Embryo Quality (embryo + quality)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Endocrine Profiles and Embryo Quality in Japanese Black Cattle Superovulated with Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin and Porcine Follicle Stimulating Hormone

REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 2 2001
M Sugano
Induction of superovulation using human menopausal gonadotriphin (hMG) in Japanese Black cattle can result in the recovery of a higher percentage of high quality embryos compared with that using porcine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In order to clarify the endocrinological mechanism involved in this discrepancy, 30 superovulation sessions of 17 Japanese Black cattle were studied. Fifteen cattle were super-stimulated with hMG (total 600 IU), and the remaining 15 cattle were given FSH (total 20 mg). The plasma profiles of LH, estradiol-17, (E2) and progesterone (P4) were correlated, and the embryo quality was investigated. The total number of ova recovered and the number of transferable embryos tended to be larger in the hMG-treated group than in the FSH-treated group. The percentage of excellent embryos tended to be higher in the hMG-treated group than in the FSH-treated group (54.3 and 28.7%, respectively, p < 0.10). The E2 level increased during the first 3 days after the initial administration of either hMG or FSH and was higher in the hMG-treated group than in the FSH-treated group (p < 0.05). During this period, the E2 level could be categorized into one of the following three types according to whether it increased or decreased and according to the degree of increase or decrease: (1) increase by a factor of 1.2 or more (quick increase type) (2) slight increase by a factor less than 1.2 (slow increase type), and (3) no increase (unstable increase type). In the group treated with hMG, 66.7% of the animals (10 of 15 cattle) showed a quick increase in the E2 level. However, in the FSH-treated group, 40% (six of 15) of the animals showed a slow increase in the E2 level. The plasma LH level increased dramatically 8 h prior to the peak level in both the hMG- and FSH-treated groups, and then it returned to the basal level 12 h later. After the administration of prostaglandin (PG)F2,, the LH peak level was attained within 44 h in 80% of the animals in the hMG-treated group, whereas in the FSH-treated group, the LH peak level tended to be reached later. The P4 level did not increase during the period of hMG or FSH treatment and decreased drastically following administration of PGF2,. After the onset of oestrus, the P4 level was higher in the hMG group than in the FSH group, and 5 to 7 days after oestrus, the level remained higher in the hMG group than in the FSH group (p < 0.05). After the first 3 days of hMG administration, the E2/P4 ratio was higher than that after FSH administration. Furthermore, on the day following PGF2, administration, the ratio was significantly higher in the hMG group than in the FSH group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that superovulation in cattle given hMG results in a significant increase in plasma E2 during the first 3 days and that the increase in the plasma P4 level is larger a few days after oestrus and thereafter compared with FSH-induced superovulation. Therefore, such plasma level profiles may be related to the increased recovery rate of high quality embryos. [source]


Intracytoplasmic sperm injection as a complement to gonadotrophin treatment in infertile men with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ANDROLOGY, Issue 4 2005
BRANKO ZORN
Summary In this study we sought to determine whether intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) could improve the efficacy of treatment with gonadotrophins in gonadotrophin-deficient men in terms of pregnancy. A series of six adult men (aged 26,47 years) with hypogonadotrophic hypogonadism (HH) is reported: four men with prepubertal isolated idiopathic HH (IIHH) and two adult-onset HH, as part of hypopituitarism secondary to surgical treatment of a pituitary tumour. All were azoospermic. To restore spermatogenesis, all received hormonal treatment with intramuscular human menopausal gonadotrophins (HMG) and human chorionic gonadotrophin (HCG) for 2 to 23 months. High basal serum inhibin B was predictive of rapid and complete recovery of spermatogenesis. In the two adult-onset HH, a natural pregnancy was achieved within 3 months. The four men with IIHH underwent ICSI because of poor sperm quality. ICSI using fresh or frozen-thawed ejaculated spermatozoa was performed after 6,23 months of gonadotrophin treatment. ICSI provided good clinical results in terms of fertilization and embryo quality, and resulted in three pregnancies that ended in three term deliveries. In men with oligozoospermia related to prepubertal IIHH, ICSI shortens the hormonal treatment and enhances the chances of pregnancy. [source]


Expression and downregulation of WNT signaling pathway genes in rhesus monkey oocytes and embryos

MOLECULAR REPRODUCTION & DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2006
Ping Zheng
Abstract Mammalian WNT genes encode secreted glycoproteins that are conserved homologues of the Drosophila Wingless gene, which plays a crucial role in Drosophila development. Recently, WNT pathway signaling has been implicated in ovarian development, oogenesis, and early development. We sought to evaluate whether these genes may contribute to the formation of healthy human oocytes or embryos, and whether the expression of these genes could provide informative markers of human oocyte and embryo quality. To do this, we employed the primate embryo gene expression resource (PREGER; www.preger.org) to examine expression of mRNAs encoding 38 components of the WNT signaling pathway in rhesus monkey oocytes and embryos as a nonhuman primate model. We observed considerable conservation between rhesus monkey and mouse of expression of WNT, FZD, and effector gene mRNAs, and a generalized downregulation of genes encoding key components of the WNT signaling pathway during preimplantation development. Our results support a role for WNT signaling during oocyte growth or maturation, but not during preimplantation development. Additionally, we observed differences between in vitro cultured and in vivo developing blastocysts, indicating possible effects of culture on WNT signaling during the peri-implantation period. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Expression of Apoptosis Regulatory Genes and Incidence of Apoptosis in Different Morphological Quality Groups of In Vitro-produced Bovine Pre-implantation Embryos

REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 5 2010
MG Melka
Contents Apoptosis occurs during early development in both in vivo - and in vitro -produced embryos, and is considered as one of the causes of embryonic loss. The objectives of this study were, therefore, investigating stage-specific expression profiles of apoptosis regulatory genes in three quality groups of in vitro -produced bovine pre-implantation embryos; and analysing the relationship between cell number and DNA fragmentation with expressions of those genes. The relative abundance of mRNA of 9 pro- (Bax, caspase-9, Bcl-xs, P53, Caspase-3 and Fas) and anti- (Bcl-w and Mcl-1) apoptotic genes was analysed. Differential cell staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labelling were performed to analyse the variation in cell numbers and detect apoptotic nuclei respectively. Expression of Bax and Caspase-3 genes was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in poor quality pre-implantation embryos as compared with that of morphologically good quality embryos of the same developmental stages. Moreover, Mcl-1 expression was significantly higher in good quality immature oocytes than that in the poor quality group. Moreover, higher DNA fragmentation was evidenced in morphologically poor quality blastocysts. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that Bax, caspase-3 and Mcl-1 can be used as potential markers of embryo quality to evaluate in vitro -produced bovine embryos. Further studies are required to investigate specific molecular signatures that can be used in evaluating in vivo -derived embryos. [source]


Consequences of Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition During Bovine Oocyte Maturation on Meiosis and Embryo Development

REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 1 2010
KRL Schwarz
Contents The importance of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in bovine oocyte maturation was investigated. Oocytes were in vitro matured with the NOS inhibitor Nw - l -nitro-arginine methyl-ester (10,7, 10,5 and 10,3 m l -NAME) and metaphase II (MII) rates and embryo development and quality were assessed. The effect of l -NAME (10,7 m) during pre-maturation and/or maturation on embryo development and quality was also assessed. l -NAME decreased MII rates (78,82%, p < 0.05) when compared with controls without l -NAME (96%). Cleavage (77,88%, p > 0.05), Day 7 blastocyst rates (34,42%, p > 0.05) and total cell numbers in blastocysts were similar for all groups (146,171 cells, p > 0.05). Day 8 blastocyst TUNEL positive cells (3,4 cells) increased with l -NAME treatment (p < 0.05). For oocytes cultured with l -NAME during pre-maturation and/or maturation, Day 8 blastocyst development (26,34%) and Day 9 hatching rates (15,22%) were similar (p > 0.05) to controls pre-matured and matured without NOS inhibition (33 and 18%, respectively), while total cell numbers (Day 9 hatched blastocysts) increased (264,324 cells, p < 0.05) when compared with the controls (191 cells). TUNEL positive cells increased when NOS was inhibited only during the maturation period (8 cells, p < 0.05) when compared with the other groups (3,4 cells). NO may be involved in meiosis progression to MII and its deficiency during maturation increases apoptosis in embryos produced in vitro. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition during pre-maturation and/or maturation affects embryo quality. [source]


Cryotolerance of Bovine Blastocysts is Affected by Oocyte Maturation in Media Containing Palmitic or Stearic Acid

REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 1 2009
MA Shehab-El-Deen
Contents In this study, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were added during in vitro maturation at concentrations measured previously in follicular fluid (FF) of high-producing dairy cows in a negative energy status to evaluate their subsequent effect on the embryos cryotolerance. Oocytes were matured for 24 h in serum-free media with or without (negative control) the addition of NEFAs dissolved in ethanol or ethanol alone (positive control). Matured oocytes were fertilized and cultured for 7 days in synthetic oviduct fluid medium supplemented with 5% FCS. Embryos that had at least reached the blastocyst stage were vitrified by open pulled straw (OPS) vitrification. Addition of palmitic (C16 : 0) or stearic acid (C18 : 0) during oocyte maturation had significant negative effects on embryo cryotolerance, whereas ethanol or oleic acid (C18 : 1) had no effect. These in vitro results suggest that high NEFA concentrations in FF during a period of negative energy balance in high-yielding dairy cows can have carry-over effects on embryo quality. [source]


Comparative IFN- , Secretion after Hatching by Bovine Blastocysts Derived Ex Vivo and Completely Produced In Vitro

REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 1 2007
JA Neira
Contents The interferon-tau (IFN- ,) secretion levels after hatching by bovine blastocysts derived from in vitro maturated oocytes (Group A) and from in vivo (Group B) were investigated considering embryo quality. Only very homogeneous blastocysts of excellent or good quality were considered from day 7 of culture (Group A) and day 7 after artificial insemination with frozen-thawed from the same bull used for in vitro fertilization (Group B). All embryos were individually cultured into a 50 ,l droplet of synthetic oviduct fluid medium with 10% fetal calf serum. After 24-h culture both Group A (n =44) and B (n = 40) secreted <54 pm IFN- ,. After 48-, 72-, 96- and 120-h culture, Group A daily secreted 143 24 pm IFN- , (n = 19) vs 85 12 pm IFN- , (n = 21) for Group B (p < 0.01), 491 128 pm IFN- , (n = 29) vs 216 37 pm IFN- , (n = 23) (NS), 499 135 pm IFN- , (n = 26) vs 353 93 pm IFN- , (n = 21) (NS), 559 136 pm IFN- , (n = 22) vs 333 75 pm IFN- , (n = 20) (NS), respectively. Taken all together during 5 days, Group A produced per embryo 1690 290 pm IFN- , (n = 22) vs 982 182 pm IFN- , (n = 20) for Group B (p < 0.05). For all culture time there were sizable percentages of embryos that did not produce concentrations of IFN- , above a certain cut-off level, and as such were not used to compute the means. In respect of the embryo quality whatever the groups after days 7,12 of culture, IFN- , secretions were 1815 453 pm (n = 10) for the embryos of excellent quality vs 1356 200 pm (n = 28) for those of good quality (NS) and 360 188 pm (n = 4) (p < 0.05) for embryos of fair quality. A positive relationship between IFN- , production and in vitro development of quality I embryos was observed, whatever the embryos origins and, the embryos completely produced in vitro secreted more IFN- , than the embryos produced in vivo. [source]


Endocrine Profiles and Embryo Quality in Japanese Black Cattle Superovulated with Human Menopausal Gonadotrophin and Porcine Follicle Stimulating Hormone

REPRODUCTION IN DOMESTIC ANIMALS, Issue 2 2001
M Sugano
Induction of superovulation using human menopausal gonadotriphin (hMG) in Japanese Black cattle can result in the recovery of a higher percentage of high quality embryos compared with that using porcine follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). In order to clarify the endocrinological mechanism involved in this discrepancy, 30 superovulation sessions of 17 Japanese Black cattle were studied. Fifteen cattle were super-stimulated with hMG (total 600 IU), and the remaining 15 cattle were given FSH (total 20 mg). The plasma profiles of LH, estradiol-17, (E2) and progesterone (P4) were correlated, and the embryo quality was investigated. The total number of ova recovered and the number of transferable embryos tended to be larger in the hMG-treated group than in the FSH-treated group. The percentage of excellent embryos tended to be higher in the hMG-treated group than in the FSH-treated group (54.3 and 28.7%, respectively, p < 0.10). The E2 level increased during the first 3 days after the initial administration of either hMG or FSH and was higher in the hMG-treated group than in the FSH-treated group (p < 0.05). During this period, the E2 level could be categorized into one of the following three types according to whether it increased or decreased and according to the degree of increase or decrease: (1) increase by a factor of 1.2 or more (quick increase type) (2) slight increase by a factor less than 1.2 (slow increase type), and (3) no increase (unstable increase type). In the group treated with hMG, 66.7% of the animals (10 of 15 cattle) showed a quick increase in the E2 level. However, in the FSH-treated group, 40% (six of 15) of the animals showed a slow increase in the E2 level. The plasma LH level increased dramatically 8 h prior to the peak level in both the hMG- and FSH-treated groups, and then it returned to the basal level 12 h later. After the administration of prostaglandin (PG)F2,, the LH peak level was attained within 44 h in 80% of the animals in the hMG-treated group, whereas in the FSH-treated group, the LH peak level tended to be reached later. The P4 level did not increase during the period of hMG or FSH treatment and decreased drastically following administration of PGF2,. After the onset of oestrus, the P4 level was higher in the hMG group than in the FSH group, and 5 to 7 days after oestrus, the level remained higher in the hMG group than in the FSH group (p < 0.05). After the first 3 days of hMG administration, the E2/P4 ratio was higher than that after FSH administration. Furthermore, on the day following PGF2, administration, the ratio was significantly higher in the hMG group than in the FSH group (p < 0.05). These results indicate that superovulation in cattle given hMG results in a significant increase in plasma E2 during the first 3 days and that the increase in the plasma P4 level is larger a few days after oestrus and thereafter compared with FSH-induced superovulation. Therefore, such plasma level profiles may be related to the increased recovery rate of high quality embryos. [source]


Relationship between hyaluronic acid binding assay and outcome in ART: a pilot study

ANDROLOGIA, Issue 5 2010
M. Nijs
Summary The sperm,hyaluronan binding assay (HBA) is a diagnostic kit for assessing sperm maturity, function and fertility. The aim of this prospective cohort pilot study was to evaluate the relationship between HBA and WHO sperm parameters (motility, concentration and detailed morphology) and possible influence of sperm processing on hyaluronic acid binding. A cohort of 68 patients undergoing a first combo in vitro fertilisation/intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment after failure of three or more intrauterine insemination cycles were included in the study. Outcome measures studied were fertilisation rate, embryo quality, ongoing pregnancy rate and cumulative pregnancy rate. HBA outcome improved after sperm preparation and culture, but was not correlated to detailed sperm morphology, concentration or motility. HBA did not provide additional information for identifying patients with poor or absent fertilisation, although the latter had more immature sperm cells and cells with cytoplasmic retention present in their semen. HBA outcome in the neat sample was significantly correlated with embryo quality, with miscarriage rates and ongoing pregnancy rates in the fresh cycles, but not with the cumulative ongoing pregnancy rate. No threshold value for HBA and outcome in combo IVF/ICSI treatment could be established. The clinical value for HBA in addition to routine semen analysis for this patient population seems limited. [source]