Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Embryogenesis

  • early embryogenesi
  • late embryogenesi
  • mammalian embryogenesi
  • mouse embryogenesi
  • somatic embryogenesi

  • Selected Abstracts

    Delayed embryonic development and impaired cell growth and survival in Actg1 null mice,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2010
    Tina M. Bunnell
    Abstract Actins are among the most highly expressed proteins in eukaryotes and play a central role in nearly all aspects of cell biology. While the intricate process of development undoubtedly requires a properly regulated actin cytoskeleton, little is known about the contributions of different actin isoforms during embryogenesis. Of the six actin isoforms, only the two cytoplasmic actins, ,cyto - and ,cyto -actin, are ubiquitously expressed. We found that ,cyto -actin null (Actg1,/,) mice were fully viable during embryonic development, but most died within 48 h of birth due to respiratory failure and cannibalization by the parents. While no morphogenetic defects were identified, Actg1,/, mice exhibited stunted growth during embryonic and postnatal development as well as delayed cardiac outflow tract formation that resolved by birth. Using primary mouse embryonic fibroblasts, we confirm that ,cyto -actin is not required for cell migration. The Actg1,/, cells, however, exhibited growth impairment and reduced cell viability, defects which perhaps contribute to the stunted growth and developmental delays observed in Actg1,/, embryos. Since the total amount of actin protein was maintained in Actg1,/, cells, our data suggests a distinct requirement for ,cyto -actin in cell growth and survival. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fibroblast elongation and dendritic extensions in constrained versus unconstrained microtissues

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 3 2009
    Dylan M. Dean
    Abstract Cytoskeletal tension is fundamental to many biological processes, including germ layer sorting during embryogenesis [Krieg et al., 2008]. In vitro, such tension influences cell sorting in self-assembled, 3D microtissues and can be of sufficient magnitude to cause complex-shaped microtissue failure [Dean et al., 2007]. To examine the process of failure under cell-derived tension, we subjected normal human fibroblasts (NHFs) to directed self-assembly [Dean et al., 2007] in micro-molds designed to yield self-constraining microtissues. As cells contracted in this assay, the constrained microtissues narrowed, thinned and ultimately failed at their midpoints. By adding small numbers of GFP+ cells, changes in cell movement and morphology were assessed and compared to those of unconstrained microtissues. We found that cells formed numerous dendritic extensions within an hour of self-assembly and retracted these extensions as they elongated up to 30 times their initial diameter (,600 ,m) just prior to failure. Surprisingly, significant coordination in cell motility was observed over large distances within microtissues. Pharmacologic interventions showed that failure was myosin II and Rho kinase dependent and inhibition of failure resulted in shorter cells with greater numbers of extensions. These findings further our understanding of cellular self-assembly and introduce the use of GFP+ cells with directed self-assembly as a scaffold-free analogue to fibroblast-populated collagen gels (FPCGs). Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Development of micropost force sensor array with culture experiments for determination of cell traction forces

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 7 2007
    Bin Li
    Abstract Cell traction forces (CTFs) are critical for cell motility and cell shape maintenance. As such, they play a fundamental role in many biological processes such as angiogenesis, embryogenesis, inflammation, and wound healing. To determine CTFs at the sub-cellular level with high sensitivity, we have developed high density micropost force sensor array (MFSA), which consists of an array of vertically standing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microposts, 2 ,m in diameter and 6 ,m in height, with a center-to-center distance of 4 ,m. In combination with new image analysis algorithms, the MFSA can achieve a spatial resolution of 40 nm and a force sensitivity of 0.5 nN. Culture experiments with various types of cells showed that this MFSA technology can effectively determine CTFs of cells with different sizes and traction force magnitudes. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Shaggy/GSK-3, kinase localizes to the centrosome and to specialized cytoskeletal structures in Drosophila

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 6 2006
    Yves Bobinnec
    Abstract The assembly of a functional bipolar mitotic spindle requires an exquisite regulation of microtubule behavior in time and space. To characterize new elements of this machinery we carried out a GFP based "protein trap" screen and selected fusion proteins which localized to the spindle apparatus. By this method we identified Shaggy, the Drosophila homologue of glycogen synthase kinase-3, (GSK-3,), as a component of centrosomes. GSK-3, acting in the Wingless signaling pathway is involved in a vast range of developmental processes, from pattern formation to cell-fate specification, and is a key factor for cell proliferation in most animals. We exploited our Shaggy::GFP Drosophila line to analyze the subcellular localizations of GSK-3,/Shaggy and shed light on its multiple roles during embryogenesis. We found that Shaggy becomes enriched transiently in a variety of specialized cytoskeletal structures of the embryo, including centrosomes throughout mitosis, suggesting that this kinase is involved in the regulation of many aspects of the cytoskeleton function. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Caenorhabditis elegans expresses three functional profilins in a tissue-specific manner

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 1 2006
    D. Polet
    Abstract Profilins are actin binding proteins, which also interact with polyphosphoinositides and proline-rich ligands. On the basis of the genome sequence, three diverse profilin homologues (PFN) are predicted to exist in Caenorhabditis elegans. We show that all three isoforms PFN-1, PFN-2, and PFN-3 are expressed in vivo and biochemical studies indicate they bind actin and influence actin dynamics in a similar manner. In addition, they bind poly(L -proline) and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate micelles. PFN-1 is essential whereas PFN-2 and PFN-3 are nonessential. Immunostainings revealed different expression patterns for the profilin isoforms. In embryos, PFN-1 localizes in the cytoplasm and to the cell,cell contacts at the early stages, and in the nerve ring during later stages. During late embryogenesis, expression of PFN-3 was specifically detected in body wall muscle cells. In adult worms, PFN-1 is expressed in the neurons, the vulva, and the somatic gonad, PFN-2 in the intestinal wall, the spermatheca, and the pharynx, and PFN-3 localizes in a striking dot-like fashion in body wall muscle. Thus the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans expresses three profilin isoforms and is the first invertebrate animal with tissue-specific profilin expression. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton, 2006.© 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lumps and bumps in neonates and infants

    Davis Farvolden
    ABSTRACT:, There are many developmental abnormalities that may appear in the neonate and in infants when critical steps in embryogenesis fail. These steps are often not fatal but can lead to signifi-cant morbidity for those patients affected. A logical approach is needed in addressing both the diagnostic and therapeutic issues that arise when caring for these patients, as various lesions will warrant an observational approach, and others may require imaging studies or definitive surgical intervention. Additionally, there are other "lumps and bumps" that are seen in the neonatal and infantile age groups that include malignancies and cutaneous neoplasms with associated systemic sequelae. [source]

    Two different unique cardiac isoforms of protein 4.1R in zebrafish, Danio rerio, and insights into their cardiac functions as related to their unique structures

    Kenji Murata
    Protein 4.1R (4.1R) has been identified as the major component of the human erythrocyte membrane skeleton. The members of the protein 4.1 gene family are expressed in a tissue-specific alternative splicing manner that increases their functions in each tissue; however, the exact roles of cardiac 4.1R in the developing myocardium are poorly understood. In zebrafish (ZF), we identified two heart-specific 4.1R isoforms, ZF4.1RH2 and ZF4.1RH3, encoding N-terminal 30 kDa (FERM) domain and spectrin-actin binding domain (SABD) and C-terminal domain (CTD), separately. Applying immunohistochemistry using specific antibodies for 30 kDa domain and CTD separately, the gene product of ZF4.1RH2 and ZF4.1RH3 appeared only in the ventricle and in the atrium, respectively, in mature hearts. During embryogenesis, both gene expressions are expressed starting 24 h post-fertilization (hpf). Following whole-mount in situ hybridization, ZF4.1RH3 gene expression was detected in the atrium of 37 hpf embryos. These results indicate that the gene product of ZF4.1RH3 is essential for normal morphological shape of the developing heart and to support the repetitive cycles of its muscle contraction and relaxation. [source]

    Novel genes involved in canonical Wnt/, -catenin signaling pathway in early Ciona intestinalis embryos

    Shuichi Wada
    We report here characterization of five genes for novel components of the canonical Wnt/, -catenin signaling pathway. These genes were identified in the ascidian Ciona intestinalis through a loss-of-function screening for genes required for embryogenesis with morpholinos, and four of them have counterparts in vertebrates. The five genes we studied are as follows: Ci-PGAP1, a Ciona orthologue of human PGAP1, which encodes GPI (glycosylphosphatidylinositol) inositol-deacylase, Ci-ZF278, a gene encoding a C2H2 zinc-finger protein, Ci-C10orf11, a Ciona orthologue of human C10orf11 that encodes a protein with leucine-rich repeats, Ci-Spatial/C4orf17, a single counterpart for two human genes Spatial and C4orf17, and Ci-FLJ10634, a Ciona orthologue of human FLJ10634 that encodes a member of the J-protein family. Knockdown of each of the genes mimicked , -catenin knockdown and resulted in suppression of the expression of , -catenin downstream genes (Ci-FoxD, Ci-Lhx3, Ci-Otx and Ci-Fgf9/16/20) and subsequent endoderm formation. For every gene, defects in knockdown embryos were rescued by overexpression of a constitutively active form, but not wild-type, of Ci- , -catenin. Dosage-sensitive interactions were found between Ci-,-catenin and each of the genes. These results suggest that these five genes act upstream of or parallel to Ci- , -catenin in the Wnt/, -catenin signaling pathway in early Ciona embryos. [source]

    Activator of G-protein signaling in asymmetric cell divisions of the sea urchin embryo

    Ekaterina Voronina
    An asymmetric fourth cell division in the sea urchin embryo results in formation of daughter cells, macromeres and micromeres, with distinct sizes and fates. Several lines of functional evidence presented here, including pharmacological interference and dominant negative protein expression, indicate that heterotrimeric G protein Gi and its interaction partner, activator of G-protein signaling (AGS), are necessary for this asymmetric cell division. Inhibition of Gi signaling by pertussis toxin interferes with micromere formation and leads to defects in embryogenesis. AGS was isolated in a yeast two-hybrid screen with G,i as bait and was expressed in embryos localized to the cell cortex at the time of asymmetric divisions. Introduction of exogenous dominant-negative AGS protein, containing only G-protein regulatory (GPR) domains, selectively prevented the asymmetric division in normal micromere formation. These results support the growing evidence that AGS is a universal regulator of asymmetric cell divisions in embryos. [source]

    XBtg2 is required for notochord differentiation during early Xenopus development

    Kaoru Sugimoto
    The notochord is essential for normal vertebrate development, serving as both a structural support for the embryo and a signaling source for the patterning of adjacent tissues. Previous studies on the notochord have mostly focused on its formation and function in early organogenesis but gene regulation in the differentiation of notochord cells itself remains poorly defined. In the course of screening for genes expressed in developing notochord, we have isolated Xenopus homolog of Btg2 (XBtg2). The mammalian Btg2 genes, Btg2/PC3/TIS21, have been reported to have multiple functions in the regulation of cell proliferation and differentiation but their roles in early development are still unclear. Here we characterized XBtg2 in early Xenopus laevis embryogenesis with focus on notochord development. Translational inhibition of XBtg2 resulted in a shortened and bent axis phenotype and the abnormal structures in the notochord tissue, which did not undergo vacuolation. The XBtg2-depleted notochord cells expressed early notochord markers such as chordin and Xnot at the early tailbud stage, but failed to express differentiation markers of notochord such as Tor70 and 5-D-4 antigens in the later stages. These results suggest that XBtg2 is required for the differentiation of notochord cells such as the process of vacuolar formation after determination of notochord cell fate. [source]

    Sp1-like transcription factors are regulators of embryonic development in vertebrates

    Chengtian Zhao
    Sp1-like family is an expanding transcription factor family. Members of this family bind to the GC-box or GT-box elements in the promoter/enhancers and regulate the expression of the target genes. Currently, this family consists of at least nine members, which may act as a transactivator or a repressor on target promoters. Sp1-like transcription factors are expressed during development of vertebrate embryos in ubiquitous or tissue-specific manners and play various roles in embryonic development. This review mainly summarises their expression patterns and functions during vertebrate embryogenesis. [source]

    Comparative expression pattern analysis of the highly conserved chemokines SDF1 and CXCL14 during amniote embryonic development

    Clara García-Andrés
    Abstract Chemokines are secreted proteins with essential roles in leukocyte trafficking and cell migration during embryogenesis. CXCL14 displays a degree of evolutionary conservation unmatched by any other chemokine except for SDF1(CXCL12). However, its role during embryogenesis has not been studied. Here we describe the expression pattern of mouse and chicken CXCL14 during embryogenesis and compare it with that of SDF1. CXCL14 is widely expressed in embryonic ectoderm and shows a restricted and dynamic expression pattern in paraxial mesoderm, mesonephros, neural tube, and limbs. During limb development, CXCL14 marks a unique connective tissue subset that surrounds developing tendons. Comparison of CXCL14 and SDF1 reveals mostly non-overlapping or complementary expression patterns, suggesting an interactive regulation of developmental processes by these two chemokines. Our study identifies CXCL14 as a novel marker of tendon connective tissue and provides a conceptual framework for the coordinated action of two highly conserved chemokines in embryonic development. Developmental Dynamics 239:2769,2777, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Oda16/Wdr69 is essential for axonemal dynein assembly and ciliary motility during zebrafish embryogenesis

    Chunlei Gao
    Abstract In the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Oda16 functions during ciliary assembly as an adaptor for intraflagellar transport of outer arm dynein. Oda16 orthologs only occur in genomes of organisms that use motile cilia; however, such cilia play multiple roles during vertebrate development and the contribution of Oda16 to their assembly remains unexplored. We demonstrate that the zebrafish Oda16 ortholog (Wdr69) is expressed in organs with motile cilia and retains a role in dynein assembly. Antisense morpholino knockdown of Wdr69 disrupts ciliary motility and results in multiple phenotypes associated with vertebrate ciliopathies. Affected cilia included those in Kupffer's vesicle, where Wdr69 plays a role in generation of asymmetric fluid flow and establishment of organ laterality, and otic vesicles, where Wdr69 is needed to develop normal numbers of otoliths. Analysis of cilium ultrastructure revealed loss of outer dynein arms in morphant embryos. These results support a remarkable level of functional conservation for Oda16/Wdr69. Developmental Dynamics 239:2190,2197, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Tankyrase is necessary for canonical Wnt signaling during kidney development

    Courtney M. Karner
    Abstract Recent studies using small molecule antagonists have revealed that the poly(ADP-ribose) polymerases (PARPs) Tankyrase 1 and 2 are critical regulators of canonical Wnt signaling in some cellular contexts. However, the absence of any activity during zebrafish embryogenesis suggested that the tankyrases may not be general/core components of the Wnt pathway. Here, we show that Tnks1 and 2 are broadly expressed during mouse development and are essential during kidney and lung development. In the kidney, blockage of tankyrase activity phenocopies the effect of blocking production of all Wnt ligands. Tankyrase inhibition can be rescued by activation of ,-catenin demonstrating its specificity for the Wnt pathway. In addition, treatment with tankyrase inhibitors appears to be completely reversible in some cell types. These studies suggest that the tankyrases are core components of the canonical Wnt pathway and their inhibitors should enjoy broad usage as antagonists of Wnt signaling. Developmental Dynamics 239:2014,2023, 2010 © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of Gpr177, a Wnt trafficking regulator, in mouse embryogenesis

    Hsiao-Man Ivy Yu
    Abstract Wls/Evi/Srt encoding a multipass transmembrane protein has been identified as a regulator for proper sorting and secretion of Wnt in flies. We have previously demonstrated that Gpr177 is the mouse ortholog required for axis determination. Gpr177 is a transcriptional target of Wnt that is activated to assist its subcellular distribution in a feedback regulatory loop. We, therefore, proposed that reciprocal regulation of Wnt and Gpr177 is essential for the Wnt-dependent developmental and pathogenic processes. Here, we examine the expression pattern of Gpr177 in mouse development. Gpr177 is expressed in a variety of tissues and cell types during organogenesis. Furthermore, Gpr177 is a glycoprotein primarily accumulating in the Golgi apparatus in signal-producing cells. The glycosylation of Gpr177 is necessary for proper transportation in the secretory pathway. Our findings suggest that the Gpr177-mediated regulation of Wnt is crucial for organogenesis in health and disease. Developmental Dynamics 239:2102,2109, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Non-core subunit eIF3h of translation initiation factor eIF3 regulates zebrafish embryonic development

    Avik Choudhuri
    Abstract Eukaryotic translation initiation factor eIF3, which plays a central role in translation initiation, consists of five core subunits that are present in both the budding yeast and higher eukaryotes. However, higher eukaryotic eIF3 contains additional (non-core) subunits that are absent in the budding yeast. We investigated the role of one such non-core eIF3 subunit eIF3h, encoded by two distinct genes,eif3ha and eif3hb, as a regulator of embryonic development in zebrafish. Both eif3h genes are expressed during early embryogenesis, and display overlapping yet distinct and highly dynamic spatial expression patterns. Loss of function analysis using specific morpholino oligomers indicates that each isoform has specific as well as redundant functions during early development. The morphant phenotypes correlate with their spatial expression patterns, indicating that eif3h regulates development of the brain, heart, vasculature, and lateral line. These results indicate that the non-core subunits of eIF3 regulate specific developmental programs during vertebrate embryogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 239:1632,1644, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of the zebrafish CD133/prominin1 genes in cellular proliferation zones in the embryonic central nervous system and sensory organs

    Maura McGrail
    Abstract The CD133/prominin1 gene encodes a pentamembrane glycoprotein cell surface marker that is expressed in stem cells from neuroepithelial, hematopoietic, and various organ tissues. Here we report the analysis of two zebrafish CD133/prominin1 orthologues, prominin1a and prominin1b. The expression patterns of the zebrafish prominin1a and b genes were analyzed during embryogenesis using whole mount in situ hybridization. prominin1a and b show novel complementary and overlapping patterns of expression in proliferating zones in the developing sensory organs and central nervous system. The expression patterns suggest functional conservation of the zebrafish prominin1 genes. Initial analyses of prominin1a and b in neoplastic tissue show increased expression of both genes in a subpopulation of cells in malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors in tp53 mutants. Based on these analyses, the zebrafish prominin1 genes will be useful markers for examining proliferating cell populations in adult organs, tissues, and tumors. Developmental Dynamics 239:1849,1857, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Generation and characterization of a novel neural crest marker allele, Inka1-LacZ, reveals a role for Inka1 in mouse neural tube closure

    Bethany S. Reid
    Abstract Previous studies identified Inka1 as a gene regulated by AP-2, in the neural crest required for craniofacial morphogenesis in fish and frog. Here, we extend the analysis of Inka1 function and regulation to the mouse by generating a LacZ knock-in allele. Inka1-LacZ allele expression occurs in the cephalic mesenchyme, heart, and paraxial mesoderm prior to E8.5. Subsequently, expression is observed in the migratory neural crest cells and their derivatives. Consistent with expression of Inka1 in tissues of the developing head during neurulation, a low percentage of Inka1,/, mice show exencephaly while the remainder are viable and fertile. Further studies indicate that AP-2, is not required for Inka1 expression in the mouse, and suggest that there is no significant genetic interaction between these two factors during embryogenesis. Together, these data demonstrate that while the expression domain of Inka1 is conserved among vertebrates, its function and regulation are not. Developmental Dynamics 239:1188,1196, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Real-time observation of Wnt ,-catenin signaling in the chick embryo

    Anne C. Rios
    Abstract A critical mediator of cell,cell signaling events during embryogenesis is the highly conserved Wnt family of secreted proteins. Reporter constructs containing multimerized TCF DNA binding sites have been used to detect Wnt ,-catenin dependent activity during animal development. In this report, we have constructed and compared several TCF green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter constructs. They contained 3, 8, or 12 TCF binding sites upstream of a minimal promoter driving native or destabilized enhanced GFP (EGFP). We have used the electroporation of somites in the chick embryo as a paradigm to test them in vivo. We have verified that they all respond to Wnt signaling in vivo. We have then assessed their efficiency at reflecting the activity of the Wnt pathway. Using destabilized EGFP reporter constructs, we show that somite cells dynamically regulate Wnt/,-catenin,dependent signaling, a finding that was confirmed by performing time-lapse video confocal observation of electroporated embryos. Developmental Dynamics 239:346,353, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Focal electroporation in ovo

    J. E. Simkin
    Abstract Gene expression fields in embryogenesis are spatially precise and often small, so experimental gene expression often requires similar spatial definition. For in ovo electroporation, typically a gene construct is injected into a natural body cavity in the embryo prior to electroporation. Limited control of the size and location of the electroporated field can be obtained by varying electrode placement and geometry, and by altering the miscibility and viscosity of the construct vehicle but it is difficult to tightly constrain electroporation to small regions. Electroporation of different constructs in close proximity has not been possible. We show that loading the construct into an agarose bead, which is then microsurgically implanted, allows for focal electroporation. Different constructs can be electroporated in close proximity by emplacing several agarose beads. This technique is simple, cheap, rapid, and requires no more specialised equipment than that required for conventional in ovo electroporation. Developmental Dynamics 238:3152,3155, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Gene expression profiles of lens regeneration and development in Xenopus laevis

    Erica L. Malloch
    Abstract Seven hundred and thirty-four unique genes were recovered from a cDNA library enriched for genes up-regulated during the process of lens regeneration in the frog Xenopus laevis. The sequences represent transcription factors, proteins involved in RNA synthesis/processing, components of prominent cell signaling pathways, genes involved in protein processing, transport, and degradation (e.g., the ubiquitin/proteasome pathway), matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), as well as many other proteins. The findings implicate specific signal transduction pathways in the process of lens regeneration, including the FGF, TGF-beta, MAPK, Retinoic acid, Wnt, and hedgehog signaling pathways, which are known to play important roles in eye/lens development and regeneration in various systems. In situ hybridization revealed that the majority of genes recovered are expressed during embryogenesis, including in eye tissues. Several novel genes specifically expressed in lenses were identified. The suite of genes was compared to those up-regulated in other regenerating tissues/organisms, and a small degree of overlap was detected. Developmental Dynamics 238:2340,2356, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Targeted deletion of Dicer disrupts lens morphogenesis, corneal epithelium stratification, and whole eye development

    Yan Li
    Abstract Dicer, a ribonuclease essential for miRNA processing, is expressed abundantly in developing mouse cornea and lens. We studied the roles of Dicer and miRNAs in eye development by conditionally deleting the Dicer gene in the mouse lens and corneal epithelium. Adult Dicer conditional null (DicerCN) mice had severe microphthalmia with no discernible lens and a poorly stratified corneal epithelium. Targeted deletion of Dicer effectively inhibited miRNA processing in the developing lens at 12.5 day of embryogenesis (E12.5). Lens development initiated normally but underwent progressive dystrophy between E14.5 and E18.5. Microarray analysis revealed activation of P53 signaling in DicerCN lenses at E13.5, consistent with increased apoptosis and reduced cell proliferation between E12.5 and E14.5. Expression of Pax6 and other lens developmental transcription factors were not greatly affected between E12.5 and E14.5 but decreased as the lens degenerated. Our data indicated an indispensible role for Dicer and miRNAs in lens and corneal development. Developmental Dynamics 238:2388,2400, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Blocking Dishevelled signaling in the noncanonical Wnt pathway in sea urchins disrupts endoderm formation and spiculogenesis, but not secondary mesoderm formation

    Christine A. Byrum
    Abstract Dishevelled (Dsh) is a phosphoprotein key to beta-catenin dependent (canonical) and beta-catenin independent (noncanonical) Wnt signaling. Whereas canonical Wnt signaling has been intensively studied in sea urchin development, little is known about other Wnt pathways. To examine roles of these beta-catenin independent pathways in embryogenesis, we used Dsh-DEP, a deletion construct blocking planar cell polarity (PCP) and Wnt/Ca2+ signaling. Embryos overexpressing Dsh-DEP failed to gastrulate or undergo skeletogenesis, but produced pigment cells. Although early mesodermal gene expression was largely unperturbed, embryos exhibited reduced expression of genes regulating endoderm specification and differentiation. Overexpressing activated beta-catenin failed to rescue Dsh-DEP embryos, indicating that Dsh-DEP blocks endoderm formation downstream of initial canonical Wnt signaling. Because Dsh-DEP-like constructs block PCP signaling in other metazoans, and disrupting RhoA or Fz 5/8 in echinoids blocks subsets of the Dsh-DEP phenotypes, our data suggest that noncanonical Wnt signaling is crucial for sea urchin endoderm formation and skeletogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 238:1649,1665, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Transcriptional dynamics of endodermal organ formation

    Richard I. Sherwood
    Abstract Although endodermal organs including the liver, pancreas, and intestine are of significant therapeutic interest, the mechanism by which the endoderm is divided into organ domains during embryogenesis is not well understood. To better understand this process, global gene expression profiling was performed on early endodermal organ domains. This global analysis was followed up by dynamic immunofluorescence analysis of key transcription factors, uncovering novel expression patterns as well as cell surface proteins that allow prospective isolation of specific endodermal organ domains. Additionally, a repressive interaction between Cdx2 and Sox2 was found to occur at the prospective stomach,intestine border, with the hepatic and pancreatic domains forming at this boundary, and Hlxb9 was revealed to have graded expression along the dorsal,ventral axis. These results contribute to understanding the mechanism of endodermal organogenesis and should assist efforts to replicate this process using pluripotent stem cells. Developmental Dynamics 238:29,42, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The embryonic expression patterns and the knockdown phenotypes of zebrafish ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 interacting protein gene

    Hsing-Yen Huang
    Abstract ADP-ribosylation factor-like 6 (Arl6) mutation is linked to human disease and Arl6 interacts with Arl6 interacting protein (Arl6ip). However, the expression pattern and function of Arl6ip during embryogenesis are unknown. To confirm whether abnormal Arl6ip function might result in embryonic defects in zebrafish, we examined the expression patterns of arl6ip during embryogenesis, and they were maternally expressed and exhibited in the brain, optic primordia, hypochord, spinal cord, myotome, heart, fin-bud, kidney, trunk, and retina. Knockdown of Arl6ip revealed the following phenotypic defects: microphthalmia, disorganized pigment pattern, flat head, defective tectum, deficient pectoral fins, abnormal pneumatic duct, pericardial edema, and deformed trunk. Particularly, histological dissection of the retinae of arl6ip -morphants revealed that neuronal differentiation is severely delayed, resulting in no formation of retinal layers. We further confirmed that opsins of arl6ip -morphants were not transcribed. Based on this evidence, Arl6ip may play important roles in zebrafish ocular, heart, and fin-bud development. Developmental Dynamics 238:232,240, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    SSAO/VAP-1 protein expression during mouse embryonic development

    Tony Valente
    Abstract SSAO/VAP-1 is a multifunctional enzyme depending on in which tissue it is expressed. SSAO/VAP-1 is present in almost all adult mammalian tissues, especially in highly vascularised ones and in adipocytes. SSAO/VAP-1 is an amine oxidase able to metabolise various endogenous or exogenous primary amines. Its catalytic activity can lead to cellular oxidative stress, which has been implicated in several pathologies (atherosclerosis, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease). The aim of this work is to achieve a study of SSAO/VAP-1 protein expression during mouse embryogenesis. Our results show that SSAO/VAP-1 appears early in the development of the vascular system, adipose tissue, and smooth muscle cells. Moreover, its expression is strong in several epithelia of the sensory organs, as well as in the development of cartilage sites. Altogether, this suggests that SSAO/VAP-1 enzyme could be involved in the differentiation processes that take place during embryonic development, concretely in tissue vascularisation. Developmental Dynamics 237:2585,2593, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Characterization of primary cilia and Hedgehog signaling during development of the human pancreas and in human pancreatic duct cancer cell lines

    Sonja K. Nielsen
    Abstract Hedgehog (Hh) signaling controls pancreatic development and homeostasis; aberrant Hh signaling is associated with several pancreatic diseases. Here we investigated the link between Hh signaling and primary cilia in the human developing pancreatic ducts and in cultures of human pancreatic duct adenocarcinoma cell lines, PANC-1 and CFPAC-1. We show that the onset of Hh signaling from human embryogenesis to fetal development is associated with accumulation of Hh signaling components Smo and Gli2 in duct primary cilia and a reduction of Gli3 in the duct epithelium. Smo, Ptc, and Gli2 localized to primary cilia of PANC-1 and CFPAC-1 cells, which may maintain high levels of nonstimulated Hh pathway activity. These findings indicate that primary cilia are involved in pancreatic development and postnatal tissue homeostasis. Developmental Dynamics 237:2039,2052, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression of the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is not restricted to the lymphatic vasculature; LYVE-1 is also expressed on embryonic blood vessels

    Emma J. Gordon
    Abstract Expression of the hyaluronan receptor LYVE-1 is one of few available criteria used to discriminate lymphatic vessels from blood vessels. Until now, endothelial LYVE-1 expression was reported to be restricted to lymphatic vessels and to lymph node, liver, and spleen sinuses. Here, we provide the first evidence that LYVE-1 is expressed on blood vessels of the yolk sac during mouse embryogenesis. LYVE-1 is ubiquitously expressed in the yolk sac capillary plexus at E9.5, then becomes progressively down-regulated on arterial endothelium during vascular remodelling. LYVE-1 is also expressed on intra-embryonic arterial and venous endothelium at early embryonic stages and on endothelial cells of the lung and endocardium throughout embryogenesis. These findings have important implications for the use of LYVE-1 as a specific marker of the lymphatic vasculature during embryogenesis and neo-lymphangiogenesis. Our data are also the first demonstration, to our knowledge, that the mouse yolk sac is devoid of lymphatic vessels. Developmental Dynamics 237:1901,1909, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    SPARC is expressed by macroglia and microglia in the developing and mature nervous system

    Adele J. Vincent
    Abstract SPARC (secreted protein, acidic and rich in cysteine) is a matricellular protein that is highly expressed during development, tissue remodeling, and repair. SPARC produced by olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) can promote axon sprouting in vitro and in vivo. Here, we show that in the developing nervous system of the mouse, SPARC is expressed by radial glia, blood vessels, and other pial-derived structures during embryogenesis and postnatal development. The rostral migratory stream contains SPARC that becomes progressively restricted to the SVZ in adulthood. In the adult CNS, SPARC is enriched in specialized radial glial derivatives (Müller and Bergmann glia), microglia, and brainstem astrocytes. The peripheral glia, Schwann cells, and OECs express SPARC throughout development and in maturity, although it appears to be down-regulated with maturation. These data suggest that SPARC may be expressed by glia in a spatiotemporal manner consistent with a role in cell migration, neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and angiogenesis. Developmental Dynamics 237:1449-1462, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Dynamic expression patterns of RhoV/Chp and RhoU/Wrch during chicken embryonic development

    Cécile Notarnicola
    Abstract Rho GTPases play central roles in the control of cell adhesion and migration, cell cycle progression, growth, and differentiation. However, although most of our knowledge of Rho GTPase function comes from the study of the three classic Rho GTPases RhoA, Rac1, and Cdc42, recent studies have begun to explore the expression, regulation, and function of some of the lesser-known members of the Rho GTPase family. In the present study, we cloned the avian orthologues of RhoV (or Chp for Cdc42 homologous protein) and RhoU (or Wrch - 1 for Wnt-regulated Cdc42 homolog-1) and examined their expression patterns by in situ hybridization analysis both during early chick embryogenesis and later on, during gastrointestinal tract development. Our data show that both GTPases are detected in the primitive streak, the somites, the neural crest cells, and the gastrointestinal tract with distinct territories and/or temporal expression windows. Although both proteins are 90% identical, our results indicate that cRhoV and cRhoU are distinctly expressed during chicken embryonic development. Developmental Dynamics 237:1165,1171, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]