Embryo Production (embryo + production)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Embryo Production

  • vitro embryo production

  • Selected Abstracts

    Procedure for Maximizing Oocyte Harvest for In Vitro Embryo Production in Small Ruminants

    A Gibbons
    Contents Possible effects of repeated hormonal treatments and laparoscopic ovum pick-up (LOPU) on the efficiency of oocyte recovery rate and quality were determined in sheep and goats. In six adult Merino sheep and five Criolla goats, ovarian status was synchronized by a prostaglandin F2, analogue and the insertion of an intravaginal sponge 48 h later. Follicle development was stimulated by a single dose of FSH (60 mg NIH-FSH-P1) plus a single dose of equine chorionic gonadotrophin (eCG; 300 UI). The first FSH/eCG doses were administered 48 h after the sponge insertion, being repeated every 4 days to complete a total of four treatments in sheep and three in goats. Follicles in both ovaries were categorized according to their diameter and follicular fluid was aspirated under laparoscopic observation without a vacuum pump. In sheep, during a 12-day-period, a total of 347 follicles were aspirated with a recovery rate of 46.9%. In goats, during an 8-day-period, 219 follicles were aspirated with a recovery rate of 45.6%. In both species, there were no significant differences in the number of aspirated follicles, oocyte recovery rate and good quality oocyte recovery rate. However, in sheep the oocyte recovery rate was higher for large follicles, whereas in goats no such effect was detected. In summary, current results indicate that retrieval of oocytes can be maximized, without affecting oocyte quality, by repeating ,oneshot' FSH/eCG regimes and LOPUs at intervals as short as 4 days. [source]

    Impact of a parasitoid on the bacterial symbiosis of its aphid host

    Conrad Cloutier
    Abstract Embryo production in aphids is absolutely dependent on the function of symbiotic bacteria, mainly Buchnera, and the growth and development of koinobiont parasitoids in aphids requires the diversion of nutrients from aphid embryo production to the parasitoid. The implication that the bacterial symbiosis may be promoted in parasitized aphids to support the growing parasitoid was explored by analysis of the number and biomass of mycetocytes, and the aphid cells bearing Buchnera, in the pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum Harris (Hemiptera: Aphididae) parasitized by the wasp Aphidius ervi Haliday (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). Aphids hosting a young larval parasitoid bore more mycetocytes of greater total biomass, and embryos of lower biomass than unparasitized aphids. Furthermore, one of the three aphid clones tested, which limited teratocyte growth (giant cells of parasitoid origin having a trophic role), bore smaller mycetocytes and larger embryos, than one or both of the two aphid clones with greater susceptibility to the parasitoid. These data suggest that susceptibility of the aphid- Buchnera symbiosis to parasitoid-mediated manipulation may, directly or indirectly, contribute to aphid susceptibility to parasitoid exploitation. [source]

    The antimicrobial triclocarban stimulates embryo production in the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum,

    Ben D. Giudice
    Abstract Recent research has indicated that the antimicrobial chemical triclocarban (TCC) represents a new type of endocrine disruptor, amplifying the transcriptional activity of steroid hormones and their receptors while itself exhibiting little affinity for these receptors. The effects of TCC were studied in the freshwater mudsnail Potamopyrgus antipodarum. Specimens were exposed to concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 10.5 g/L dissolved TCC and were removed and dissected, and embryos contained within the brood pouch were counted and classified as shelled or unshelled after two and four weeks of exposure. After four weeks, environmentally relevant TCC concentrations of 1.6 to 10.5 g/L resulted in statistically significant increases in the number of unshelled embryos, whereas 0.2, 1.6, and 10.5 g/L exposures significantly increased numbers of shelled embryos. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) was 0.2 g/L, the no observed effect concentration (NOEC) was 0.05 g/L; the 10% effective concentration (EC10) and the median effective concentration (EC50) for unshelled effects were 0.5 g/L and 2.5 g/L, respectively. Given the widespread occurrence of TCC in the environment and the effects shown at environmentally relevant concentrations, these results indicate that TCC may be causing reproductive effects in the environment. Furthermore, the present study indicates that environmental risk from a new class of endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) is both qualitatively and quantitatively similar to risk from existing classes of EDCs. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2010;29:966,970. 2009 SETAC [source]

    Effect of maturation stage at cryopreservation on post-thaw cytoskeleton quality and fertilizability of equine oocytes

    T. Tharasanit
    Abstract Oocyte cryopreservation is a potentially valuable technique for salvaging the germ-line when a valuable mare dies, but facilities for in vitro embryo production or oocyte transfer are not immediately available. This study examined the influence of maturation stage and freezing technique on the cryopreservability of equine oocytes. Cumulus oocyte complexes were frozen at the immature stage (GV) or after maturation in vitro for 30 hr (MII), using either conventional slow freezing (CF) or open pulled straw vitrification (OPS); cryoprotectant-exposed and untreated nonfrozen oocytes served as controls. After thawing, GV oocytes were matured in vitro, and MII oocytes were incubated for 0 or 6 hr, before staining to examine meiotic spindle quality by confocal microscopy. To assess fertilizability, CF MII oocytes were subjected to intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) and cultured in vitro. At 12, 24, and 48 hr after ICSI, injected oocytes were fixed to examine their progression through fertilization. Both maturation stage and freezing technique affected oocyte survival. The meiosis resumption rate was higher for OPS than CF for GV oocytes (28% vs. 1.2%; P,<,0.05), but still much lower than for controls (66%). Cryopreserving oocytes at either stage induced meiotic spindle disruption (37%,67% normal spindles vs. 99% in controls; P,<,0.05). Among frozen oocytes, however, spindle quality was best for oocytes frozen by CF at the MII stage and incubated for 6 hr post-thaw (67% normal); since this combination of cryopreservation/IVM yielded the highest proportion of oocytes reaching MII with a normal spindle (35% compared to <20% for other groups), it was used when examining the effects of cryopreservation on fertilizability. In this respect, the rate of normal fertilization for CF MII oocytes after ICSI was much lower than for controls (total oocyte activation rate, 26% vs. 56%; cleavage rate at 48 hr, 8% vs. 42%: P,<,0.05). Thus, although IVM followed by CF yields a respectable percentage of normal-looking MII oocytes (35%), their ability to support fertilization is severely compromised. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Somatic Embryogenesis in Leguminous Plants

    PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    P. Lakshmanan
    Abstract: This review examines recent advances in the induction and development of somatic embryos in leguminous plants. Emphasis has been given to identify the current trends and successful strategies for the establishment of somatic embryogenic systems, particularly in the economically important species. It appears that, in legumes, somatic embryogenesis can be realized relatively easily especially in young meristematic tissues such as immature embryos and developing leaves. In the majority of the species examined, chlorophenoxyacetic acids remained the most active inductive compounds; however, the new generation growth regulators such as thidiazuron are emerging as successful alternatives for high-frequency direct regeneration of somatic embryos, even from well differentiated explant tissues. Low-frequency embryo production, poor germination and conversion of somatic embryos into plantlets and somaclonal variation are the major impediments limiting the utility of somatic embryogenesis for biotechnological applications in legumes. These limitations, however, may be considerably reduced in the near future, as more newly developed growth regulators with specific morphogenic targets become available for experimentation. From the published data, it is apparent that more effort should be given to develop repetitive embryogenic systems with high frequency of germination and regeneration, since such systems will find immediate application in mass propagation and other crop improvement programmes. As our understanding of various morphogenic processes, including growth and differentiation of zygotic embryos, is fast expanding, it is conceivable that development of highly efficient somatic embryogenic systems with practical application can be anticipated, at least for the important leguminous crops, in the foreseeable future. [source]

    Predicting the regenerative capacity of conifer somatic embryogenic cultures by metabolomics

    Andrew R. Robinson
    Summary Somatic embryogenesis in gymnosperms is an effective approach to clonally propagating germplasm. However, embryogenic cultures frequently lose regenerative capacity. The interactions between metabolic composition, physiological state, genotype and embryogenic capacity in Pinus taeda (loblolly pine) somatic embryogenic cultures were explored using metabolomics. A stepwise modelling procedure, using the Bayesian information criterion, generated a 47 metabolite predictive model that could explain culture productivity. The model performed extremely well in cross-validation, achieving a correlation coefficient of 0.98 between actual and predicted mature embryo production. The metabolic composition and structure of the model implied that variation in culture regenerative capacity was closely linked to the physiological transition of cultures from the proliferation phase to the maturation phase of development. The propensity of cultures to advance into this transition appears to relate to nutrient uptake and allocation in vivo, and to be associated with the tolerance and response of cultures to stress, during the proliferation phase. [source]

    In Vitro Production of Equine Embryos: State of the Art

    K Hinrichs
    Contents In vitro embryo production is possible in the horse both clinically and for research applications. Oocytes may be collected from excised ovaries post-mortem, or from either immature follicles or stimulated pre-ovulatory follicles in the live mare. In vitro maturation of immature oocytes typically yields approximately 60% mature oocytes. As standard in vitro fertilization is not yet repeatable in the horse, fertilization is performed by intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Embryo culture requires medium with high glucose, at least during blastocyst development, and rates of blastocyst development similar to those for cattle (25% to 35%) may be obtained. Pregnancy rates after transfer of in vitro -produced blastocysts are similar to those for embryos recovered ex vivo. [source]

    Timing of Preovulatory LH Surge and Ovulation in Superovulated Sheep are Affected by Follicular Status at Start of the FSH Treatment

    A Veiga-Lopez
    Contents The aims of this study were to evaluate the chronology of periovulatory events (oestrus behaviour, LH surge and ovulation) in 16 superovulated Manchega sheep and to determine whether follicular status at start of the FSH supply might affect their occurrence. Mean timing for onset of oestrus behaviour was detected at 28.1 0.7 h after sponge withdrawal; the preovulatory LH surge and ovulation started at 37.2 0.7 h and 65.4 0.7 h after progestagen withdrawal, respectively. The intervals between oestrus, LH surge and ovulation were affected by a high individual variability, which might be the cause for reported decreased efficiency in embryo production. Current results also addressed the role of follicular status at start of the superovulatory treatment on the preovulatory LH surge and the ovulation. The interval LH surge-ovulation was increased in ewes with a growing dominant follicle at starting the FSH treatment (32.3 0.9 vs 28.6 0.5 h, p < 0.05). The developmental stage of the largest follicle at starting the superovulatory treatment also affected occurrence of LH surge and ovulation; follicles in growing phase advanced the occurrence of the LH surge and ovulation when compared to decreasing follicles (33.0 1.0 vs 43.5 1.1 h, p < 0.05, for LH peak and 60.7 1.1 vs 72.8 1.2 h, p < 0.05, for ovulation). Thus, only ewes with growing follicles ovulated prior to 55 h after sponge withdrawal; conversely, no sheep with decreasing follicles ovulated earlier than 67 h, when an 85.7% of the ewes bearing growing follicles has ovulated at 63 h. [source]

    Effect of Days Post-Partum, Breed and Ovum Pick-Up Scheme on Bovine Oocyte Recovery and Embryo Development

    AS Lopes
    Contents The objective of this study was to investigate (i) the effect of two different ovum pick-up (OPU) schemes (once vs twice weekly aspirations) on oocyte recovery rate, quality and subsequent in vitro embryo development, (ii) the influence of days post-partum on oocyte recovery and (iii) possible differences in OPU results from two different herds. In group A, OPU was performed twice weekly in two Holstein Friesian (HF) and three Danish Red and White (DRW) cows from a private herd. In the research herd, two groups of eight HF cows were investigated: group B (OPU once weekly) and group C (OPU twice weekly). The collected oocytes were subsequently submitted to in vitro embryo production. More oocytes were recovered from the private herd when compared with the research herd. In the research herd, the twice weekly scheme aspirated more oocytes than the once weekly scheme. The quality of the retrieved oocytes was significantly different between groups B and C but not between groups A and C, and HF cows yielded higher quality oocytes than DRW cows (p = 0.029). Oocytes from group C showed higher level of embryonic development than group B oocytes. No differences in blastocyst rates were observed between groups A and C. Session affected the number of retrieved oocytes and subsequent developmental rates, with these being lower in the first compared with the last sessions. Finally, there was no significant effect of days post-partum in the number and quality of the retrieved oocytes, likely because of the small group size and high variation between sessions. [source]

    New Biotechniques and their Consequences for Farm Animal Welfare

    ThAm Kruip
    Contents This paper considers (potentially) harmful consequences of new biotechnologies for farm animal welfare. The most important new biotechnologies that are currently used in farm animals breeding and husbandry include: multiple ovulation and embryo transfer (MOET) and in vitro embryo production (IVP). Cloning by nuclear transfer (NT) and transgenesis are still in development and mainly applied for experimental purposes with the prospect of a more widespread practical implemention in the future. Evidence is presented showing that generally accepted technologies such as MOET and IVP, relative to in vivo procedures, can result in a host of deleterious side-effects commonly known as the large offspring syndrome (LOS). Likewise, NT and transgenesis, which also typically include several in vitro reproductive manipulations, have clearly been associated with the occurrence of LOS symptoms. It is argued that transgenesis may constitute one additional set of factors that may negatively affect farm animal welfare: the expression of the transgene and the concomitant synthesis and release of a protein. NT might lead to incompletely reprogramming of the transferred genome. It is suggested that the introduction of new biotechnologies into farm animal husbandry should be accompanied by scientifically valid and systematic studies into the effects on animal welfare, with the help of a comprehensive welfare protocol. [source]

    Effects of Growth Hormone on Female Reproductive Organs

    G. G. Kaiser
    During the last decade many experiments have been performed to study the effects of growth hormone (GH, somatotropin) on reproductive functions. Most of the studies found only slight or no effects of GH treatment, both on the oestrous cycle and on gonadotropin, progesterone, or oestrogen serum levels. In GH-treated animals, elevated levels of insulin-like growth factor I and GH in the serum could be correlated with an increased number of small (<5 mm in diameter) ovarian follicles, possibly as a consequence of a reduction of apoptosis and follicular atresia. There is still controversy over the effects of GH on in vivo and in vitro embryo production and on the gestation period. Recent studies produced some evidence that GH-receptor is expressed in ovarian tissue, implying a direct role for GH in the ovary. [source]