blend, and the concurrent factor of pH were tested to determine their interactive effects on early life-stage anurans. Ninety-six-hour laboratory static renewal studies, using the embryonic and larval life stages (Gosner 25) of Rana clamitans, R. pipiens, Bufo americanus, and Xenopus laevis, were performed under a central composite rotatable design. Mortality and the prevalence of malformations were modeled using generalized linear models with a profile deviance approach for obtaining confidence intervals. There was a significant (p < 0.05) interaction of pH with Vision concentration in all eight models, such that the toxicity of Vision was amplified by elevated pH. The surfactant is the major toxic component of Vision and is hypothesized, in this study, to be the source of the pH interaction. Larvae of B. americanus and R. clamitans were 1.5 to 3.8 times more sensitive than their corresponding embryos, whereas X. laevis and R. pipiens larvae were 6.8 to 8.9 times more sensitive. At pH values above 7.5, the Vision concentrations expected to kill 50% of the test larvae in 96-h (96-h lethal concentration [LC50]) were predicted to be below the expected environmental concentration (EEC) as calculated by Canadian regulatory authorities. The EEC value represents a worst-case scenario for aerial Vision application and is calculated assuming an application of the maximum label rate (2.1 kg acid equivalents [a.e.]/ha) into a pond 15 cm in depth. The EEC of 1.4 mg a.e./L (4.5 mg/L Vision) was not exceeded by 96-h LC50 values for the embryo test. The larvae of the four species were comparable in sensitivity. Field studies should be completed using the more sensitive larval life stage to test for Vision toxicity at actual environmental concentrations. [source]

    Pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide controls the proliferation of retinal progenitor cells through downregulation of cyclin D1

    Brian Njaine
    Abstract During retinal development, cell proliferation and exit from the cell cycle must be precisely regulated to ensure the generation of the appropriate numbers and proportions of the various retinal cell types. Previously, we showed that pituitary adenylyl cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) exerts a neuroprotective effect in the developing retina of rats, through the cAMP,cAMP-dependent protein kinase (protein kinase A) (PKA) pathway. Here, we show that PACAP also regulates the proliferation of retinal progenitor cells. PACAP, PACAP-specific receptor (PAC1), and the receptors activated by both PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), VPAC1 and VPAC2, are expressed during embryonic and postnatal development of the rat retina. Treatment of retinal explants with PACAP38 reduced the incorporation of [3H]thymidine as well as the number of 5-bromo-2,-deoxyuridine-positive and cyclin D1-positive cells. Pharmacological experiments indicated that PACAP triggers this antiproliferative effect through the activation of both PAC1 and VPACs, and the cAMP,PKA pathway. In addition, PACAP receptor activation decreased both cyclin D1 mRNA and protein content. Altogether, the data support the hypothesis that PACAP is a cell-extrinsic regulator with multiple roles during retinal development, including the regulation of proliferation in a subpopulation of retinal progenitor cells. [source]

    Genetic mapping of Foxb1-cell lineage shows migration from caudal diencephalon to telencephalon and lateral hypothalamus

    Tianyu Zhao
    Abstract The hypothalamus is a brain region with vital functions, and alterations in its development can cause human disease. However, we still do not have a complete description of how this complex structure is put together during embryonic and early postnatal stages. Radially oriented, outside-in migration of cells is prevalent in the developing hypothalamus. In spite of this, cell contingents from outside the hypothalamus as well as tangential hypothalamic migrations also have an important role. Here we study migrations in the hypothalamic primordium by genetically labeling the Foxb1 diencephalic lineage. Foxb1 is a transcription factor gene expressed in the neuroepithelium of the developing neural tube with a rostral expression boundary between caudal and rostral diencephalon, and therefore appropriate for marking migrations from caudal levels into the hypothalamus. We have found a large, longitudinally oriented migration stream apparently originating in the thalamic region and following an axonal bundle to end in the anterior portion of the lateral hypothalamic area. Additionally, we have mapped a specific expansion of the neuroepithelium into the rostral diencephalon. The expanded neuroepithelium generates abundant neurons for the medial hypothalamus at the tuberal level. Finally, we have uncovered novel diencephalon-to-telencephalon migrations into septum, piriform cortex and amygdala. [source]

    Requirement of the tumour suppressor APC for the clustering of PSD-95 and AMPA receptors in hippocampal neurons

    Atsushi Shimomura
    Abstract Mutations in the adenomatous polyposis coli (APC) gene are associated with familial adenomatous polyposis and sporadic colorectal tumours. The APC gene is expressed ubiquitously in various tissues, especially throughout the large intestine and central nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, the expression of the APC protein is highest during embryonic and early postnatal development. APC associates through its C-terminal region with postsynaptic density (PSD)-95, a neuronal protein that participates in synapse development. Here, we examined the involvement of APC in synaptogenesis. In cultured hippocampal neurons, both overexpression of a dominant-negative construct that disrupts the APC,PSD-95 interaction and knockdown of APC expression using small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibited the clustering of PSD-95 and a glutamate receptor subunit, and reduced alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionate (AMPA)-induced activity of AMPA receptors; however, the clustering of an N -methyl- d -aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit was unaffected. These results are suggestive of APC involvement in the development of glutamatergic synapses. [source]

    Visualization of corticofugal projections during early cortical development in a ,-GFP-transgenic mouse

    Erin C. Jacobs
    Abstract The first postmitotic neurons in the developing neocortex establish the preplate layer. These early-born neurons have a significant influence on the circuitry of the developing cortex. However, the exact timing and trajectory of their projections, between cortical hemispheres and intra- and extra-cortical regions, remain unresolved. Here, we describe the creation of a transgenic mouse using a 1.3 kb golli promoter element of the myelin basic protein gene to target expression of a ,,green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein in the cell bodies and processes of pioneer cortical neurons. During embryonic and early neonatal development, the timing and patterning of process extension from these neurons was examined. Analysis of ,-GFP fluorescent fibers revealed that progression of early labeled projections was interrupted unexpectedly by transient pauses at the corticostriatal and telencephalic,diencephalic boundaries before invading the thalamus just prior to birth. After birth the pioneering projections differentially invaded the thalamus, excluding some nuclei, e.g. medial and lateral geniculate, until postnatal days 10,14. Early labeled projections were also found to cross to the contralateral hemisphere as well as to the superior colliculus. These results indicate that early corticothalamic projections appear to pause before invading specific subcortical regions during development, that there is developmental regulation of innervation of individual thalamic nuclei, and that these early-generated neurons also establish early projections to commissural and subcortical targets. [source]

    Characterization of TROY-expressing cells in the developing and postnatal CNS: the possible role in neuronal and glial cell development

    Tomoko Hisaoka
    Abstract A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, TROY, is expressed in the CNS of embryonic and adult mice. In the present study, we characterized TROY-expressing cells in the embryonic and postnatal forebrain. In the early embryonic forebrain, TROY was highly expressed in nestin-positive neuroepithelial cells and radial glial cells, but not in microtubule-associated protein 2-positive postmitotic neurons. During the late embryonic and postnatal development, expression of TROY was observed in radial glial cells and astrocytes, whereas its expression was not detected in neuronal lineage cells. In addition, TROY was exclusively expressed in Musashi-1-positive multipotent/glial progenitors in the postnatal subventricular zone. To investigate the functions of TROY in neural development, we overexpressed TROY in PC12 cells and established stably expressing cell clones. As expected, the signals from overexpressed TROY were constitutively transduced via the activation of the nuclear factor-,B and the c-Jun N-terminal kinase pathways in such clones. In addition, upregulation of negative basic helix,loop,helix transcription factors, HES-5 and Id2 proteins, was observed in the TROY-overexpressing clones. Interestingly, the overexpression of TROY in PC12 cells strongly inhibited nerve growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth with reduction of some markers of differentiated neurons, such as neurofilament 150 kDa and neuron-specific ,-tubulin. These findings suggest that the signaling from TROY regulates neuronal differentiation at least in part. [source]