Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Physics and Astronomy

Kinds of Electrons

  • band electron
  • conduction electron
  • excess electron
  • fast electron
  • free electron
  • hot electron
  • hydrated electron
  • incident electron
  • itinerant electron
  • localized electron
  • one electron
  • photoexcited electron
  • photogenerated electron
  • scanning electron
  • secondary electron
  • single electron
  • transmission electron
  • unpaired electron
  • valence electron

  • Terms modified by Electrons

  • electron acceptor
  • electron accumulation
  • electron affinity
  • electron attachment
  • electron beam
  • electron beam irradiation
  • electron beam lithography
  • electron beam tomography
  • electron binding energy
  • electron capture
  • electron capture detection
  • electron capture dissociation
  • electron carrier
  • electron cloud
  • electron complex
  • electron concentration
  • electron configuration
  • electron conjugation
  • electron correlation
  • electron correlation effects
  • electron count
  • electron crystallography
  • electron delocalization
  • electron demand Diel
  • electron density
  • electron density distribution
  • electron density map
  • electron device
  • electron diffraction
  • electron diffraction data
  • electron diffraction pattern
  • electron distribution
  • electron donation
  • electron donor
  • electron dynamics
  • electron effective mass
  • electron emission
  • electron energy
  • electron energy loss spectroscopy
  • electron energy-loss spectroscopy
  • electron field emission
  • electron flow
  • electron flux
  • electron gas
  • electron imaging
  • electron impact
  • electron injection
  • electron interaction
  • electron ionization
  • electron ionization mass spectrometry
  • electron ionization mass spectrum
  • electron irradiation
  • electron laser
  • electron localization
  • electron localization function
  • electron lone pair
  • electron micrograph
  • electron microprobe
  • electron microprobe analysis
  • electron microscope
  • electron microscope analysis
  • electron microscope examination
  • electron microscope image
  • electron microscope observation
  • electron microscope studies
  • electron microscopes
  • electron microscopic
  • electron microscopic analysis
  • electron microscopic examination
  • electron microscopic finding
  • electron microscopic level
  • electron microscopic methods
  • electron microscopic observation
  • electron microscopic studies
  • electron microscopic study
  • electron microscopic techniques
  • electron microscopy
  • electron microscopy analysis
  • electron microscopy data
  • electron microscopy examination
  • electron microscopy image
  • electron microscopy investigation
  • electron microscopy measurement
  • electron microscopy micrograph
  • electron microscopy observation
  • electron microscopy result
  • electron microscopy reveal
  • electron microscopy shows
  • electron microscopy studies
  • electron microscopy study
  • electron microscopy techniques
  • electron mobility
  • electron mobility transistor
  • electron number
  • electron pair
  • electron pair density
  • electron paramagnetic resonance
  • electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy
  • electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum
  • electron population
  • electron probe microanalysi
  • electron shuttle
  • electron source
  • electron spectroscopy
  • electron spectrum
  • electron spin
  • electron spin resonance
  • electron spin resonance spectroscopy
  • electron spin resonance technique
  • electron states
  • electron structure
  • electron system
  • electron temperature
  • electron tomography
  • electron transfer
  • electron transfer dissociation
  • electron transfer mechanism
  • electron transfer process
  • electron transfer protein
  • electron transfer rate
  • electron transfer rate constant
  • electron transfer reaction
  • electron transfer step
  • electron transition
  • electron transport
  • electron transport capacity
  • electron transport chain
  • electron transport layer
  • electron transport property
  • electron transport rate
  • electron transport system
  • electron trap
  • electron trapping
  • electron yield

  • Selected Abstracts

    Perinatal development of the rat kidney: Apoptosis and epidermal growth factor

    Toshiya Okada
    ABSTRACT, Localization of apoptotic cells in the kidney of perinatal rats was examined by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase,mediated d,UTP,biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and electron microscopy. Perinatal changes in the percentage of kidney cells with DNA fragmentation were determined by flow cytometric analysis. Through observation of two successive sections, the relationship between the localization of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) positive cells and TUNEL positive cells in the kidney was determined. From fetal day 18 to neonatal day 5, TUNEL positive cells were noted in immature glomeruli, collecting ducts and interstitium. Electron microscopically, chromatin condensed nuclei and apoptotic bodies were seen in the same tissue component as the TUNEL positive cells. The percentage of DNA fragmented cells significantly increased from fetal days 18 to 20 and significantly decreased from fetal days 20 to 22, while they still remained low in the neonatal period. The TUNEL positive cells in immature glomeruli and collecting ducts were not reactive to the EGFR antibody. The TUNEL positive cells were not observed in the proximal tubular cells, which were positive to EGFR antibody. These results indicate that apoptotic cells are present in the kidney throughout the perinatal period in the rat and that EGF plays an important role in perinatal development of the rat kidney. [source]

    Fluid Model of a Sheath Formed in Front of an Electron Emitting Electrode Immersed in a Plasma with Two Electron Temperatures

    T. Gyergyek
    Abstract The formation of a sheath in front of a negatively biased electrode (collector) that emits electrons is studied by a one-dimensional fluid model. Electron and ion emission coefficients are introduced in the model. It is assumed that the electrode is immersed in a plasma that contains energetic electrons. The electron velocity distribution function is assumed to be a sum of two Maxwellian distributions with two different temperatures, while the ions and the emitted electrons are assumed to be monoenergetic. The condition for zero electric field at the collector is derived. Using this equation the dependence of electron and ion critical emission coefficients on various parameters - like the ratio between the hot and cool electron density, the ratio between hot and cool electron temperature and the initial velocity of secondary electrons - is calculated for a floating collector. A modification of the Bohm criterion due to the presence of hot and emitted electrons is also given. The transition between space charge limited and temperature limited electron emission for a current-carrying collector is also analyzed. The critical potential, where this transition occurs, is calculated as a function of several parameters like the Richardson emission current, the ratio between the hot and cool electron density, the ratio between hot and cool electron temperature and the initial velocity of secondary electrons. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    16-Electron (Arene)ruthenium Complexes with Superbasic Bis(imidazolin-2-imine) Ligands and Their Use in Catalytic Transfer Hydrogenation

    Thomas Glöge
    Abstract The ligands N,N, -bis(1,3,4,5-tetramethylimidazolin-2-ylidene)-1,2-ethanediamine (BLMe) and N,N, -bis(1,3-diisopropyl-4,5-dimethylimidazolin-2-ylidene)-1,2-ethanediamine(BLiPr) react with [(,5 -C5Me5)RuCl]4 to afford cationic 16-electron half-sandwich complexes [(,5 -C5Me5)Ru(BLR)]+ (R = Me, 3; R = iPr, 4), which resist coordination of the chloride counterion because of the strong electron-donating ability of the diimine ligands. Upon reaction with [(,6 -C6H6)RuCl2]2 or [(,6 -C10H14)RuCl2]2, these ligands stabilize dicationic 16-electron benzene and cymene complexes of the type [(,6 -C6H6)Ru(BLR)]2+ (R = Me, 5; R = iPr, 6) and [(,6 -C10H14)Ru(BLR)]2+ (R = Me, 7; R = iPr, 8). The X-ray crystal structure of [5]Cl2 reveals the absence of any direct Ru,Cl interaction, whereas a long Ru,Cl bond, supported by two CH···Cl hydrogen bonds, is observed for [(6)Cl]Cl in the solid state. Treatment of the dichlorides of 6 and 8 with NaBF4 affords [6](BF4)2 and [8](BF4)2, which are composed of individual dications and tetrafluoroborate ions with no direct Ru,F interaction. All complexes catalyze the transfer hydrogenation of acetophenone in boiling 2-propanol. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Bis(dithiolene) Molybdenum Complex that Promotes Combined Coupled Electron,Proton Transfer and Oxygen Atom Transfer Reactions: A Water-Active Model of the Arsenite Oxidase Molybdenum Center

    Hideki Sugimoto
    Abstract Combined CEPT (coupled electron,proton transfer)/OAT (oxygen atom transfer) reactions were accomplished in (Bu4N)2[MoIVO(bdtCl2)2] (1) and (Bu4N)2[MoVIO2(bdtCl2)2] (2) complexes in aqueous media. The reaction mechanism of the CEPT reaction was analyzed electrochemically and the conversion of 1 to 2 was revealed to proceed by a two-proton two-electron oxidative process. The structural and reaction profiles provide a new model for the arsenite oxidase catalytic center. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Nanostructure and Optoelectronic Characterization of Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Photoconductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    Xuan-Dung Dang
    Abstract Photoconductive atomic force microscopy is employed to study the nano­scale morphology and optoelectronic properties of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on small molecules containing a benzofuran substituted diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) core (3,6-bis(5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione, DPP(TBFu)2, and [6,6],phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), which were recently reported to have power conversion efficiencies of 4.4%. Electron and hole collection networks are visualized for blends with different donor:acceptor ratios. Formation of nanostructures in the blends leads to a higher interfacial area for charge dissociation, while maintaining bicontinuous collection networks; conditions that lead to the high efficiency observed in the devices. An excellent agreement between nanoscale and bulk open-circuit voltage measurements is achieved by surface modification of the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by using aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The local open-circuit voltage is linearly dependent on the cathode work function. These results demonstrate that photoconductive atomic force microscopy coupled with surface modification of ITO substrate can be used to study nanoscale optoelectronic phenomena of organic solar cells. [source]

    Nanostructure and Optoelectronic Characterization of Small Molecule Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells by Photoconductive Atomic Force Microscopy

    Xuan-Dung Dang
    Abstract Photoconductive atomic force microscopy is employed to study the nano­scale morphology and optoelectronic properties of bulk heterojunction solar cells based on small molecules containing a benzofuran substituted diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) core (3,6-bis(5-(benzofuran-2-yl)thiophen-2-yl)-2,5-bis(2-ethylhexyl)pyrrolo[3,4-c]pyrrole-1,4-dione, DPP(TBFu)2, and [6,6],phenyl-C71 -butyric acid methyl ester (PC71BM), which were recently reported to have power conversion efficiencies of 4.4%. Electron and hole collection networks are visualized for blends with different donor:acceptor ratios. Formation of nanostructures in the blends leads to a higher interfacial area for charge dissociation, while maintaining bicontinuous collection networks; conditions that lead to the high efficiency observed in the devices. An excellent agreement between nanoscale and bulk open-circuit voltage measurements is achieved by surface modification of the indium tin oxide (ITO) substrate by using aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. The local open-circuit voltage is linearly dependent on the cathode work function. These results demonstrate that photoconductive atomic force microscopy coupled with surface modification of ITO substrate can be used to study nanoscale optoelectronic phenomena of organic solar cells. [source]

    Study of the mechanism of microwave-assisted extraction of Mahonia bealei (Fort.) leaves and Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat.) petals

    Shan Gao
    Abstract A study of microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) for berberine in Mahonia bealei (Fort.) was carried out with batch equipment, in order to investigate the mechanism of the extraction related to structural changes in the glands. The extracts were analysed by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry at 347 nm. The parameters investigated were solvent types, the intensity of microwave energy and the process ratio (g/ml) of materials to solvent volume. The microwave-assisted extraction of different moisture content of materials was developed and optimized by means of three-factor and three-level orthogonal designs. Electron and optical micrographs of M. bealei (Fort.) leaves and Chrysanthemum morifolium (Ramat.) petals showed that the mechanism of the extractions was related to structural changes in the plant cells. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Controlling Electron and Hole Charge Injection in Ambipolar Organic Field-Effect Transistors by Self-Assembled Monolayers

    Xiaoyang Cheng
    Abstract Controlling contact resistance in organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) is one of the major hurdles to achieve transistor scaling and dimensional reduction. In particular in the context of ambipolar and/or light-emitting OFETs it is a difficult challenge to obtain efficient injection of both electrons and holes from one injecting electrode such as gold since organic semiconductors have intrinsically large band gaps resulting in significant injection barrier heights for at least one type of carrier. Here, systematic control of electron and hole contact resistance in poly(9,9-di- n -octylfluorene- alt -benzothiadiazole) ambipolar OFETs using thiol-based self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) is demonstrated. In contrast to common believe, it is found that for a certain SAM the injection of both electrons and holes can be improved. This simultaneous enhancement of electron and hole injection cannot be explained by SAM-induced work-function modifications because the surface dipole induced by the SAM on the metal surface lowers the injection barrier only for one type of carrier, but increases it for the other. These investigations reveal that other key factors also affect contact resistance, including i) interfacial tunneling through the SAM, ii) SAM-induced modifications of interface morphology, and iii) the interface electronic structure. Of particular importance for top-gate OFET geometry is iv) the active polymer layer thickness that dominates the electrode/polymer contact resistance. Therefore, a consistent explanation of how SAM electrode modification is able to improve both electron and hole injection in ambipolar OFETs requires considering all mentioned factors. [source]

    Modeling Electron and Hole Transport in Fluoroarene-Oligothiopene Semiconductors: Investigation of Geometric and Electronic Structure Properties,

    E. Koh
    Abstract A theoretical study using density functional theory is undertaken to gain insight into how the structural, electronic, and electron-transfer characteristics of three Fluoroarene-oligothiophene semiconductors influence the preferred transport of electrons versus holes in field-effect transistor applications. The intermolecular electronic coupling interactions are analyzed through both a simplified energy-splitting in dimer (ESID) model and as a function of the entire dimer Hamiltonian in order to understand the impact of site energy differences; our results indicate that these differences are generally negligible for the series and, hence, use of the ESID model is valid. In addition, we also investigate the reduction and oxidation processes to understand the magnitudes of the intramolecular reorganization energy for the charge-hopping process and expected barrier heights for electron and hole injection into these materials. From the electronic coupling and intramolecular reorganization energies, estimates of the nearest-neighbor electron-transfer hopping rate constant for electrons are obtained. The ionization energetics suggest favored electron injection for the system with perfluoroarene groups at the end of the thiophene core, in agreement with experiments. The combined analyses of the electron-transfer properties and ionization processes suggest possible ambipolar behavior for these materials under favorable device conditions. [source]

    A New Donor,Acceptor,Donor Polyfluorene Copolymer with Balanced Electron and Hole Mobility,

    A. Gadisa
    Abstract A new alternating polyfluorene copolymer poly[2,7-(9,9-dioctylfluoren)- alt -5,5-(5,,8,-di-2-thienyl-(2,,3,-bis-(3,,-octyloxyphenyl)-quinoxaline))] (APFO-15), which has electron donor,acceptor,donor units in between the fluorene units, is synthesized and characterized. This polymer has a strong absorption and emission in the visible range of the solar spectrum. Its electroluminescence and photoluminescence emissions extend from about 560 to 900 nm. Moreover, solar cells with efficiencies in excess of 3.5,% have been realized from blends of APFO-15 and an electron acceptor molecule, a methanofullerene [6,6]-phenyl-C61 -butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM). It has also been observed that electron and hole transport is balanced both in the pure polymer phase and in polymer/PCBM bulk heterojunction films, which makes this material quite attractive for applications in opto-electronic devices. [source]

    Covalent Functionalization of Carbon Nanohorns with Porphyrins: Nanohybrid Formation and Photoinduced Electron and Energy Transfer,

    G. Pagona
    Abstract The covalent attachment of carbon nanohorns (CNHs) to ,-5-(2-aminophenyl)-,-15-(2-nitrophenyl)-10,20-bis(2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl)-porphyrin (H2P) via an amide bond is accomplished. The resulting CNH,H2P nanohybrids form a stable inklike solution. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) images demonstrate that the original dahlia-flowerlike superstructure of the CNHs is preserved in the CNH,H2P nanohybrids. Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence studies show efficient quenching of the excited singlet state of H2P, suggesting that both electron and energy transfer occur from the singlet excited state of H2P to CNHs, depending on the polarity of the solvent. In the case of electron transfer, photoexcitation of H2P results in the reduction of the nanohorns and the simultaneous oxidation of the porphyrin unit. The formation of a charge-separated state, CNH,,,H2P,+, has been corroborated with the help of an electron mediator, hexyl-viologen dication (HV2+), in polar solvents. Moreover, the charge-separated CNH,,,H2P,+ states have been identified by transient absorption spectroscopy. [source]

    Competitive Abnormal Grain Growth between Allotropic Phases in Nanocrystalline Nickel

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 10 2010
    L. N. Brewer
    Electron backscatter diffraction-generated phase map showing the distribution of the abnormally grown grains for both the face centered cubic (red) and hexagonal close packed (blue) phases. Annealing condition was 17,h at 548,K. [source]

    Circuits, computers, and beyond Boolean logic,

    Tamįs Roska
    Abstract Historically, the invention of the stored programmable computer architecture, introduced by John Von Neumann, was also influenced by electrical circuit implementation aspects, as well as tied to fundamental insight of logic reasoning. It can also be considered as a mind-inspired machine. Since then, the implementation of logic gates, control and memories has developed independently of the architecture. The Cellular Wave Computer architecture (IEEE Trans. Circuits Syst. II 1993; 40:163,173; Electron. Lett. 2007; 43:427,449; J. Circuits Syst. Comput. 2003; 5(2):539,562) as a spatial,temporal universal machine on flows has also been influenced by circuit aspects of very large-scale integration (VLSI) technology, as well as some motivating living neural circuits, via the cellular nonlinear (neural) network (CNN). It might be considered as a brain-inspired machine. In this paper, after summarizing the main properties of the Cellular Wave Computer, we highlight a few basic properties of this new kind of computer and computing. In particular, phenomena related to (i) the one-pass solution of a set of implicit equations due to real-time spatial array feedback, (ii) the true random signal array generation via the insertion of the continuous physical noise signals, (iii) the finite synchrony radius due to the functional delay of wires, as well as to (iv) biology relevance. We also show that the Cellular Wave Computer is performing spatial,temporal inference that goes beyond Boolean logic, a characteristic of living neural circuits. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Revealing the Electron,Phonon Coupling in a Conjugated Polymer by Single-Molecule Spectroscopy,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 15 2007
    R. Hildner
    Electron,phonon coupling in a ,-conjugated polymer is revealed by single-molecule spectroscopy in combination with statistical pattern recognition techniques. The technique allows to reveal the phonon-side band in the spectra of methyl-substituted ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) (see figure). For this polymer a weak electron,phonon coupling strength is found at low temperatures. The distribution of the phonon frequencies provides strong evidence that the low-energy vibrational modes, which couple to the electronic transitions, stem from vibrations of the host matrix. [source]

    A clonal cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative eruption in a patient with evidence of past exposure to hepatitis E

    Freddye M. Lemons-Estes CDR, MC USN
    The patient was a 52-year-old white man who had worked in remote areas of the world during the past 2 years, including an extended period in rural areas of Central Africa and in Central and South America. He had no acute illnesses during the 2-year period except for rare, mild, upper respiratory tract infections. For approximately 1 year, however, he had developed recurrent, papular-vesicular, slightly painful lesions on the fingers and palms, that spontaneously healed over weeks to months ( Fig. 1). The patient had no other concurrent illnesses and no abnormal laboratory findings, except for positive enzyme-linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA) for immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies for hepatitis E virus (HEV) using a recombinant expressed HEV antigen (Genelabs Technologies, Inc., San Antonio). Prolonged treatment with minocycline did not appear to moderate the lesions. At approximately 2.5 years after the development of his first cutaneous lesion, however, the patient reported that he had had no new lesions for over 3 months. Figure 1. Vesicular ,lesion on the finger which regressed over a period of weeks A biopsy specimen showed an intraepidermal vesicle with prominent epidermal necrosis and reticular degeneration ( Fig. 2). Within the epidermis, there was a dense infiltrate of lymphoid cells. The majority of these cells were pleomorphic with prominent nucleoli and frequent mitotic figures ( Fig. 3). Sheets of atypical cells were found in the subjacent dermis. The infiltrate extended down into the reticular dermis. With extension into the dermis, the infiltrate became more polymorphous with more small lymphoid cells, large numbers of eosinophils, and some plasma cells located more deeply. Figure 2. Intraepidermal ,blister showing reticular degeneration and marked epidermotrophism of large atypical cells with extension into the dermis with a mixed infiltrate containing eosinophils and plasma cells (30×) Figure 3. Intraepidermal ,infiltrate of large atypical cells with extension into the dermis with a mixed infiltrate containing eosinophils and plasma cells (400×) Immunohistochemical stains for CD3 (DAKO), CD4 (Becton Dickinson), CD8 (Becton Dickinson), CD15 (LeuM1, Becton Dickinson), CD20 (L-26, DAKO), CD30 (Ber-H2, DAKO), CD45RO (UCHL1, DAKO), S-100 protein (DAKO), T-cell intracellular antigen (TIA) (Coulter), epithelial membrane antigen (EMA) (DAKO), KP-1 (CD68, DAKO), MAC-387 (DAKO), Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) latent membrane antigen-1 (LMP-1, DAKO), and EBV-encoded nuclear antigen 2 (EBNA2, DAKO) were performed on formalin-fixed tissue using the ABC method with DABA as the chromagen. CD3 showed diffuse membrane staining of the large atypical lymphoid cells, as well as the majority of the small lymphoid cells ( Fig. 4). CD4 showed positive membrane staining of the large atypical lymphoid cells and the majority of the small lymphoid cells. CD8 showed only scattered light membrane staining of small lymphoid cells. CD15 was negative, and CD20 showed foci of groups of small lymphoid cells mainly within the reticular dermis. CD30 showed positive membrane and paranuclear staining of the large atypical cells, most abundant within the epidermis and papillary dermis ( Fig. 5). CD45RO showed positive membrane staining of the large atypical cells and the majority of the small lymphoid cells. S-100 protein showed increased dendritic cells within the surrounding viable epidermis and the subjacent papillary dermis ( Fig. 6). TIA showed granular staining in the large atypical lymphoid cells and only rare staining in small lymphoid cells ( Fig. 7). EMA staining was essentially negative. KP-1 showed only scattered positive cells mainly in the lower papillary and the reticular dermis. MAC-387 showed membrane staining in the viable epidermis ( Fig. 8). LMP-1 and EBNA2 for EBV were negative within the lymphoid cells as well as within the overlying epidermis. Figure 4. Immunohistochemical ,staining for CD3 showing diffuse staining of lymphoid cells within the epidermis and dermis (150×) Figure 5. Immunohistochemical ,staining for CD30 showing membrane and paranuclear staining of large atypical lymphoid cells within the epidermis and papillary dermis (a, 150× b, 400×) Figure 6. Immunohistochemical ,staining for S-100 protein within the epidermis and in the papillary dermis (a, 150× b, 300×) Figure 7. Immunohistochemical ,granular staining of large atypical lymphoid cells for TIA (200×) Figure 8. Immunohistochemical ,staining for MAC-387 showing epidermal staining (100×) Gene rearrangement studies showed a ,-T-cell receptor gene rearrangement. The monoclonal band was detected with VJ1, VJ2, and D1J2 primer sets. The T-cell receptor , rearrangement assay has a sensitivity of 61% and a specificity of 94% for the detection of a monoclonal rearrangement in T-cell lymphomas for which amplifiable DNA can be recovered. Electron microscopy was performed on formalin-fixed material, positive-fixed with 2.5% phosphate-buffered glutaraldehyde and further with 1% osmium tetroxide by standard techniques. Intracellular, 50,60-nm, cytoplasmic, spherical, viral-like particles were identified ( Fig. 9). Figure 9. Electron ,microscopy showing 50,60-nm diameter, intracellular, viral-like particles (arrows) (70,000×) [source]

    Silver-Catalyzed One-Pot Cyclization Reaction of Electron- Deficient Alkynes and 2-Yn-1-ols: An Efficient Domino Process to Polysubstituted Furans

    Hua Cao
    Abstract Transition metal-catalyzed domino reactions have been used as powerful tools for the preparation of polysubstituted furans in a one-pot manner. In this paper, an efficient synthetic method was developed for the construction of tri- or tetrasubstituted furans from electron-deficient alkynes and 2-yn-1-ols by a silver-catalyzed domino reaction. It is especially noteworthy that a 2,3,5-trisubstituted 4-ynyl-furan was formally obtained in an extremely direct manner without tedious stepwise synthesis. In addition, regio-isomeric furans were observed when substituted aryl alkynyl ketones were employed. This methodology represents a highly efficient synthetic route to electron-deficient furans for which catalytic approaches are scarce. The reaction proceeds efficiently under mild conditions with commercially available catalysts and materials. [source]

    Role of neutrophils in sinusoidal endothelial cell injury after extensive hepatectomy in cholestatic rats

    Masayuki Ohtsuka
    Abstract Background and Aims: The authors have shown previously that sinusoidal endothelial cell injury developed concomitantly with the accumulation of neutrophils in the hepatic sinusoidal space in cholestatic rats after extensive hepatectomy. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the development of this kind of endothelial cell injury. Methods: Rats underwent 78% partial hepatectomy after 2 weeks of cholestasis, and subsequent external biliary drainage for 5 days. To decrease the number of neutrophils, antirat neutrophil serum was administered intraperitoneally. Some serum parameters and histological specimens were examined 48 h after partial hepatectomy. Results: Anti-neutrophil serum significantly reduced the number of accumulated neutrophils in the hepatic sinusoids. Although the purine nucleoside phosphorylase : alanine aminotransferase ratio, a marker of non-parenchymal cell injury, was increased in cholestatic-hepatectomized rats, this abnormality was significantly attenuated by the treatment with antineutrophil serum. Electron microscopically, focal detachment of cytoplasms of sinusoidal endothelial cells was observed occasionally in cholestatic-hepatectomized rats, but was not found in the antirat neutrophil serum-treated rats. Conclusion: These results indicate that accumulated neutrophils might be important effector cells in the pathogenesis of sinusoidal endothelial cell injury after extensive hepatectomy in cholestatic rats, even after appropriate external biliary drainage. [source]

    Electron ionization-induced fragmentation of some new dibenzo(d, f)(1,3)dioxepine derivatives,

    Michela Begala
    Abstract The mass spectrometric behaviour of a series of 6,6-disubstituted dibenzo(d,f)(1,3)dioxepine derivatives have been studied. The fragmentation patterns were described and discussed in detail with the aid of labelled compounds, accurate mass measurements and collisionally induced dissociation experiments performed using an ion trap. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Microstructural, chemical and textural records during growth of snowball garnet

    M. ROBYR
    Abstract The growth history of two populations of snowball garnet from the Lukmanier Pass area (central Swiss Alps) was examined through a detailed analysis of three-dimensional geometry, chemical zoning and crystallographic orientation. The first population, collected in the hinge of a chevron-type fold, shows an apparent rotation of 360°. The first 270° are characterized by spiral-shaped inclusion trails, gradual and concentric Mn zoning and a single crystallographic orientation, whereas in the last 90°, crenulated inclusion trails and secondary Mn maxima centred on distinct crystallographic garnet domains are observed. Microstructural, geochemical and textural data indicate a radical change in growth regime between the two growth sequences. In the first 270°, growth occurred under rotational non-coaxial flow, whereas in the last 90°, garnet grew under a non-rotational shortening regime. The second population, collected in the limb of the same chevron-type fold structure, is characterized by a spiral geometry that does not exceed 270° of apparent rotation. These garnet microstructures do not record any evidence for a modification of the stress field during garnet growth. Concentric Mn zoning as well as a single crystallographic orientation are observed for the entire spiral. Electron backscatter diffraction data indicate that nearly all central domains in the snowball garnet are characterized by one [001] axis oriented (sub-)parallel to the symmetry axis and by another [001] axis oriented (sub-)parallel to the orientation of the internal foliation. These features suggest that the crystallographic orientation across the garnet spiral is not random and that a relation exists among the symmetry axis, the internal foliation and the crystallographic orientation. [source]

    Development of garnet porphyroblasts by multiple nucleation, coalescence and boundary misorientation-driven rotations

    R. Spiess
    Abstract Two types of garnet porphyroblast occur in the Schneeberg Complex of the Italian Alps. Type 1 porphyroblasts form ellipsoidal pods with a centre consisting of unstrained quartz, decussate mica and small garnet grains, and a margin containing large garnet grains. Orientation contrast imaging using the scanning electron microscope shows that the larger marginal garnet grains comprise a number of orientation subdomains. Individual garnet grains without subdomains are small (< 50 µm), faceted and idioblastic, and have simple zoning profiles with Ca-rich cores and Ca-poor rims. Subdomains of larger garnet grains are similar in size to the individual, small garnet grains. Type 2 porphyroblasts comprise only ellipsoidal garnet, with small subdomains in the centre and larger subdomains at the margin. Each subdomain has its own Ca high, Ca dropping towards subdomain boundaries. Garnet grains, with or without subdomains, all have the same Ca-poor composition at rims in contact with other minerals. The compositional zonation patterns are best explained by simultaneous, multiple nucleation, followed by growth and amalgamation of individual garnet grains. The range of individual garnet and garnet subdomain sizes can be explained by a faster growth rate at the porphyroblast margin than in the centre. The difference between Type 1 and Type 2 porphyroblasts is probably related to the growth rate differential across the porphyroblast. Electron backscatter diffraction shows that small, individual garnet grains are randomly oriented. Large marginal garnet grains and subdomain-bearing garnet grains have a strong preferred orientation, clustering around a single garnet orientation. Misorientations across subdomain boundaries are small and misorientation axes are randomly oriented with respect to crystallographic orientations. The only explanation that fits the observational data is that individual garnet grains rotated towards coincident orientations once they came into contact with each other. This process was driven by the reduction of subdomain boundary energy associated with misorientation loss. Rotation of garnet grains was accommodated by diffusion in the subdomain boundary and diffusional creep and rigid body rotation of other minerals (quartz and mica) around the garnet. An analytical model, in which the kinetics of garnet rotation are controlled by the rheology of surrounding quartz, suggests that, at the conditions of metamorphism, the rotation required to give a strong preferred orientation can occur on a similar time-scale to that of porphyroblast growth. [source]

    EBSD and TEM investigation of the hot deformation substructure characteristics of a type 316L austenitic stainless steel

    P. Cizek
    Summary The evolution of crystallographic texture and deformation substructure was studied in a type 316L austenitic stainless steel, deformed in rolling at 900 °C to true strain levels of about 0.3 and 0.7. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used in the investigation and a comparison of the substructural characteristics obtained by these techniques was made. At the lower strain level, the deformation substructure observed by EBSD appeared to be rather poorly developed. There was considerable evidence of a rotation of the pre-existing twin boundaries from their original orientation relationship, as well as the formation of highly distorted grain boundary regions. In TEM, at this strain level, the substructure was more clearly revealed, although it appeared rather inhomogeneously developed from grain to grain. The subgrains were frequently elongated and their boundaries often approximated to traces of {111} slip planes. The corresponding misorientations were small and largely displayed a non-cumulative character. At the larger strain, the substructure within most grains became well developed and the corresponding misorientations increased. This resulted in better detection of sub-boundaries by EBSD, although the percentage of indexing slightly decreased. TEM revealed splitting of some sub-boundaries to form fine microbands, as well as the localized formation of microshear bands. The substructural characteristics observed by EBSD, in particular at the larger strain, generally appeared to compare well with those obtained using TEM. With increased strain level, the mean subgrain size became finer, the corresponding mean misorientation angle increased and both these characteristics became less dependent on a particular grain orientation. The statistically representative data obtained will assist in the development of physically based models of microstructural evolution during thermomechanical processing of austenitic stainless steels. [source]

    Orientation and Phase Relationships between Titania Films and Polycrystalline BaTiO3 Substrates as Determined by Electron Backscatter Diffraction Mapping

    Nina V. Burbure
    Titania films have been grown on polycrystalline BaTiO3 (BTO) substrates at 700°C by pulsed laser deposition. Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was used to determine grain orientations in the substrate before growth, and the phase and orientation of the supported films after growth. All BaTiO3 grains within 26° of (001) were covered by anatase films with an orientation relationship of (001)Anatase||(001)BTO and [100]Anatase||[100]BTO. Rutile with a variety of orientations grew on BaTiO3 grains with orientations closer to (110) and (111). EBSD mapping provides an efficient means for determining phase and orientation relationships of films over all orientation parameters. [source]

    Grain Growth and Twin Formation in 0.74PMN·0.26PT

    Jay S. Wallace
    The mechanisms controlling normal and exaggerated grain growth in lead magnesium niobate,lead titanate (PMN,PT) ceramics have been investigated by varying the PbO-based liquid-phase volume fraction from 0.03 to 0.6 and sintering temperature from 900° to 1100°C. There is a transition in matrix grain growth rate and matrix grain shape with liquid fraction; samples with liquid volume fractions less than ,0.15 show relatively small equiaxed grains resulting from grain-to-grain impingement. Samples with higher liquid fractions show significantly larger, facetted, cube-shaped grains, whose size is independent of liquid fraction, indicating that a surface nucleation rate mechanism controls growth in this regime. Exaggerated grains were found in the high liquid fraction samples. Electron backscatter diffraction showed that all of the exaggerated grains contained 60°,111, twins but none of the normal matrix grains contained twins. The reentrant angles in the twinned grains give them a growth advantage over untwinned grains, resulting in a population of exaggerated grains. [source]

    Fabric analysis of Allende matrix using EBSD

    Lauren E. Watt
    Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) has allowed fabrics in these fine-grained materials to be visualized in detail for the first time. Our data reveal that Allende, a CV3 chondrite, possesses a uniform, planar, short-axis alignment fabric that is pervasive on a broad scale and is probably the result of deformational shortening related to impact or gravitational compaction. Interference between this matrix fabric and the larger, more rigid components, such as dark inclusions (DIs) and calcium-aluminium-rich inclusions (CAIs), has lead to the development of locally oriented and intensified matrix fabrics. In addition, DIs possess fabrics that are conformable with the broader matrix fabric. These results suggest that DIs were in situ prior to the deformational shortening event responsible for these fabrics, thus providing an argument against dark inclusions being fragments from another lithified part of the asteroid (Kojima and Tomeoka 1996; Fruland et al. 1978). Moreover, both DIs and Allende matrix are highly porous (,25%) (Corrigan et al. 1997). Mobilizing a highly porous DI during impact-induced brecciation without imposing a fabric and incorporating it into a highly porous matrix without significantly compacting these materials is improbable. We favor a model that involves Allende DIs, CAIs, and matrix accreting together and experiencing the same deformation events. [source]

    Electron,cyclotron maser observable modes

    A. Stupp
    We investigate wave amplification through the electron,cyclotron maser mechanism. We calculate absorption and emission coefficients without any approximations, also taking into account absorption by the ambient thermal plasma. A power-law energy distribution for the fast electrons is used, as indicated by X-ray and microwave observations. We develop a model for the saturation length and amplification ratio of the maser, scan a large parameter space and calculate the absorption and emission coefficients for every frequency and angle. Previous studies concluded that the unobservable Z mode dominates in the ,p,,B region, and that millisecond spikes are produced in the region ,p,B<0.25. We find that the observable O and X modes can produce emission in the 0.8<,p,B<2 region, which is expected at the footpoints of a flaring magnetic loop. The important criterion for observability is the saturation length and not the growth rate, as was assumed previously, and, even when the Z mode is the most strongly amplified, less strongly amplified O or X modes are still intense enough to be observed. The brightness temperature computed with our model for the saturation length is found to be of order 1016 K and higher. The emission is usually at a frequency of 2.06,B, and at angles of 30°,60° to the magnetic field. The rise time of the amplified emission to maximum is a few tenths of a millisecond to a few milliseconds, and the emission persists for as long as new fast electrons arrive in the maser region. [source]

    Electron Backscatter Diffraction Study of Brachiopod Shell Calcite , Microscale Phase and Texture Analysis of a Polycrystalline Biomaterial

    Wolfgang W. Schmahl
    Abstract Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) is an easy to use and highly automated microdiffraction method suitable for the determination of crystallographic phase and crystallite orientation. The high level of hierarchical structural organization in the shells of marine organisms was studied. Calcite brachiopod shell materials were found to belong to three types of microstructure: nano- to microcrystalline layers of acicular crystals, fiber composites with calcite single crystal fibers with [uv0] morphological axes, and material formed by columnar crystals with [001] morphological axes selected by competitive growth. [source]

    Quantitative microstructure characterization of self-annealed copper films with electron backscatter diffraction

    Karen Pantleon
    Abstract Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) was applied to analyze cross sections of self-annealed copper electrodeposits, for which earlier the kinetics of self-annealing had been investigated by in-situ X-ray diffraction (XRD). The EBSD investigations on the grain size, grain boundary character and crystallographic texture of copper films with different thicknesses essentially supplement results from in-situ XRD. Twin relations between neighboring grains were identified from the orientation maps and the observed twin chains confirm multiple twinning in copper electrodeposits as the mechanism of microstructure evolution at room temperature (self-annealing). (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Spin-dependent electron tunnelling and spin relaxation in quantum dots in regime with filling factor of around two

    S. Tarucha
    Abstract Spin-dependent electron tunnelling and spin relaxation were studied for a quantum dot in the regime with a filling factor between two and four. In this regime, the electronic configuration of a quantum dot undergoes transitions between a spin singlet and triplet states for an even number of electrons, and between two doublet states for an odd number of electrons. These transitions were clearly distinguished by using quantum wires as spin filtering contact leads to the dot. In addition, the temporal behaviour of electron tunnelling was studied for a quantum dot in a similar filling factor regime, using a quantum point contact as a charge sensor. Electron tunnelling through the dot in a spin singlet state could be well distinguished from that in a triplet state using the fact that the tunnelling rate was much larger for the triplet state. The difference in the tunnelling rate was also used to derive a triplet-to-singlet-state relaxation time. The obtained relaxation time agreed fairly well with that predicted by the theory of spin-orbit interaction. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Interaction effects in high-mobility two-dimensional electron and hole systems

    A. K. Savchenko
    Abstract Electron,electron interaction in the presence of impurities is studied in two-dimensional systems where the parameter kBT,/, changes from 0.1 to 10 (, is the momentum relaxation time). This corresponds to the intermediate and ballistic regimes of electron interaction. We analyse the interaction correction to the Drude conductivity in terms of recent theories and show that it is strongly dependent on the character of the impurity potential. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Electron and phonon dynamics in zincblende gallium nitride

    R. Brazis
    Abstract This report presents new Monte Carlo simulation results revealing the ballistic stage of growth of the phonon number, electron velocity and energy upon the switching-on electric field, the shape of electron and phonon stationary distributions in high electric fields, as well as electron cooling and phonon number relaxation rates after switching-off the field in zincblende gallium nitride crystals. LO phonon band population inversion is feasible here up to the room temperature relative to the TO phonons, and below T < 80 K , relative to the LA-phonon band provided that the phonon lifetimes satisfy the conditions of , 2 ps (LO) and , 2 ns (LA). Phonon decay scenarios with the stimulated emission of infrared-range photons are discussed including phonon difference transitions. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]