Elution Time (elution + time)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

An initial assessment of the use of gradient elution in microemulsion and micellar liquid chromatography

Simon M. Bryant
Abstract Novel microemulsion and micellar HPLC separations have been achieved using gradient elution and columns packed with reverse phase material. Initial attempts at gradient microemulsion liquid chromatography proved impossible on use of a microemulsion successfully used in capillary electrophoresis. Optimisation of the microemulsion composition allowed the generation of stable microemulsions to achieve separations in HPLC. The novel use of organic-solvent micellar chromatography in gradient elution mode was shown to give efficient separations. A range of efficient separations of pharmaceuticals and related impurities were obtained. Acidic, basic, and neutral solutes were resolved covering a wide range of water solubilities and polarities. Elution times were in the order of 4,15 minutes. Separations were briefly compared to those accomplished with a micellar HPLC system. It is proposed that gradient elution in both microemulsion and micellar HPLC can be regarded as a highly successful means of achieving resolution of complex mixtures and should be considered for routine analysis and further investigation. [source]

Expression of glutathione transferase isoenzymes in the human H295R adrenal cell line and the effect of forskolin

Tuula Stark
Abstract In previous studies in our laboratory (L. Mankowitz, L. Staffas, M. Bakke, and J. Lund, Biochem J, 1995, 305, 111,118; L. Staffas, L. Mankowitz, M. Söderström, A. Blanck, I. Porsch-Hällström, C. Sundberg, B. Mannervik, B. Olin, J. Rydström, and J.W. DePierre, Biochem J, 1992, 286, 65,72) isoenzymes of GST, primarily of the , class, have been shown to be downregulated by adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) in rat and mouse adrenal cells. In the present investigation the human adrenal H295R cell line (W.E. Rainey, I.M. Bird, and J.I. Mason, Mol Cell Endocrinol, 1994, 100, 45,50) was examined in a similar manner. Analysis by reverse-phase HPLC revealed that these cells express four isoenzymes of GST, i.e., A1, A2, P1, and M4, as well as another unidentified protein that was retained by our affinity column (elution time of 32 min) and, thus, presumably binds glutathione. Among these forms, A1 was present at the highest level. Upon addition of forskolin (an activator of adenylate cyclase which has been shown previously to mimic the effect of ACTH on adrenal cells) to the culture medium, the level of A1 decreased approximately 70% by forskolin, whereas the levels of the other isoenzymes were slightly increased, and that of the unknown form doubled. Thus, the influence of ACTH on expression of GST isoenzymes in this human adrenal cell line differs from that in rat and mouse adrenal cells. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 16:169,173, 2002; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.10034 [source]

Site-specific detection of S -nitrosylated PKB ,/Akt1 from rat soleus muscle using CapLC-Q-TOFmicro mass spectrometry

Xiao-Ming Lu
Abstract Protein Kinase B,(PKB,, or Akt1) is believed to play a crucial role in programmed cell death, cancer progression and the insulin-signaling cascade. The protein is activated by phosphorylation at multiple sites and subsequently phosphorylates and activates eNOS. Free cysteine residues of the protein may capture reactive, endogenously produced nitric oxide (NO) as S -nitrosothiols. Site-specific detection of S -nitrosylated cysteine residues, usually at low stoichiometry, has been a major challenge in proteomic research largely due to the lack of mass marker for S -nitrosothiols that are very labile under physiologic conditions. In this report we describe a sensitive and specific MS method for detection of S -nitrosothiols in PKB ,/Akt1 in rat soleus muscle. PKB ,/Akt1 was isolated by immunoprecipitation and 2D-gel electrophoresis, subjected to in-gel tryptic digestion, and cysteinyl nitrosothiols were reacted with iodoacetic acids [2-C12/C13 = 50/50] under ascorbate reduction conditions. This resulted in the production of relatively stable carboxymethylcysteine (CMC) immonium ions (m/z 134.019 and m/z 135.019) within a narrow argon collision energy (CE = 30 ± 5 V) in the high MS noise region. In addition, free and disulfide-linked cysteine residues were converted to carboxyamidomethylcysteines (CAM). Tryptic S -nitrosylated parent ion was detected with a mass accuracy of 50 mDa for the two CMC immonium ions at the triggered elution time during capillary liquid chromatography (LC) separation. A peptide containing Cys296 was discriminated from four co-eluting tryptic peptides under lock mass conditions (m/z 785.8426). S -nitrosothiol in the tryptic peptide, ITDFGLBKEGIK (B: CAM, [M + 2H]2+ = 690.86, Found: 690.83), is believed to be present at a very low level, since the threshold for the CMC immonium trigger ions was set at 3 counts/s in the MS survey. The high levels of NO that are produced under stress conditions may result in increased S -nitrosylation of Cys296 which blocks disulfide bond formation between Cys296 and Cys310 and suppresses the biological effects of PKB ,/Akt1. With the procedures developed here, this process can be studied under physiological and pathological conditions. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Method for enantiomeric purity of a quinuclidine candidate drug by capillary electrophoresis

Tore Ramstad
Abstract A chiral procedure based on EKC was developed and validated for determination of the enantiomeric purity of PHA-543613, a drug candidate that was under development for treatment of the cognitive deficits of Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia. Separation of enantiomers is accomplished via differential, enantiospecific complexation with a single-isomer, precisely sulfated beta-CD and heptakis-6-sulfato-,-CD (HpS-,-CD). Both neutral and sulfated CDs were screened before selecting HpS-,-CD as the chiral selector. The separation is conducted in a 61 cm×50 ,m uncoated fused silica capillary with 25 mM HpS-,-CD in pH 2.50, 25 mM lithium phosphate as the separation buffer with detection at 220 nm. Application of reverse polarity at ,30 kV results in an elution time of about 12 min for PHA-543613 and 13 min for the undesired S -enantiomer. Quantification is versus an authentic reference S -enantiomer as an external standard in combination with an internal standard. The procedure was validated over the range 0.1,2.0% w/w. The detection limit is 0.01,0.02%. The amount of distomer intrinsic to the drug substance is about 0.1% or less. The developed method was used to generate stability data on multiple lots: in one case for up to 3 years. [source]

Simultaneous quantification of acylated and desacylated ghrelin in biological fluids

Suleyman Aydin
Abstract This study reports simultaneous quantification of both acylated and desacylated forms of ghrelin in biological samples, utilizing a reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system. The HPLC assay was also compared with RIA assays in use. Biological samples (serum, saliva, urine, milk) known for the presence of ghrelin were collected from a total of eight post-partum women and eight male volunteers. Analysis of ghrelin with HPLC was also validated for linearity, precision, detection limit and accuracy. An elution time of 6 min was observed for pure (commercial) desacylated human ghrelin and for the same form of the hormone from all body fluids studied. The elution time for acylated pure human ghrelin and that in body fluids, however, was around 16 min. The mean recovery rate was over 90% for both forms with no significant interference. The lowest detectable levels for acylated and desacylated ghrelin with the method used here were 11 (±2) and 14 (±3) pg mL,1, respectively. Given its simplicity, accuracy, time and cost-effectiveness, the HPLC method described here for determination of two forms of ghrelin (active and inactive) might prove useful for certain diagnostic purposes. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Evaluation of use of a very short polar microbore column segment in high-speed gas chromatography analysis

Peter Quinto Tranchida
Abstract Very fast GC analyses are commonly carried out by using 10 m×0.1 mm id capillaries. In order to achieve rapid elution times (1,3 min), the latter are operated under suboptimum conditions. The present research is focused on the evaluation of use of a 0.1 mm id polar column segment (2 m), operated under near-to-optimum conditions, in very fast GC analysis. The results attained are compared with those derived from using a 10 m microbore column in very fast GC experiments. Prior to method development, the effects of gas velocity, temperature program rate, and sample amounts on analytical performance were evaluated. Following these preliminary applications, a complex lipidic sample, cod liver oil, was subjected to rapid separation (,2.1 min) on the 10 m capillary through the application of a 50°C/min temperature rate and a 130 cm/s gas velocity. The same matrix was analyzed on the 2 m capillary using the same temperature program rate and range, but with a close-to-ideal linear velocity. The results observed were of interest, as the separation was achieved in less time (1.45 min) with improved peak resolution. Finally, both methods were validated in terms of retention time and peak area repeatability, LOQ, and linearity. [source]

Fast GC analysis with a 50 ,m ID column: theory, practical aspects, and application to a highly complex sample

Luigi Mondello
Abstract This research focuses on the minimization of GC analysis times through the use of a 5 m×0.05 mm ID×0.05 ,m (film thickness) column. Experimental minimum plate height (Hmin) and optimum linear velocity values were derived from standard compound applications, under various analytical conditions, and then related to classical chromatographic theory. Deviations from the latter are measured and discussed. Practical aspects linked to the use of such capillaries, such as column sample capacity and detector acquisition rates, are also considered. Furthermore, a fast, and what can be considered a very fast method, were applied to the separation of a fuel sample. Coefficients of variation of elution times and relative peak areas were calculated in the very fast application. All analytical results are compared with those obtained by conventional 0.25 mm ID column applications. [source]

HPLC of basic drugs using non-aqueous ionic eluents: evaluation of a 3,,m strong cation-exchange material

Phillip E. Morgan
Abstract HPLC columns packed with 3,,m particle size HPLC Technology Techsphere SCX (propylsulfonic acid-modified) silica offer considerable advantages over 5,,m SCX packings in the analysis of basic drugs using 100% methanol eluents containing an ionic modifier such as ammonium perchlorate. The basic drugs studied included clozapine and norclozapine, olanzapine, quinine and quinidine, and amitriptyline, nortriptyline, imipramine and desipramine. The 3,,m column was not only more efficient for a given column length compared with 5,,m materials, but also elution times were less, a phenomenon observed in reversed-phase systems. The high efficiencies and excellent peak shapes obtained with the 3,,m SCX-modified packing together with the relatively low back-pressures attained show that such materials deserve serious consideration by laboratories involved in the analysis of basic drugs. Manufacturers should offer such packings as a matter of routine. Alternative ionic modifiers such as ammonium acetate are available for use with mass spectrometric detection if required. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Determination of quinocide as impurity in primaquine tablets by capillary zone electrophoresis

Abdalla A. Elbashir
Abstract A capillary zone electrophoretic method has been developed and validated for the determination of the impurity quinocide (QC) in the antimalarial drug primaquine (PQ). Different buffer additives such as native cyclodextrins and crown ethers were evaluated. Promising results were obtained when either , -cyclodextrin (, -CD) or 18-crown-6 ether (18C6) were used. Their separation conditions such as type of buffer and its pH, buffer additive concentration, applied voltage capillary temperature and injection time were optimized. The use of 18C6 offers slight advantages over , -CD such as faster elution times and improved resolution. Nevertheless, migration times of less than 5 min and resolution factors (Rs) in the range of 2,4 were obtained when both additives were used. The method was validated with respect to selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantitation, analytical precision (intra- and inter-day variability) and repeatability. Concentrations of 2.12 and 2.71% (w/w) of QC were found in pharmaceutical preparations of PQ from two different manufacturers. A possible mechanism for the successful separation of the isomers is also discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]