Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Elusive

  • elusive concept
  • elusive goal
  • elusive prey

  • Selected Abstracts

    Elusive '68: The Challenge to Pedagogy

    William Collins Donahue
    Teaching ,68 presents pedagogical challenges far greater than assembling a set of workable classroom materials. Divisive controversies that were the hallmark of the time,e.g., the debate over the nature and appropriate use of violence,are with us still, though in a somewhat different form. Further, the instructor,s own politics and positionality can hardly be ignored,as they will certainly not be overlooked by our students. Additionally, this essay argues that fundamental terms (such as who qualifies as a ,68er) remain problematic; that the instrumentalization of the Holocaust by the German New Left continues to affect political decisions down to the present; that our investment as teachers in poststructuralist literary theory may,perhaps inadvertently,affect the way we view and therefore teach ,68; and, finally, that there is a pressing need, despite a recent explosion in Germany of publications celebrating the fortieth anniversary of ,68, for a didacticized reader designed for the North American German Studies classroom. [source]

    Subclinical hepatic encephalopathy: Elusive ,gold standard'

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    When a Diagnosis is Elusive

    New Research Program Addresses Rare Diseases
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The translocation of signaling molecules in dark adapting mammalian rod photoreceptor cells is dependent on the cytoskeleton

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 10 2008
    Boris Reidel
    Abstract In vertebrate rod photoreceptor cells, arrestin and the visual G-protein transducin move between the inner segment and outer segment in response to changes in light. This stimulus dependent translocation of signalling molecules is assumed to participate in long term light adaptation of photoreceptors. So far the cellular basis for the transport mechanisms underlying these intracellular movements remains largely elusive. Here we investigated the dependency of these movements on actin filaments and the microtubule cytoskeleton of photoreceptor cells. Co-cultures of mouse retina and retinal pigment epithelium were incubated with drugs stabilizing and destabilizing the cytoskeleton. The actin and microtubule cytoskeleton and the light dependent distribution of signaling molecules were subsequently analyzed by light and electron microscopy. The application of cytoskeletal drugs differentially affected the cytoskeleton in photoreceptor compartments. During dark adaptation the depolymerization of microtubules as well as actin filaments disrupted the translocation of arrestin and transducin in rod photoreceptor cells. During light adaptation only the delivery of arrestin within the outer segment was impaired after destabilization of microtubules. Movements of transducin and arrestin required intact cytoskeletal elements in dark adapting cells. However, diffusion might be sufficient for the fast molecular movements observed as cells adapt to light. These findings indicate that different molecular translocation mechanisms are responsible for the dark and light associated translocations of arrestin and transducin in rod photoreceptor cells. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 65: 785,800, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A Painless Subungual Osteoid Osteoma

    Pelin Ekmekci MD
    Background. Osteoid osteoma is a benign bone tumor. Its etiology is not fully understood and the role of trauma is still elusive. Objective. Osteoid osteoma mostly presents with a poorly localized pain that is worst at night and characteristically relieved by salicylates. It usually occurs on the weight-bearing bones of the lower extremities, but toe location is quite rare. Here, we present a case of painless osteoid osteoma located subungually on the dorsum of the great toe. Result. A 29-year-old woman presented with a painless subungual mass on the dorsum of her great toe. Subungual exotosis, osteochondroma, and osteoma were considered in the differential diagnosis and the lesion was totally excised. Histopathologic examination showed characteristic findings of osteoid osteoma. Conclusion. A painless osteoid osteoma is rarely seen and it can be easily misdiagnosed if it occurs in an atypical location such as the subungual area. [source]

    Cicatricial alopecia: classification and histopathology

    Najwa Somani
    ABSTRACT: Primary cicatricial alopecias are a diagnostically challenging group of disorders characterized by folliculocentric inflammation resulting in destruction of hair follicles and irreversible hair loss. They are classified according to a consensus-issued classification scheme based on the predominant cell type present: lymphocytic, neutrophilic, or mixed. Histopathology is a pivotal component of the diagnostic evaluation. Early diagnosis is critical since timely institution of treatment can halt progression of permanent hair loss. Salient histopathologic findings are presented in this review, along with adjunctive clues derived from interpretation of special stains and direct immunofluorescence studies. Despite careful evaluation, accurate diagnosis may remain elusive in some instances. The primary cicatricial alopecias often share overlapping features. The highest diagnostic yield is procured when histology is correlated with the clinical presentation. [source]

    The histopathology of alopecia areata in vertical and horizontal sections

    David A. Whiting
    Alopecia areata (AA) is a relatively common disease affecting 1.7% of Americans by the age of 50 years. The diagnosis is usually made on clinical grounds. In some cases the diagnosis is elusive and biopsies are necessary. In other cases biopsies are useful from a prognostic point of view to determine whether there are enough follicles left for possible future regrowth. In view of the active research being conducted into AA, biopsies provide valuable material for further investigation. The diagnosis of AA is improved by the use of horizontal sections in addition to or instead of vertical sections of scalp biopsies. The histopathologic features favoring the diagnosis of AA include peribulbar and intrabulbar mononuclear infiltrates, degenerative changes in the hair matrix, decreased numbers of terminal anagen follicles, increased numbers of terminal catagen and telogen follicles, an increased number of follicular stelae, an increased number of miniaturized vellus hair follicles, and pigment incontinence of hair bulbs and follicular stelae. Follicular counts with horizontal sections are particularly helpful in making the diagnosis of AA when the biopsy has been taken between acute episodes and the characteristic peribulbar inflammatory infiltrate is absent. [source]

    Post-conflict Statebuilding and State Legitimacy: From Negative to Positive Peace?

    David Roberts
    ABSTRACT This article is concerned with the potential that statebuilding interventions have to institutionalize social justice, in addition to their more immediate ,negative' peace mandates, and the impact this might have, both on local state legitimacy and the character of the ,peace' that might follow. Much recent scholarship has stressed the legitimacy of a state's behaviour in relation to conformity to global governance norms or democratic ,best practice'. Less evident is a discussion of the extent to which post-conflict polities are able to engender the societal legitimacy central to political stability. As long as this level of legitimacy is absent (and it is hard to generate), civil society is likely to remain distant from the state, and peace and stability may remain elusive. A solution to this may be to apply existing international legislation centred in the UN and the ILO to compel international organizations and national states to deliver basic needs security through their institutions. This has the effect of stimulating local-level state legitimacy while simultaneously formalizing social justice and positive peacebuilding. [source]

    FGF19-FGFR4 signaling elaborates lens induction with the FGF8-L-Maf cascade in the chick embryo

    Hitomi Kurose
    The fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family is known to be involved in vertebrate eye development. However, distinct roles of individual FGF members during eye development remain largely elusive. Here, we show a detailed expression pattern of Fgf19 in chick lens development. Fgf19 expression initiated in the forebrain, and then became restricted to the distal portion of the optic vesicle abutting the future lens placode, where FGF receptor 4 (Fgfr4), a receptor for FGF19, was expressed. Fgf8, a positive regulator for L-Maf, was expressed in a portion of the optic vesicle. To examine the role of FGF19 signaling during early eye development, Fgf19 was misexpressed near the presumptive lens ectoderm; however, no alteration in the expression of lens marker genes was observed. Conversely, a secreted form of FGFR4 was misexpressed to inhibit an FGF19 signal, resulting in the induction of L-Maf expression. To further define the relationship between L-Maf and Fgf19, L-Maf misexpression was performed, resulting in ectopic induction of Fgf19 expression by Hamburger and Hamilton's stage 12/13. Furthermore, misexpression of Fgf8 induced Fgf19 expression in addition to L-Maf. These results suggest that FGF19-FGFR4 signaling plays a role in early lens development in collaboration with FGF8 signaling and L-Maf transcriptional system. [source]

    Molecular mechanisms of mechanosensing in muscle development

    Klodiana Jani
    Abstract Mechanical forces are crucial to muscle development and function, but the mechanisms by which forces are sensed and transduced remain elusive. Evidence implicates the sarcolemmal lattice of integrin adhesion and the Z-disk components of the contractile machinery in such processes. These mechanosensory devices report changes in force to other cellular compartments by self-remodeling. Here we explore how their structural and functional properties integrate to regulate muscle development and maintenance. Developmental Dynamics 238:1526,1534, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    C-myc as a modulator of renal stem/progenitor cell population

    Martin Couillard
    Abstract The role of c - myc has been well-studied in gene regulation and oncogenesis but remains elusive in murine development from midgestation. We determined c - myc function during kidney development, organogenesis, and homeostasis by conditional loss of c - myc induced at two distinct phases of nephrogenesis, embryonic day (e) 11.5 and e17.5. Deletion of c - myc in early metanephric mesenchyme (e11.5) led to renal hypoplasia from e15.5 to e17.5 that was sustained until adulthood (range, 20,25%) and, hence, reproduced the human pathologic condition of renal hypoplasia. This phenotype resulted from depletion of c - myc,positive cells in cap mesenchyme, causing a ,35% marked decrease of Six2- and Cited1-stem/progenitor population and of proliferation that likely impaired self-renewal. By contrast, c - myc loss from e17.5 onward had no impact on late renal differentiation/maturation and/or homeostasis, providing evidence that c - myc is dispensable during these phases. This study identified c - myc as a modulator of renal organogenesis through regulation of stem/progenitor cell population. Developmental Dynamics 238:405,414, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    gfap and nestin reporter lines reveal characteristics of neural progenitors in the adult zebrafish brain

    Chen Sok Lam
    Abstract Adult neurogenesis arises from niches that harbor neural stem cells (NSC). Although holding great promise for regenerative medicine, the identity of NSC remains elusive. In mammals, a key attribute of NSC is the expression of the filamentous proteins glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and NESTIN. To assess whether these two markers are relevant in the fish model, two transgenic zebrafish lines for gfap and nestin were generated. Analysis of adult brains showed that the fusion GFAP,green fluorescent protein closely mimics endogenous GFAP, while the nestin transgene recapitulates nestin at the ventricular zones. Cells expressing the two reporters display radial glial morphology, colocalize with the NSC marker Sox2, undergo proliferation, and are capable of self-renewal within the matrix of distinct thickness in the telencephalon. Together, these two transgenic lines reveal a conserved feature of putative NSC in the adult zebrafish brain and provide a means for the identification and manipulation of these cells in vivo. Developmental Dynamics 238:475,486, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression patterns of the opsin 5,related genes in the developing chicken retina

    Sayuri Tomonari
    Abstract The opsin gene family encodes G protein,coupled seven-transmembrane proteins that bind to a retinaldehyde chromophore for photoreception. It has been reported that opsin 5 is expressed in mammalian neural tissue, but its function has been elusive. As a first step to understand the function for opsin 5 in the developing eye, we searched for chicken opsin 5 -related genes in the genome by a bioinformatic approach and isolated opsin 5 cDNA fragments from the embryonic retina by RT-PCR. We found that there are three opsin 5,related genes, designated cOpn5m (chicken opsin 5, mammalian type), cOpn5L1 (chicken opsin 5 - like 1), and cOpn5L2 (chicken opsin 5 - like 2), in the chicken genome. Quantitative PCR analysis has revealed that cOpn5m is the most abundant in the developing and early posthatching neural retina. In situ hybridization analysis has shown that cOpn5m is specifically expressed in subsets of differentiating ganglion cells and amacrine cells. These results suggest that the mammalian type opsin 5 may contribute to the development of these retinal cells in the chicken. Developmental Dynamics 237:1910,1922, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Independent induction and formation of the dorsal and ventral fins in Xenopus laevis

    A.S. Tucker
    Abstract It has been known since the 1930s that the dorsal fin is induced by the underlying neural crest. The inducer of the ventral fin, however, has remained elusive. We have investigated the source of the inducer of the ventral fin in Xenopus and show that it is the ventral mesoderm and not the neural crest. This induction takes place during mid-neurula stages and is completed by late neurulation. In terms of cell composition, the dorsal fin mesenchyme core arises from neural crest cells, while the mesenchyme of the ventral fin has a dual origin. The ventral fin contains neural crest cells that migrate in from the dorsal side of the embryo, but a contribution is also made by cells from the ventral mesoderm. Developmental Dynamics 230:461,467, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Long-term effects of botulinum toxin A in children with cerebral palsy

    The long-term effects of botulinum toxin A (BoNT-A) treatment in children with cerebral palsy (CP) are still elusive. We studied a prospective clinical cohort of 94 children with different subtypes (50% spastic diplegic CP, 22% hemiplegic CP, 25% tetraplegic CP, 3% dyskinetic CP), sex (55% male, 45% female), severity according to Gross Motor Function Classification System (29% Level I, 15% Level II, 16% Level III, 17% Level IV, 23% Level V), and age (median 5y 4mo, range 11mo,17y 8mo). The longest follow-up time was 3 years 7 months (median 1y 6mo) and included a maximum of eight injections per muscle (median two injections to a specific muscle). Outcome measurements were muscle tone (Modified Ashworth Scale) and joint range of motion (ROM). Assessments were made at a minimum before and 3 months after each injection. Ninety-five per cent confidence intervals for differences from baseline were used to identify significant changes. BoNT-A injections induced reduction of long-term spasticity in all muscle-groups examined: the gastrocnemius, hamstring, and adductor muscles. The reduction in tone was most distinct in the gastrocnemius muscle, and each repeated injection produced an immediate reduction in muscle tone. However, improvement in ROM was brief and measured only after the first injections, whereupon the ROM declined. Thus, the results suggest that BoNT-A can be effective in reducing muscle tone over a longer period, but not in preventing development of contractures in spastic muscles. The dissociation between the effects on muscle tone and ROM indicates that development of contractures is not coupled to increased muscle tone only, but might be caused by other mechanisms. [source]

    Retinal patterning by Pax6-dependent cell adhesion molecules

    Elisabeth Rungger-Brändle
    Abstract Long-standing evidence gained from Pax6 mutant embryos pointed to an involvement of Pax6-dependent cell adhesion molecules in patterning the central nervous system and, in particular, the retina. However, direct evidence for such pathways remained elusive. We here present direct evidence that knockdown of Pax6 expression by morpholino antisense molecules in Xenopus embryos and knockdown of maternal N-cadherin (mNcad), N-cadherin (Ncad) and neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM) produce similar phenotypes. Eye formation is reduced and retinal lamination is heavily disorganized. In Pax6 knockdown embryos, the levels of mRNAs coding for these cell adhesion molecules are markedly reduced. Overexpression of Pax6 efficiently rescues the phenotype of Pax6 knockdown embryos and restores expression of these putative target genes. Rescue of Pax6-deficiency by the putative target gene mNcad moderately rescues eye formation. The promoters of the genes coding for cell adhesion molecules contain several putative Pax6 binding sites, as determined by computer analysis. Chromatin immunoprecipitation shows that, in embryonic heads, Pax6 binds to promoter regions containing such predicted binding sites. Thus, several cell adhesion molecules are direct target genes of Pax6 and cooperate in retinal patterning. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 70: 764,780, 2010 [source]

    Stress experienced in utero reduces sexual dichotomies in neurogenesis, microenvironment, and cell death in the adult rat hippocampus

    Chitra D. Mandyam
    Abstract Hippocampal function and plasticity differ with gender, but the regulatory mechanisms underlying sex differences remain elusive and may be established early in life. The present study sought to elucidate sex differences in hippocampal plasticity under normal developmental conditions and in response to repetitive, predictable versus varied, unpredictable prenatal stress (PS). Adult male and diestrous female offspring of pregnant rats exposed to no stress (control), repetitive stress (PS-restraint), or a randomized sequence of varied stressors (PS-random) during the last week of pregnancy were examined for hippocampal proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and local microenvironment using endogenous markers. Regional volume was also estimated by stereology. Control animals had comparable proliferation and regional volume regardless of sex, but females had lower neurogenesis compared to males. Increased cell death and differential hippocampal precursor kinetics both appear to contribute to reduced neurogenesis in females. Reduced local interleukin-1beta (IL-1,) immunoreactivity (IR) in females argues for a mechanistic role for the anti-apoptotic cytokine in driving sex differences in cell death. Prenatal stress significantly impacted the hippocampus, with both stress paradigms causing robust decreases in actively proliferating cells in males and females. Several other hippocampal measures were feminized in males such as precursor kinetics, IL-1,-IR density, and cell death, reducing or abolishing some sex differences. The findings expand our understanding of the mechanisms underlying sex differences and highlight the critical role early stress can play on the balance between proliferation, neurogenesis, cell death, and hippocampal microenvironment in adulthood. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008. [source]

    Pre-/post-otic rhombomeric interactions control the emergence of a fetal-like respiratory rhythm in the mouse embryo

    C. Borday
    Abstract How regional patterning of the neural tube in vertebrate embryos may influence the emergence and the function of neural networks remains elusive. We have begun to address this issue in the embryonic mouse hindbrain by studying rhythmogenic properties of different neural tube segments. We have isolated pre- and post-otic hindbrain segments and spinal segments of the mouse neural tube, when they form at embryonic day (E) 9, and grafted them into the same positions in stage-matched chick hosts. Three days after grafting, in vitro recordings of the activity in the cranial nerves exiting the grafts indicate that a high frequency (HF) rhythm (order: 10 bursts/min) is generated in post-otic segments while more anterior pre-otic and more posterior spinal territories generate a low frequency (LF) rhythm (order: 1 burst/min). Comparison with homo-specific grafting of corresponding chick segments points to conservation in mouse and chick of the link between the patterning of activities and the axial origin of the hindbrain segment. This HF rhythm is reminiscent of the respiratory rhythm known to appear at E15 in mice. We also report on pre-/post-otic interactions. The pre-otic rhombomere 5 prevents the emergence of the HF rhythm at E12. Although the nature of the interaction with r5 remains obscure, we propose that ontogeny of fetal-like respiratory circuits relies on: (i) a selective developmental program enforcing HF rhythm generation, already set at E9 in post-otic segments, and (ii) trans-segmental interactions with pre-otic territories that may control the time when this rhythm appears. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006 [source]

    Strategies to prevent type 1 diabetes

    S. L. Thrower
    Type 1 diabetes is a chronic autoimmune condition resulting from T cell,mediated destruction of the insulin-producing cells in the islets of Langerhans. Its primary cause remains unknown, but it has been established that the clinical presentation is preceded by a long prodrome. This enables individuals at high risk of disease to be identified and offers the possibility of intervention to prevent clinical disease. Many groups are working in this field, concentrating on manipulation of environmental exposures that are potential triggers of autoimmunity and on immunomodulation strategies that aim to prevent destruction of ,-cells. Some interventions have shown promising results in early trials, but effective disease prevention remains elusive. This article reviews current progress in the field. [source]

    Viral infections as potential triggers of type 1 diabetes

    Nienke van der Werf
    Abstract During the last decades, the incidence of type 1 diabetes (T1D) has increased significantly, reaching percentages of 3% annually worldwide. This increase suggests that besides genetical factors environmental perturbations (including viral infections) are also involved in the pathogenesis of T1D. T1D has been associated with viral infections including enteroviruses, rubella, mumps, rotavirus, parvovirus and cytomegalovirus (CMV). Although correlations between clinical presentation with T1D and the occurrence of a viral infection that precedes the development of overt disease have been recognized, causalities between viruses and the diabetogenic process are still elusive and difficult to prove in humans. The use of experimental animal models is therefore indispensable, and indeed more insight in the mechanism by which viruses can modulate diabetogenesis has been provided by studies in rodent models for T1D such as the biobreeding (BB) rat, nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse or specific transgenic mouse strains. Data from experimental animals as well as in vitro studies indicate that various viruses are clearly able to modulate the development of T1D via different mechanisms, including direct ,-cell lysis, bystander activation of autoreactive T cells, loss of regulatory T cells and molecular mimicry. Data obtained in rodents and in vitro systems have improved our insight in the possible role of viral infections in the pathogenesis of human T1D. Future studies will hopefully reveal which human viruses are causally involved in the induction of T1D and this knowledge may provide directions on how to deal with viral infections in diabetes-susceptible individuals in order to delay or even prevent the diabetogenic process. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Elevated dominance of extrafloral nectary-bearing plants is associated with increased abundances of an invasive ant and reduced native ant richness

    Amy M. Savage
    Abstract Aim, Invasive ants can have substantial and detrimental effects on co-occurring community members, especially other ants. However, the ecological factors that promote both their population growth and their negative influences remain elusive. Opportunistic associations between invasive ants and extrafloral nectary (EFN)-bearing plants are common and may fuel population expansion and subsequent impacts of invasive ants on native communities. We examined three predictions of this hypothesis, compared ant assemblages between invaded and uninvaded sites and assessed the extent of this species in Samoa. Location, The Samoan Archipelago (six islands and 35 sites). Methods, We surveyed abundances of the invasive ant Anoplolepis gracilipes, other ant species and EFN-bearing plants. Results,Anoplolepis gracilipes was significantly more widely distributed in 2006 than in 1962, suggesting that the invasion of A. gracilipes in Samoa has progressed. Furthermore, (non- A. gracilipes) ant assemblages differed significantly between invaded and uninvaded sites. Anoplolepis gracilipes workers were found more frequently at nectaries than other plant parts, suggesting that nectar resources were important to this species. There was a strong, positive relationship between the dominance of EFN-bearing plants in the community and A. gracilipes abundance on plants, a relationship that co-occurring ants did not display. High abundances of A. gracilipes at sites dominated by EFN-bearing plants were associated with low species richness of native plant-visiting ant species. Anoplolepis gracilipes did not display any significant relationships with the diversity of other non-native ants. Main conclusions, Together, these data suggest that EFN-bearing plants may promote negative impacts of A. gracilipes on co-occurring ants across broad spatial scales. This study underscores the potential importance of positive interactions in the dynamics of species invasions. Furthermore, they suggest that conservation managers may benefit from explicit considerations of potential positive interactions in predicting the identities of problematic invaders or the outcomes of species invasions. [source]

    Adenosine A3 receptors in the rat hippocampus: Lack of interaction with A1 receptors

    Luķsa V. Lopes
    Abstract Adenosine acts as a neuromodulator in the hippocampus essentially through activation of inhibitory A1 receptors. Using single-cell PCR analysis, we found that CA1 pyramidal cells coexpress A1 receptor mRNA together with that of another adenosine receptor, the A3 receptor. As occurs for the A1 receptor, Western blot analysis indicated that the A3 receptor is also located in hippocampal nerve terminals. However, activation of A3 receptors with its purportedly selective agonist Cl-IBMECA (0.1,10 µM) failed to affect hippocampal synaptic transmission or to modify the evoked release of glutamate or GABA. Also, blockade of A3 receptors with MRS 1191 (5 µM) failed to affect either hypoxia- or ischemia-induced depression of hippocampal synaptic transmission. Activation of A3 receptors also failed to control A1 receptor function, as Cl-IBMECA (100 nM) did not modify the ability of CPA to displace [3H]DPCPX binding to hippocampal membranes or the A1 receptor-mediated inhibition of hippocampal synaptic transmission. However, ligand binding studies revealed that Cl-IBMECA displaced the binding of an A1 receptor agonist ([3H]R-PIA, Ki=47 nM) or antagonist ([3H]DPCPX, Ki=130 nM), which suggests that A3 receptor ligands also act on native A1 receptors. We believe that A3 receptors are expressed in hippocampal neurons and are located in hippocampal nerve terminals, though their function remains elusive. Drug Dev. Res. 58:428,438, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cytosolic protein-protein interactions that regulate the amyloid precursor protein

    Shasta L. Sabo
    Abstract Alzheimer disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disease, is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly and is among the leading causes of death in adults. AD is characterized by two major pathological hallmarks, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. For a number of reasons, amyloid plaque accumulation is widely thought to be the probable cause of AD. The amyloid plaque core is largely composed of an approximately 4-kDa peptide referred to as A,. A, is derived from its precursor, the Alzheimer amyloid protein precursor (APP), by endoproteolytic processing. APP is a type I integral membrane protein, with a long extracellular domain, one transmembrane domain, and a short (,50 amino acid) cytoplasmic tail. Despite intense efforts to decipher the function of APP, its normal physiological role has remained elusive. The carboxy-terminus of APP contains the sequence YENPTY, which is absolutely conserved across APP homologues and across species. The YENPTY sequence is important for regulation of APP processing and trafficking. Given the importance of the cytoplasmic domain in APP physiology, a number of laboratories have hypothesized that proteins that bind to the YENPTY sequence in the cytoplasmic domain of APP might regulate APP processing, trafficking, and/or function. In this article, we will discuss data revealing which proteins bind to the cytoplasmic domain of APP, how these binding-proteins regulate APP metabolism and function, and why such protein-protein interactions provide an exciting new target for therapeutic intervention in AD. Drug Dev. Res. 56:228,241, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Mindfulness-based treatments for co-occurring depression and substance use disorders: what can we learn from the brain?

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    Judson A. Brewer
    ABSTRACT Both depression and substance use disorders represent major global public health concerns and are often co-occurring. Although there are ongoing discoveries regarding the pathophysiology and treatment of each condition, common mechanisms and effective treatments for co-occurring depression and substance abuse remain elusive. Mindfulness training has been shown recently to benefit both depression and substance use disorders, suggesting that this approach may target common behavioral and neurobiological processes. However, it remains unclear whether these pathways constitute specific shared neurobiological mechanisms or more extensive components universal to the broader human experience of psychological distress or suffering. We offer a theoretical, clinical and neurobiological perspective of the overlaps between these disorders, highlight common neural pathways that play a role in depression and substance use disorders and discuss how these commonalities may frame our conceptualization and treatment of co-occurring disorders. Finally, we discuss how advances in our understanding of potential mechanisms of mindfulness training may offer not only unique effects on depression and substance use, but also offer promise for treatment of co-occurring disorders. [source]

    ORIGINAL INVESTIGATIONS: Potential Faces of Patent Foramen Ovale (PFO PFO)

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 8 2010
    F.R.C.P., Tasneem Z Naqvi M.D.
    Background: Patent foramen ovale (PFO) is diagnosed on echocardiography by saline contrast study with or without color Doppler evidence of shunting. PFO is benign except when it causes embolic events. Methods and Results: In this report, we describe unique additional manifestations related to the diagnosis and presentation of PFO. These include demonstration of PFO during the release phase of "sigh" on the ventilator in the operating room, use of a separate venipuncture to allow preparation of blood-saline-air mixture after multiple failed saline bubble injections, resting and stress hypoxemia related to left to right shunting across a PFO in the absence of pulmonary hypertension, presentation of quadriperesis secondary to an embolic event from a PFO and development of a thrombus on the left atrial aspect of PFO in a patient with atrial fibrillation, and on the right atrial aspect of PFO in a patient who had undergone repair of a flail mitral valve. Finally, in one patient with end-stage renal disease, aortic valve endocarditis and periaortic abscess, PFO acted as a vent valve relieving right atrial pressure following development of aortoatrial fistula. Conclusion: PFO diagnosis can be elusive if appropriate techniques are not used during saline contrast administration. PFO can present as hypoxemia in the absence of pulmonary hypertension, can be a rare cause of quadriperesis, and can be associated with thrombus formation on either side of interatrial septum. Finally, PFO presence can be lifesaving in those with sudden increase in right atrial pressure such as with aortoatrial fistula. (Echocardiography 2010;27:897-907) [source]

    Scale-dependence in species-area relationships

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2005
    Will R. Turner
    Species-area relationships (SARs) are among the most studied phenomena in ecology, and are important both to our basic understanding of biodiversity and to improving our ability to conserve it. But despite many advances to date, our knowledge of how various factors contribute to SARs is limited, searches for single causal factors are often inconclusive, and true predictive power remains elusive. We believe that progress in these areas has been impeded by 1) an emphasis on single-factor approaches and thinking of factors underlying SARs as mutually exclusive hypotheses rather than potentially interacting processes, and 2) failure to place SAR-generating factors in a scale-dependent framework. We here review mathematical, ecological, and evolutionary factors contributing to species-area relationships, synthesizing major hypotheses from the literature in a scale-dependent context. We then highlight new research directions and unanswered questions raised by this scale-dependent synthesis. [source]

    The tropics: cradle, museum or casino?

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 7 2008
    A dynamic null model for latitudinal gradients of species diversity
    Abstract Several ecological and evolutionary hypotheses have been proposed to explain the latitudinal diversity gradient (LDG), but a general model for this conspicuous pattern remains elusive. Mid-domain effect (MDE) models generate gradients of species diversity by randomly placing the geographic ranges of species in one- or two-dimensional spaces, thus excluding both evolutionary processes and the effect of contemporary climate. Traditional MDE models are statistical and static because they determine the size of ranges either randomly or based on empirical frequency distributions. Here we present a simple dynamic null model for the LDG that simulates stochastic processes of range shifts, extinction and speciation. The model predicts higher species diversity and higher extinction and speciation rates in the tropics, and a strong influence of range movements in shaping the LDG. These null expectations should be taken into consideration in studies aimed at understanding the many factors that generate latitudinal diversity gradients. [source]

    Community maturity, species saturation and the variant diversity,productivity relationships in grasslands

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 12 2006
    Qinfeng Guo
    Abstract Detailed knowledge of the relationship between plant diversity and productivity is critical for advancing our understanding of ecosystem functioning and for achieving success in habitat restoration efforts. However, effects and interactions of diversity, succession and biotic invasions on productivity remain elusive. We studied newly established communities in relation to preexisting homogeneous vegetation invaded by exotic plants in the northern Great Plains, USA, at four study sites for 3 years. We observed variant diversity,productivity relationships for the seeded communities (generally positive monotonic at three sites and non-monotonic at the other site) but no relationships for the resident community or the seeded and resident communities combined at all sites and all years. Community richness was enhanced by seeding additional species but productivity was not. The optimal diversity (as indicated by maximum productivity) changed among sites and as the community developed. The findings shed new light on ecosystem functioning of biodiversity under different conditions and have important implications for restoration. [source]

    Natural enemy specialization and the period of population cycles

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 5 2003
    P. Rohani
    Abstract The dynamical consequences of multiple-species interactions remain an elusive and fiercely debated topic. Recently, Murdoch and colleagues proposed a general rule for the dynamics of generalist natural enemies: when periodic, they exhibit single generation cycles (SGCs), similar to single species systems. This contrasts markedly with specialists, which tend to show classic (longer period) consumer,resource cycles. Using a well-studied laboratory system, we show that this general rule is contradicted when we consider resource age-structure. [source]

    Anaphylaxis: Clinical concepts and research priorities

    Simon GA Brown
    Abstract Anaphylaxis is a severe immediate-type hypersensitivity reaction characterized by life-threatening upper airway obstruction bronchospasm and hypotension. Although many episodes are easy to diagnose by the combination of characteristic skin features with other organ effects, this is not always the case and a workable clinical definition of anaphylaxis and useful biomarkers of the condition have been elusive. A recently proposed consensus definition is ready for prospective validation. The cornerstones of management are the supine position, adrenaline and volume resuscitation. An intramuscular dose of adrenaline is generally recommended to initiate treatment. If additional adrenaline is required, then a controlled intravenous infusion might be more efficacious and safer than intravenous bolus administration. Additional bronchodilator treatment with continuous salbutamol and corticosteroids are used for severe and/or refractory bronchospasm. Aggressive volume resuscitation, selective vasopressors, atropine (for bradycardia), inotropes that bypass the ,-adrenoreceptor and bedside echocardiographic assessment should be considered for hypotension that is refractory to treatment. Management guidelines continue to be opinion- and consensus-based, with retrospective studies accounting for the vast majority of clinical research papers on the topic. The clinical spectrum of anaphylaxis including major disease subgroups requires clarification, and validated scoring systems and outcome measures are needed to enable good-quality prospective observational studies and randomized controlled trials. A systematic approach with multicentre collaboration is required to improve our understanding and management of this disease. [source]