Emamectin Benzoate (emamectin + benzoate)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Effects of selected insecticides on Diadegma semiclausum (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) and Oomyzus sokolowskii (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), parasitoids of Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 3 2005
Abstract Field doses of six selected insecticides were tested against the immature (pupae) and mature (adult) stages of Diadegma semiclausum (Hellén) and Oomyzus sokolowskii (Kurdjumov), parasitoids of the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.). Effects of contact toxicity (direct spraying) of the six insecticides on emergence of parasitoids were found negligible on both species except permethrin which caused 37.5% mortality. All adults of both parasitoid species died 24 hours after exposure to chlorfenapyr, emamectin benzoate and permethrin. In contrast, the three insect growth regulators (IGRs), chlorfluazuron, flufenoxuron and teflubenzuron, were found harmless to both species, and adult mortality of both parasitoid species was 0,16.7%. However, parasitism by the females of both parasitoid species was severely impaired when the females were offered the three IGR diluted solutions for 24 hours. Effects of oral toxicities of the IGRs on longevity of both parasitoids after 12 hours exposure were found to be significantly different between males and females. Compatibility of tested insecticides with D. semiclausum and O. sokolowskii and integration of compatible insecticides with these parasitoids in integrated pest management programs of crucifers are discussed. [source]

Changes in epidemiological patterns of sea lice infestation on farmed Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., in Scotland between 1996 and 2006

F Lees
Abstract Analyses of a unique database containing sea lice records over an 11 year period provide evidence of changing infestation patterns in Scotland. The data, collected from more than 50 commercial Atlantic salmon farms, indicate that both species of sea lice commonly found in Scotland, Lepeophtheirus salmonis and Caligus elongatus, have declined on farms over the past decade. Reductions for both species have been particularly marked since 2001 when more effective veterinary medicines became available. Treatment data were also available in the database and these show a growing trend towards the use of the in-feed medication emamectin benzoate (Slice®), particularly in the first year of the salmon production cycle. However, this trend towards single product use has not been sustained in 2006, the latest year for which data are available. There is some evidence of region to region variation within Scotland with the Western Isles experiencing higher levels of infestation. However, compared to the levels observed between 1996 and 2000, all regions have benefited from reduced lice infestation, with the overall pattern showing a particular reduction in the second and third quarters of the second year of production. [source]

The duration of efficacy following oral treatment with emamectin benzoate against infestations of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis (Krřyer), in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar L.

J Stone
The duration of efficacy of emamectin benzoate in the oral treatment of sea lice, Lepeophtheirus salmonis, infesting Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L., was evaluated in a tank study. One group of salmon was treated at a nominal dose of 50 ,g kg,1 biomass day,1 for 7 consecutive days and a second group was untreated. Fish were then redistributed to 16 tanks, each holding 17 control and 17 treated fish. On days 34, 41, 48, 55, 62, 69, 76 and 83, two tanks were challenged with L. salmonis copepodites. Eight to 14 days after each challenge, fish were anaesthetized and numbers of lice recorded. Treatment with emamectin benzoate prevented development of copepodites for up to 62 days from the start of treatment, and chalimus numbers remained low for 69 days. Treated fish, challenged from days 34 to 69, had significantly (P<0.01) fewer lice than control fish. Treated fish challenged at days 76 and 83 still had fewer lice than control groups, although differences were not statistically significant for both replicates. When chalimus appeared on treated fish challenged at days 69,83, survival of chalimus to adult stages was lower than on control fish. Louse egg production on treated fish challenged at days 62,83 was not reduced compared to control groups. [source]

Resistance of Pakistani field populations of spotted bollworm Earias vittella (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) to pyrethroid, organophosphorus and new chemical insecticides

Mushtaq Ahmad
Abstract BACKGROUND: The spotted bollworm Earias vittella (Fab.) is a serious pest of cotton and okra in Pakistan. Owing to persistent use of insecticides, this pest has developed resistance, especially to pyrethroids. The present studies aimed at determining the extent of resistance to pyrethroid, organophosphorus and new chemical insecticides in Pakistani populations of E. vittella. RESULTS: Field populations of E. vittella were monitored at Multan, Pakistan, from 1999 to 2007 for their resistance against six pyrethroid, four organophosphorus and six new chemical insecticides using a leaf-dip bioassay. Of the pyrethroids, resistance was generally low to zeta-cypermethrin and moderate to high or very high to cypermethrin, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, bifenthrin and lambda-cyhalothrin. Resistance to organophosphates chlorpyrifos, profenofos, triazophos and phoxim was recorded at very low to low levels. Among new chemicals, E. vittella had no or a very low resistance to spinosad, emamectin benzoate and methoxyfenozide, a very low to low resistance to abamectin, a very low to moderate resistance to indoxacarb and a moderate resistance to chlorfenapyr. CONCLUSION: The results indicate a lack of cross-resistance between pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides in E. vittella. Rotation of insecticides showing no, very low or low resistance, but belonging to different insecticide classes with unrelated modes of action, may prevent or mitigate insecticide resistance in E. vittella. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Evaluation of existing and new insecticides including spirotetramat and pyridalyl to control Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on peppers in Queensland

Iain R Kay
Abstract Insecticides are used by growers to control Frankliniella occidentalis (western flower thrips) in Australian vegetable crops. However, limited information was available on the efficacy of some insecticides used against F. occidentalis and data on new insecticides that could be included in a resistance management program were required. The efficacy of 16 insecticides in controlling F. occidentalis was tested in four small plot trials in chillies and capsicums. Spinosad, fipronil and methamidophos were effective against adults and larvae. Spirotetramat had no efficacy against adults but was very effective against larvae. Pyridalyl was moderately effective against larvae. Methidathion showed limited effectiveness. Abamectin, amorphous silica, bifenthrin, chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, emamectin benzoate, endosulfan, imidacloprid, methomyl and insecticidal soap were not effective. Laboratory bioassays on F. occidentalis collected from the field trials showed resistance to bifenthrin but not to the other insecticides tested. The trials demonstrated that some insecticides permitted for use against F. occidentalis are not effective and identified a number of insecticides, including the new ones spirotetramat and pyridalyl, that are effective and that could be used to manage the pest within a resistance management program. [source]

Evaluating the efficacy of insecticides to control Sceliodes cordalis (Doubleday) (Lepidoptera: Crambidae) in eggplant

Iain R Kay
Abstract The efficacy of insecticides in controlling Sceliodes cordalis, eggfruit caterpillar, in eggplant was tested in four small plot trials because there has been a very limited range of insecticides available to manage this pest. Weekly applications of bifenthrin, flubendiamide, methoxyfenozide, chlorantraniliprole and spinosad and twice weekly applications of methomyl provided control as measured by a percentage of damaged fruit significantly lower than that in an untreated control. Twice weekly applications of methoxyfenozide, chlorantraniliprole or spinosad were not significantly more effective than weekly applications. Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, emamectin benzoate, indoxacarb, methomyl and pyridalyl applied weekly were ineffective, with percentages of damaged fruit not significantly different from the untreated control. These trials have identified a number of insecticides that could be used to manage S. cordalis, including several that would be compatible with integrated pest management programs in eggplant. [source]