Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Emboli

  • cerebral emboli
  • pulmonary emboli
  • tumor emboli

  • Selected Abstracts

    Routine Transesophageal Echocardiography for the Evaluation of Cerebral Emboli in Elderly Patients

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 9 2005
    Sergey Vitebskiy M.D.
    Background: Approximately 20% of cerebral infarctions are cardioembolic in nature. Transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) is widely regarded as the initial study of choice for evaluating cardiac source of embolism. Although the majority of cerebrovascular accidents occur in elderly patients, the value of TEE in this population is poorly defined. Methods: We compared 491 patients older than 65 years with suspected embolic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) who had undergone TEE evaluation between April 2000 and February 2004 to an age-, sex-, and time-matched control group that consisted of 252 patients. Studies were reviewed for abnormalities associated with thromboembolic disease. Results: The overall incidence of stroke risk factors was significantly higher in the study than in the control group. However, the four patients with left atrial thrombi had a history of atrial fibrillation. Although ascending and aortic arch sessile atheromata were observed more frequently in the study than control group, there were no significant differences in the incidence of either complex or mobile aortic atheromata. The incidence of atrial septal aneurysm was higher in the stroke/TIA group, but not in association with patent foramen ovale. Finally, there were also no differences in the incidence of spontaneous echocontrast, and/or patent foramen ovale between study and control groups. Conclusions: We conclude: (1) There is a higher incidence of abnormalities implicated as sources of thromboembolic disease on TEE in elderly patients with cerebral infarctions, but (2) this incidence is driven by the presence of sessile aortic atheroma and atrial septal aneurysm. Until the benefits of specific therapies for these conditions are known, routine TEE in elderly patients with suspected embolic neurological events appears to be unwarranted. [source]

    Descending Aorta Obstruction Secondary to Left Subclavian Stent: An Uncommon Source of Emboli

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2003
    John W. Willson R.D.C.S.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Floating Thrombus in the Aortic Arch as an Origin of Simultaneous Peripheral Emboli

    Abbas Soleimani M.D.
    We report a case in which a floating thrombus in the proximal aortic arch was detected after echocardiography and computed tomography angiography as an origin of upper extremities and ophthalmic embolism. [source]

    Role of E-cadherins in development of lymphatic tumor emboli

    CANCER, Issue 9 2003
    Anita Gupta M.D.
    Abstract BACKGROUND E-cadherin (E-cad) is a cell adhesion molecule that is expressed in normal breast tissue. While loss of E-cad expression is a characteristic feature of lobular carcinoma, it also is observed in infiltrating ductal carcinoma (IDC). The presence of peritumoral intralymphatic emboli also is a poor prognostic feature in IDC. Invasive lobular carcinoma rarely is associated with intralymphatic emboli. In the current study, the authors assessed E-cad expression in cases of IDC with and without intralymphatic tumor emboli to examine the potential role played by these molecules in the development of lymphatic emboli. METHODS Fifty patients with high-grade invasive ductal carcinoma,25 with prominent lymphatic invasion (LVI) and intralymphatic tumor emboli and 25 without LVI,were tested for expression of E-cad. For both groups, the intensity and frequency of E-cad expression was evaluated in tumor cells and lymphatic emboli; normal lobules were used as internal controls. RESULTS Membranous expression of E-cad was observed in normal lobules and tumor cells in all patients, with the tumor cells exhibiting varying degrees of loss of expression. In the 25 LVI-positive patients, the majority of tumor cells (including intralymphatic emboli) expressed E-cad with an intensity and distribution similar to what was seen in normal lobules. In the LVI-negative patients, the intensity and the distribution of E-cad staining varied significantly. Tumor cells at the tumor-stroma interface showed a greater frequency and intensity of E-cad expression than did cells in the central region of the tumor. CONCLUSIONS Strong expression of E-cad was observed in LVI-positive patients with high-grade IDC but not in LVI-negative patients. Emboli also exhibited high-intensity expression. These findings, taken in conjunction with the knowledge that intralymphatic tumor emboli in lobular carcinoma (which is E-cad-negative) are rare, suggest that E-cad plays an important role in tumor development and growth within the lymphatics. Cancer 2003;97:2341,7. 2003 American Cancer Society. DOI 10.1002/cncr.11332 [source]

    Clinicopathological Conference: Case Report,A Case of Anorexia and Weak Arm

    Jennifer L. Wiler MD
    Abstract The authors present the case of a 49-year-old female who presented to the emergency department with a chief complaint of "not eating well." She was found to have a heart murmur, a focal neurological deficit, and large mitral valve vegetation. The patient was later diagnosed with acute Pseudomonal endocarditis with septic emboli to the brain, liver, spleen, and kidneys. A discussion of the patient presentation, diagnostic evaluation, and outcome are reviewed. [source]

    Does the Morphology of Atrial Septal Aneurysm Influence Cerebral Arterial Embolus Occurrence?

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 9 2007
    Jacek Kurzawski M.D., Ph.D.
    Background and Purpose: Atrial septal aneurysm (ASA) is a rare heart defect regarded as a source of arterial emboli. The main objective of the study was to assess the role of ASA morphology in the etiology of embolism.Methods: Eighty-eight subjects were included after transthoracic echocardiography positive for ASA. Medical history of embolic events was obtained in 13 patients (14.8%). Magnitude, location, size of aneurysm, oscillation, direction of bulging, the presence of interatrial shunt and source of any potential cardiac embolus material were assessed, and the size of the left atrium, the area of both atria, and the presence of any valve prolapse syndrome were recorded. The occurrence of atrial fibrillation or flutter and the presence of concomitant diseases and other clinical features were also estimated.Results: The occurrence of arterial emboli was not related to ASA morphology. Coexisting diseases, smoking and left atrial dimension were significantly correlated with the occurrence of arterial emboli.Conclusions: Ischemic events were not significantly correlated with the ASA presence. The present findings suggest other causes of vascular events in patients with ASA. [source]

    Assessment of Elastic Properties of the Descending Thoracic Aorta By Transesophageal Echocardiography with Acoustic Quantification in Patients with a Stroke

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2000
    Seok-Min Kang M.D.
    Previous studies have described the use of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) with acoustic quantification (AQ) in assessing aortic elastic properties. We hypothesized that patients with a prior history of stroke (ST) may have a higher risk of atherosclerotic change in great vessels compared to nonstroke subjects (NST) and thus have decreased elastic properties. We assessed the elastic properties of the descending thoracic aorta (DTA) by TEE in ST patients and compared them with data in NST patients. Subjects included 31 with ST without any evidence of emboli originating from the heart (age 51 10 years, M: F = 20: 11) and 25 age-matched NST (M: F= 8: 17). Patients with significant valvular heart disease including aortic and mitral regurgitation, left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction < 55%), and congenital heart disease were excluded. Compliance (C), distensibility (D), and stiffness index (SI) were measured using AQ and M-mode measurement at a level of the left atrium. We scored atherosclerotic risk factors (ARF) such as a history of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, hypercholesterolemia, and the presence of atheroma of DTA. There was no evidence of atheroma of DTA in NST. There were no significant differences in heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between ST and NST patients. Fractional area change (FAC) of DTA was significantly lower in ST than in NST patients (3.2 1.6 vs 5.4 2.5%, P= 0.000). ST patients had significantly lower C (1.2 0.4 vs 1.5 0.7 times 10 -3 cm2 mmHg -1, P= 0.039), lower D (0.8 0.3 vs 1.5 0.8 times 10 -3 mmHg -1, P= 0.000), and higher SI (10.3 8.8 vs 5.3 2.9, P= 0.006) than NST patients. ST patients without atheroma of DTA (n 21) also had significantly lower C (1.1 0.4 vs 1.5 0.7 times 10 -3 cm -2 mmHg -1, P= 0.038) and lower D (3.5 1.4 vs 4.8 2.4 times 10 -3 mmHg -1, P= 0.021) than NST patients. There was a significant positive correlation between SI and the score of ARF (r= 0.51, P= 0.000). The regional elastic properties of DTA measured by TEE with AQ and M-mode method were abnormal in ST. Therefore, TEE with AQ technique may have a possible clinical application for the detection of early atherosclerotic changes such as alteration of elastic properties in morphological normal DTA. [source]

    Angioplasty and stenting of symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral artery stenosis: to treat or not to treat

    V. Parkhutik
    Background and purpose:, Comprehensive indications for treatment of symptomatic vertebral stenosis remain unavailable. Even less is known about endovascular treatment of asymptomatic cases. We treated symptomatic and asymptomatic vertebral ostium stenosis with angioplasty and stenting and investigated the long term outcome. Methods:, Consecutive patients with two different indications were included. Group 1 (G1) had symptomatic >50% stenosis. Group 2 (G2) had asymptomatic >50% stenosis and severe lesions of anterior circulation and were expected to benefit from additional cerebral blood supply. Results:, Twenty nine vertebral origin stenoses in 28 patients (75% men, mean age 64 9 years) were treated. There were 16 G1 and 13 G2 cases. Technical success rate was 100%. Immediate neurological complications rate was 3.4% (one G1 patient with vertebral TIA due to release of emboli). Two further strokes were seen during follow up (32 24 months): vertebrobasilar stroke in a G2 patient with permeable stent in V1 segment, new ipsilateral V3 occlusion and high-risk cardioembolic source, and carotid stroke in a G1 patient who had had ipsilateral carotid stenting. There were no deaths of any cause. Asymptomatic restenosis was observed in one out of 19 patients from both groups who underwent a follow up angiography. Conclusions:, Angioplasty and stenting appears to be technically feasible and safe in asymptomatic and symptomatic vertebral stenosis. More studies are needed in order to clarify its role in primary and secondary prevention of vertebrobasilar stroke. High risk anterior circulation lesions should be taken into account as a possible indication in patients with asymptomatic vertebral stenosis. [source]

    Cerebral bloodflow and oxygen metabolism in borderzone and territorial infarcts due to symptomatic carotid artery occlusion

    J. De Reuck
    It remains controversial whether borderzone infarcts are due to compromised cerebral perfusion and whether territorial infarcts are caused by artery-to-artery emboli in case of occlusion of the internal carotid artery. The present positron emission tomography study compares with normal controls, the average regional cerebral bloodflow (rCBF), regional oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) and regional cerebral metabolic rate for oxygen (rCMRO2) in the infarct area, the peri-infarct zone, the remaining homolateral hemisphere and in the contralateral hemisphere of 10 patients with borderzone and 17 patients with territorial infarcts, due to internal carotid artery occlusion by atherosclerosis and by cervical dissection. The steady-state technique with oxygen-15 was used. A nearly significant increase of rOEF with lowered rCBF and rCMRO2 was observed in the peri-infarct zone of patients with territorial infarcts. In patients with borderzone infarcts rCMRO2 was decreased in the peri-infarct zone, in the remaining homolateral hemisphere and in the contralateral hemisphere without changes in rCBF and rOEF. The present study finds no arguments that impaired cerebral perfusion is a more frequent cause of borderzone than of territorial infarcts. [source]

    Fatal postoperative pulmonary embolism in mild haemophilia

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 2 2006
    Summary., The use of thromboprophylaxis in patients with haemophilia receiving factor replacement is often not considered necessary, but remains an area of debate. In this report we describe a patient with mild haemophilia A, who underwent major pelvic surgery. He had several underlying risk factors associated with the development of thromboembolism, and ultimately died as a direct consequence of multiple pulmonary emboli. The need for thromboprophylaxis and the risk balance ratio should always be considered in patients with bleeding disorders if they fall into what would otherwise be high-risk category for hospital acquired venous thromboembolism. [source]

    Bacterial endocarditis in a child with haemophilia B: risks of central venous catheters

    HAEMOPHILIA, Issue 5 2001
    D. K. Hothi
    The use of central venous catheters may be complicated by thrombosis and infection. We report a case of a needle-phobic 5-year-old boy with factor IX deficiency, in whom a portacath was inserted owing to poor compliance with prophylactic treatment. Within a week, he developed a Staphylococcus aureus line infection that was treated with a 2-week course of intravenous antibiotics. One month later he presented with nonspecific symptoms and blood cultures again grew S. aureus. An echocardiogram revealed a large vegetation adherent to the tricuspid valve, confirming the diagnosis of bacterial endocarditis. His clinical course was further complicated by the development of pulmonary emboli. Medical treatment with intravenous antibiotics led to a successful resolution of the endocarditis and pulmonary emboli with a favourable long-term outcome. [source]

    Prognostic indicators of gastric carcinoma confined to the muscularis propria

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2007
    H Son
    Aims:, Gastric carcinoma confined to the muscularis propria (MPGC) is considered an intermediate-stage carcinoma. A method of discriminating between more favourable and less favourable prognostic groups of this entity is critically needed in dealing with this heterogeneous disease. The aim of this study was to examine the correlation between survival of patients with MPGC and its various clinicopathological parameters. Methods and results:, Various clinicopathological parameters were studied in 171 tissue samples including: macroscopic appearance, size, age, sex, stage, invasion depth, Lauren and Ming classifications, extent, lymphatic emboli and nodal metastasis. Tumours macroscopically resembling early gastric cancers, younger patient age, absence of lymphatic tumour emboli and lower stage were significantly associated with better prognosis of MPGC by univariate analysis. Tumours macroscopically resembling early gastric cancers, younger patient age and Lauren's diffuse type were significantly associated with a better prognosis of MPGC by multivariate analysis. Conclusions:, These indicators are practical parameters for predicting patient prognosis in clinical practice. The description of these parameters should be carefully noted in the final report and pathologists should evaluate the macroscopic appearance of MPGC. [source]

    Thrombelastometry-guided thrombolytic therapy in massive pulmonary artery embolism

    We report a case of a patient who suffered a massive pulmonary embolism with cardiac arrest on post-operative day 4 after a Whipple operation. Despite thrombolytic therapy with the recommended maximal bolus of 50 mg recombinant tissue type plasminogen activator (rt-PA), thrombelastometry showed no signs of fibrinolysis and cardiogenic shock persisted, after only a transient hemodynamic improvement. Not until a repeat bolus of 25 mg rt-PA and an infusion of 50 mg/h did thrombelastometry demonstrate complete fibrinolysis. Although only residual emboli were seen on computed tomography, the patient died secondary to refractory right heart failure. This demonstrates that the standard dosing of thrombolytics may fail in a subgroup of patients, and suggests that thrombelastometry may be useful for early dose adjustment when standard dosing regimens fail. [source]

    Prognosis of dermal lymphatic invasion with or without clinical signs of inflammatory breast cancer

    Guenther Gruber
    Abstract It is still an open debate whether tumor emboli in dermal lymphatics without inflammatory signs represent a similar bad prognosis like inflammatory breast cancer. We evaluated the prognostic role of dermal lymphatic invasion (DLI) in breast cancer with (DLI + ID) or without (DLI w/o ID) inflammatory disease (ID). From August 1988 to January 2000, 42 patients with DLI were irradiated. Twenty-five were classified as pT4, 13 out of them as pT4d (inflammatory disease); the 17 remaining patients had 1 T1c, 12 T2 and 4 T3 cancers with DLI. Axillary dissection revealed node-positive disease in 39/41 patients (median, 9 positive nodes). Thirty-eight out of 42 patients received adjuvant systemic treatment(s). After a mean follow-up of 33 months, 22/42 patients (52%) are disease-free. The actuarial 3-year disease-free survival is 50% (DLI w/o ID, 61%; DLI + ID, 31%; p < 0.03); the corresponding overall survival was 69% (DLI w/o ID, 87%; DLI + ID, 37%; p = 0.005). The presence or absence of ID was the only significant parameter for all endpoints in multivariate analyses. Dissemination occurred in 19 (45%), local relapse in 7 (n = 17%) and regional failure in 4 (10%). Nine patients (21%) had contralateral breast cancer/relapse. Despite the same histopathologic presentation, DLI w/o ID offered a significantly better disease-free survival and overall survival than ID. The finding of dermal lymphatic tumor invasion predicts a high probability for node-positive disease. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cerebral emboli and paradoxical embolisation in dementia: a pilot study

    Nitin Purandare
    Abstract Background The causes of the common dementias remain unknown. Paradoxical embolisation of the cerebral circulation by venous thrombi passing through venous to arterial shunts (v-aCS) in the heart or pulmonary circulation is known to occur in cryptogenic stroke and post-operative confusion following hip replacement. Objectives To explore the role of paradoxical embolisation in dementia by investigating for cerebral emboli, venous to arterial circulation shunt (v-aCS) and carotid artery disease. Methods Forty-one patients with dementia (24 Alzheimer's AD and 17 vascular VaD) diagnosed using DSM-IV criteria and 16 controls underwent transcranial Doppler (TCD) detection of spontaneous cerebral emboli in both middle cerebral arteries. A v-aCS was detected by intravenous injection of an air/saline ultrasound contrast at rest and after provocation by coughing and Valsalva's manoeuvre. Carotid artery disease was assessed by duplex imaging. Results Cerebral emboli were detected in 11 (27.5%) dementia patients compared with one (7%) control (p,=,0.15) with emboli being most frequent in VaD (41%) compared to controls [OR (95% CI): 10.5 (1.1, 98.9), p,=,0.04]. A v-aCS was detected in 25 (61%) patients and seven (44%) controls (p,=,0.24). In dementia patients with cerebral emboli; v-aCS was detected in seven (64%) and moderate to severe carotid stenosis was present in three (30%). Conclusion Cerebral emboli and v-aCS may be more frequent in patients with both VaD and AD than in controls, which suggest paradoxical embolisation as a potential mechanism for cerebral damage. This pilot study justifies a definitive case-control study. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Thromboembolism in a patient with transient eosinophilia and thrombocytopenia

    Y. Sherer
    Summary A 24-year-old woman with an unremarkable medical history who developed bilateral deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary emboli is presented. Associated findings were severe eosinophilia and moderate thrombocytopenia. Since the major acquired and hereditary thrombogenic disorders were ruled out in this case (including antiphospholipid syndrome and heparin-induced thrombocytopenia), we believe that the severe eosinophilia per se could be the pro-coagulant factor leading to thrombosis and embolism in our patient. The role of eosinophilia in thrombosis is discussed. [source]

    Device-Related Infection Among Patients With Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators: Incidence, Risk Factors, and Consequences

    Risk Factors and Complications of Pacemaker and ICD Infection.,Background: Device-related infection is a major limitation of device therapy for cardiac arrhythmia. Methods: The authors analyzed the incidence and risk factors for cardiac device infection (CDI) among consecutive patients implanted with pacemaker (PM) or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) (including cardiac resynchronization therapy devices) at a tertiary health center in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. Most patients with device-related infections were identified by an internal infection control system that reports any positive wound and blood cultures following surgery, between 2005 and the present. A retrospective review of patient records was also performed for all patients who received an ICD or PM between July 1, 2003 and March 20, 2007. Results: A total of 24 infections were identified among 2,417 patients having device surgery (1%). Fifteen of these infections (60%) were diagnosed within 90 days of the last surgical procedure. Univariate analysis showed that patients presenting with CDI were more likely to have had a device replacement, rather than a new implant, had more complex devices (dual/triple chamber vs single), and were more likely to have had a prior lead dislodgement. Multivariate analysis found device replacement (P = 0.02) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)/dual-chamber devices (P = 0.048) to be independent predictors of infection. One patient developed septic pulmonary emboli after having laser-assisted lead extraction. No patient died and 22 patients received a new device. Conclusion: CDI occurs in about 1% of cases in high volume facilities. Pulse generator replacement surgery and dual- or triple-chamber device implantation were associated with a significantly increased risk of infection. (J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol, Vol. pp. 786-790, July 2010) [source]

    In vivo MR imaging of pulmonary arteries of normal and experimental emboli in small animals

    Mathieu Lederlin MD
    Abstract Purpose To demonstrate the feasibility of pulmonary MRA in living rodents. Materials and Methods A three-dimensional (3D) gradient echo sequence was adapted to perform a time-of-flight (TOF) angiography of rat lung. Angiogram with a spatial resolution of 195 228 228 ,m3 was acquired in around 33 minutes. The method was then applied in animals before and after pulmonary embolism (PE) induction. Section of the proximal right pulmonary artery was measured and compared between the two populations. Results Good quality images were obtained with a contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of 9 3 in the proximal part of the pulmonary artery. Cross-section areas of the right main artery are statistically different before (3.45 0.69 mm2) and after induction of PE (4.3 0.86 mm2). Conclusion This noninvasive tool permits angiogram acquisition at around 200 ,m spatial resolution and objective distinction between healthy and embolized arteries. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Functional genital morphology of armored spiders (Arachnida: Araneae: Tetrablemmidae)

    Matthias BurgerArticle first published online: 18 JUN 200
    Abstract This study describes the female genitalia of the tetrablemmid spiders Brignoliella acuminata, Monoblemma muchmorei, Caraimatta sbordonii, Tetrablemma magister, and Ablemma unicornis by means of serial semi-thin sections and scanning electron microscopy and compares the results with previous findings on Indicoblemma lannaianum. Furthermore, the male palps and chelicerae are briefly described. The general vulval organization of females is complex and shows similarities in all of the investigated species. The copulatory orifice is situated near the posterior margin of the pulmonary plate. The opening of the uterus externus lies between the pulmonary and the postgenital plate. Paired copulatory ducts lead to sac-like receptacula. Except for A. unicornis, the male emboli of all investigated species are elongated and thread-like. However, they are too short to reach the receptacula. Hence, the spermatozoa have to be deposited inside the copulatory ducts. The same situation was also found in I. lannaianum. Females of this species store sperm encapsulated in secretory balls in their receptacula. The secretion is produced by glands adjoining the receptacula. The presence of paired fertilization ducts and spermatozoa in the uterus internus suggested that fertilization takes place internally in I. lannaianum. Secretory balls in the receptacula are found in all of the investigated species in this study, showing that sperm are stored in the same way. The place of fertilization may also be identical since dark particles, presumably spermatozoa, are located in the uterus internus of all investigated species except for T. magister. However, fertilization ducts are only found in B. acuminata and M. muchmorei. A sclerotized central process with attached muscles is present in A. unicornis, M. muchmorei, C. sbordonii and T. magister. Only in A. unicornis does the central process show an internal lumen and hold spermatozoa. In the other species, it could be used to lock the uterus during copulation in order to prevent sperm from getting into it as suggested for certain oonopid species. The uterus externus of all investigated species shows a sclerotized dorsal fold with attached muscles, previously described as "inner vulval plate." Contractions of the muscles lead to a widening of the dorsal fold, thus creating enough space for the large oocytes to pass the narrow uterus externus. The males of all investigated species have apophyses on their chelicerae. At least in B. acuminata and A. unicornis, where females have paired grooves on the preanal plate, these apophyses allow males to grasp the female during copulation as described for I. lannaianum. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Delirium due to Brain Microembolism: Diagnostic Value of Diffusion-Weighted MRI

    Pablo Irimia MD
    ABSTRACT Delirum is a common complication in hospitalized patients and it is characterized by acute disturbances of consciousness, attention, cognition, and perception. Despite the frequency with which it is observed, ischemic stroke is generally considered as an unusual cause of delirium. A subtype of brain embolism is characterized by multiple small emboli in different vascular territories, a condition known as "brain microembolism." Given the high contrast of acute ischemic lesions in diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) this technique is particularly helpful to detect these small infarctions. We present here a patient with pulmonary metastases who was treated with bronchial artery embolization and who subsequently developed delirium due to brain microembolism. The embolic material crossed through pulmonary arteriovenous fistulas, producing multiple areas of cerebral ischemia. The ischemic lesions could be visualized only on DWI, and they affected the periventricular region, caudate nucleus, thalamus, and cerebellum. [source]

    Echocardiographic Findings of Patients With Retinal Ischemia or Embolism

    Mikael Mouradian MD
    ABSTRACT Background and Purpose. A potential source of emboli is not detected in more than 50% of patients with retinal arterial occlusive events. Echocardiographic studies are not always included in the diagnostic workup of these patients. The authors studied the diagnostic yield of transthoracic (TTE) and/or transesophageal (TEE) echocardiography in identifying potential sources of emboli in patients with retinal ischemia or embolism. Methods. In a prospective study, 73 consecutive patients with clinically diagnosed retinal ischemia or embolism received a standardized diagnostic workup including retinal photography, echocardiography, and imaging studies of the internal carotid arteries. TTE was performed in 83.6% of patients, TEE was performed in 5.5% of patients, and both TTE and TEE were per-formed in 11.0% of patients. Ophthalmological diagnoses consisted of amaurosis fugax (n= 28), asymptomatic cholesterol embolism to the retina (n= 34), and branch or central retinal artery occlusion (n= 11). Results. Echocardiography identified a potential cardiac or proximal aortic source for embolism in 16 of 73 (21.9%) patients, including 8 who also had either atrial fibrillation or internal carotid artery stenosis of more than 50% on the side of interest. Thus, 8 of 73 (11.0%) patients had lesions detected only by echocardiography. The most commonly identified lesions were proximal aortic plaque of more than 4 mm thickness (n= 7, 9.6%) and left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 30% (n= 6, 8.2%). TEE was particularly helpful in identifying prominent aortic plaques. Conclusion. Echocardiography frequently identifies lesions of the heart or aortic arch that can act as potential sources for retinal ischemia or embolism. Further studies are needed to evaluate the prognostic and therapeutic relevance of these findings. [source]

    Prognostic significance of tumor shape and stromal chronic inflammatory infiltration in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral tongue

    Ioulia Chatzistamou
    J Oral Pathol Med (2010) 39: 667,671 Background:, Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue is well known to be an aggressive disease with early metastatic spread in early stage tumors. It is also established that locoregional recurrences are the main causes of treatment failure. Thus, the identification of histopathological factors possessing a predictive value remains important for the management of the disease. The aim of the present study was to define histopathological parameters of the tumor and to compare with the follow-up and status in primary SCCs of the mobile tongue. Methods:, Histopathological parameters such as mitotic index, the presence of vascular emboli or perineural invasion, the thickness of the tumor, the histological grade, the tumor shape as well as chronic stromal inflammatory infiltration were assessed in 52 patients with SCC of the mobile tongue and compared with the follow-up and status in patients treated initially by surgery. Results:, Tumor shape was significantly associated with the presence of perineural invasion. Well-defined shaped tumors displayed almost half the incidence of perineural invasion when compared with ill-defined shaped tumors. In addition, the high density of the chronic inflammatory infiltration of the stroma exhibited significant correlation with the survival of the patients. Finally, the intense chronic inflammatory infiltration of the stroma was associated with well-defined shaped tumors. Conclusion:, Tumor shape and stromal chronic inflammatory infiltration should be considered in the planning of the management of patients with SCC of the mobile tongue. [source]

    Meta-analysis of the diagnostic accuracy of transesophageal echocardiography for assessment of atherosclerosis in the ascending aorta in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    Background: Stroke after cardiac surgery may be caused by emboli emerging from an atherosclerotic ascending aorta (AA). Epiaortic ultrasound scanning (EUS), the current ,gold' standard for detecting AA atherosclerosis, has not gained widespread use because there is a lack of optimized ultrasound devices, it lengthens the procedure, it endangers sterility, and there is a false belief by many surgeons that palpation is as sensitive as EUS. Furthermore there is no clear evidence proving that the use of epiaortic scanning changes outcome in cardiac surgery. Various researchers investigated the ability of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) to discriminate between the presence and absence of AA atherosclerosis. It is acknowledged that TEE has limited value in this, but it has never been supported by a meta-analysis estimating the true diagnostic accuracy of TEE based on all quantitative evidence. We aimed to do this using state-of-the-art methodology of diagnostic meta-analyses. Methods: We searched multiple databases for studies comparing TEE vs. EUS for detection of atherosclerosis. A random-effects bivariate meta-regression model was used to obtain summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity, incorporating the correlation between sensitivity and specificity as well as covariates to explore heterogeneity across studies. Results: We extracted six studies with a total of 346 patients, of whom 419 aortic segments were analyzed, including 100 segments with atherosclerosis [median prevalence 25% (range 17,62%)]. Summary estimates of sensitivity and specificity were 21% (95% CI 13,32%) and 99% (96,99%), respectively. Conclusions: Because of the low sensitivity of TEE for the detection of AA atherosclerosis, a negative test result requires verification by additional testing using epiaortic scanning. In case of a positive test result, AA atherosclerosis can be considered as present, and less manipulative strategies might be indicated. [source]

    Efficacy of Raloxifene for Treatment of Menopause: A Systematic Review

    Mark Boyack MSN
    Purpose To critically appraise recent randomized controlled trials (RCT) of raloxifene and its effects on the long-term consequences of menopause. Data Sources All RCTs of greater than six months duration in post-menopausal women found in MEDLINE through July 2000. Conclusions Raloxifene lowered lipids, but estrogen had a more beneficial effect on HDL and fibrinolytic markers. Raloxifene had a more beneficial effect on triglycerides, inflammatory and thrombogenic markers. Compared to placebo, raloxifene reduced vertebral fractures but had a similar although lesser effect on bone mineral density and markers of bone turnover than estrogen. Estrogen receptor positive breast cancer was reduced by 90% with no increase in the incidence of endometrial cancer with raloxifene. The most serious side effect of raloxifene was an increased incidence of deep vein thromboses and pulmonary emboli. Implications Raloxifene has been shown to be beneficial using cardiovascular and osteoporosis endpoints in studies of short duration. More RCTs of longer duration with comparisons to other traditional treatments are needed before raloxifene becomes the treatment of choice. [source]

    Impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery on postoperative renal dysfunction: Current best available evidence (Review Article)

    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    SUMMARY: Renal dysfunction is a serious complication after coronary artery bypass surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Cardiopulmonary bypass-related non-pulsatile flow, hypothermia, haemolysis, systemic inflammatory reactions and emboli are mentioned as possible causes for this postoperative renal dysfunction. In an attempt to avoid these deleterious effects of cardiopulmonary bypass, off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery has been rediscovered. Resurgence of interest in off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery is associated with the expectation that avoiding deleterious effects of the cardiopulmonary bypass leads to better outcomes and possibly decreased costs and resource use. We are currently practising in an era of evidence-based medicine that mandates the prospective randomized controlled trial as the most accurate tool for determining a treatment benefit compared with a control population. The present review article attempts to evaluate the current best available evidence from randomized controlled trials on the impact of off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery on postoperative renal dysfunction. [source]

    Aggressive progression of breast cancer with microscopic pulmonary emboli possessing a stem cell-like phenotype independent of its origin

    Hideya Kawasaki
    Microscopic pulmonary tumor embolism is difficult to diagnose. Herein is presented the case of a patient who suffered from acute dyspnea and breast cancer on the right side. Two weeks after the breast cancer diagnosis the patient began to experience dyspnea. After 2 weeks of dyspnea, the patient died without an accurate diagnosis of dyspnea. Autopsy indicated massive microscopic pulmonary emboli of the breast cancer. Immunohistochemistry showed that most of the cancer cells in the primary site were negative for estrogen receptors, progesterone receptors Her2/neu oncogene (triple negative), and stem cell-like markers (OCT3/4, NANOG2, CD44, CD24, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH1)). The breast cancer cells in the lung (the metastasized site), however, were triple negative, but were enriched in stem cell-like markers (OCT3/4+, NANOG2+, CD44+/CD24,/low, ALDH1+). This is a significant case report indicating that vascular emboli themselves contain the essential molecular signature of ,stemness' independent of the origin. [source]

    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with multiple organized thrombi accompanied by unusual cholesterin deposition: Autopsy case after long-term follow up

    Masaaki Ichinoe
    Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is characterized by a reduction in the platelet count and systemic thromboembolism during heparin therapy. Herein is reported a case of HIT with characteristic thrombus formation. A 68-year-old man who had been treated for hypertension for 27 years suffered a brain infarction and was treated with heparin. After this treatment, other new infarctions occurred in multiple organs. Because serum antibodies against heparin/PF4 complex were detected, he was diagnosed as having HIT, and warfarin and argatroban were administered instead of heparin. He died, however, 119 days after the first onset. At autopsy infarction due to organized thrombi with cholesterin deposition in multiple organs were found, similar to usual atherosclerotic emboli, but different to them with regard to clinical course and distribution of thrombi. This case in which organization and frequent cholesterin deposition were found in thromboembolized lesions of multiple organs after relatively long-term follow up, is unusual. The findings suggest that HIT accompanied by marked hypercholesterolemia of long duration contributes to a characteristic form of thromboembolism that needs careful management. [source]

    Segmental testicular infarction due to cholesterol embolism: Not the first case, but the first report

    Shiro Adachi
    Segmental infarction of the testis represents a rare entity in that there have been fewer than 40 cases documented in the literature. Like global infarction, segmental infarction of the testis can masquerade as a mass lesion or torsion of the testis. Reported herein is a very rare case of segmental testicular infarction due to atheroembolism in a 58-year-old man. The patient presented with severe left testicular pain and underwent left high orchiectomy on the clinical diagnosis of testicular torsion. The testis had a segmental hemorrhagic necrosis around which many cholesterol emboli were observed. This is the first report to describe cholesterol embolism-associated segmental testicular infarction. [source]

    Histopathological characterization of aortic intimal sarcoma with multiple tumor emboli

    Naoki Nishida
    A case of aortic intimal sarcoma with multiple tumor emboli and distal metastasis is reported. All metastasis (adrenal, spleen) were via the arteries. This case also had independent lung cancer. Macroscopically, the aortic tumor did not form a bulged mass, but had linear ulceration with abundant mural thrombi. Poorly cohesive large atypical cells were seen in the intima of the abdominal aorta without invasion into the media. Tumor cells were disseminated into the mural thrombi on the aorta and embolized its branches. In the metastatic tumor or tumor emboli of the distal artery, there were not only large atypical cells, but also the foci of spindle-shaped cells or epithelioid differentiation. Tumor cells in the aorta were immunohistochemically positive for only vimentin. Muscle-specific actin was positive focally for spindle-shaped cells of tumor emboli and metastatic tumors. Furthermore, cytokeratin-positive cells were scatteredly seen. All tumor cells were negative for factor VIII and did not have a histologic or phenotypic analogy with lung cancer. The primary intimal sarcoma in the present case was of undifferentiated non-endothelial intimal stromal cell origin, and may have had multipotential for differentiation. Investigation of the metastatic site was useful for recognizing the features of this tumor. [source]

    Cardiopulmonary complications leading to premature deaths in adult patients with sickle cell disease

    Courtney D. Fitzhugh
    Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with early mortality. We sought to determine the incidence, cause, and risk factors for death in an adult population of patients with SCD. All patients aged ,18 years seen at the Adult Sickle Cell Center at Duke University Medical Center between January 2000 and April 2005 were enrolled. Forty-three patients (21 males and 22 females) died during the study period. The median age of survival was 39 years for females (95% CI: 34,56), 40 years for males (95% CI: 34,48), and 40 years overall (95% CI: 35,48). Cardiac causes of death accounted for 25.6% (11/43 patients); pulmonary, 14.0% (six patients); other SCD related, 32.6% (14 patients); unknown, 14.0% (six patients); and others, 14.0% (six patients). Pulseless electrical activity arrest, pulmonary emboli, multiorgan failure, and stroke were the most frequent causes of death. Among the deceased patients, the most common premorbid conditions were cardiopulmonary: acute chest syndrome/pneumonia (58.1%), Pulmonary hypertension (pHTN; 41.9%), systemic HTN (25.6%), congestive heart failure (25.6%), myocardial infarction (20.9%), and arrhythmias (14.0%). Tricuspid regurgitant jet velocity was significantly higher (3.1 m/sec vs. 2.6 m/sec, P < 0.001) and hemoglobin significantly lower (8.3 g/dL vs. 9.2 g/dL, P < 0.05) in deceased patients when compared with patients who lived, respectively. With improved preventive and therapeutic advances, including hydroxyurea therapy, acute complications such as infection are no longer the leading cause of death; instead, causes of death and premorbid conditions are shifting to chronic cardiopulmonary complications. Further, arrhythmia leading to premature death is under-recognized in SCD and warrants further investigation. Am. J. Hematol., 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]