Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Elites

  • business elite
  • corporate elite
  • local elite
  • party elite
  • policy elite
  • political elite
  • ruling elite
  • social elite

  • Terms modified by Elites

  • elite athlete
  • elite consensus
  • elite endurance athlete
  • elite group
  • elite line
  • elite wheat cultivar

  • Selected Abstracts

    James Killian, the Technological Capabilities Panel, and the Emergency of President Eisenhower' "Scientific-Technological Elite"

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 1 2000
    Richard V. Damms
    First page of article [source]

    Adolescents' music preferences and personality characteristics

    Marc J. M. H. Delsing
    Abstract The present paper examined the structure of Dutch adolescents' music preferences, the stability of music preferences and the relations between Big-Five personality characteristics and (changes in) music preferences. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses of music-preference data from 2334 adolescents aged 12,19 revealed four clearly interpretable music-preference dimensions: Rock, Elite, Urban and Pop/Dance. One thousand and forty-four randomly selected adolescents from the original sample filled out questionnaires on music preferences and personality at three follow-up measurements. In addition to being relatively stable over 1, 2 and 3-year intervals, music preferences were found to be consistently related to personality characteristics, generally confirming prior research in the United States. Personality characteristics were also found to predict changes in music preferences over a 3-year interval. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Policy related to abdominoplasty in publicly funded elective surgery programs: a systematic review

    Alan Pearson RN, DipNEd
    Abstract Objectives, This systematic review set out to establish best practice in relation to policy for the inclusion/exclusion of abdominoplasty procedures within public health systems. Inclusion criteria, The review considered any studies relating to abdominoplasty that addressed issues of inclusion/exclusion from public funded health systems including criteria for clinical need, contraindications, fit/ready for surgery, policy compliance and issues in relation to surgical training. Search strategy, The search strategy sought to find published and unpublished studies and papers limited to English. An initial search of Medline and CINAHL was undertaken, followed by an analysis of keywords contained in the title, abstract and index terms. A second comprehensive search was then undertaken using Medline, CINAHL, EMBASE, AUSTROM, Health Business, and FullTEXT Elite and PsycINFO. The search was restricted to the period 1995,2005. Methodological quality, Each paper identified was assessed by two independent reviewers for methodological quality before inclusion in the review using an appropriate critical appraisal instrument from the Joanna Briggs Institute System for the Unified Management and Assessment Review Instrument package. Results, A total of 19 papers were included in the review. Owing to the diverse nature of the papers no meta-analysis or meta-synthesis was able to be used to pool studies. The results are therefore presented in a narrative form. The papers identified were mainly retrospective audits and discussion/opinion papers. The main issues addressed were criteria to establish clinical need, contraindications and policy compliance. Conclusion, There are clinical indicators, mainly in relation to physical symptoms/dysfunction, to support exemption of some cases of abdominoplasty. For abdominoplasty to be conducted clinical need must be assessed and formally documented. Where clinical need is primarily based on psychological distress/dysfunction a formal psychiatric assessment should be used to justify surgery. [source]

    A Systematic Review of the Effectiveness of Breastfeeding Intervention Delivery Methods

    Barbara Pate
    ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze breastfeeding intervention delivery methods to determine the likelihood of successful breastfeeding outcomes of e-based interventions compared to provider-based interventions. Data Sources: Eligible studies were identified by searching MEDLINE, CINAHL, Academic Search Elite, Health Source: Nursing/Academic Edition, SOC INDEX, and PsycINFO. Study Selection: Studies were included if they were conducted in a developed country, published between the years 2004 and 2008, included a concurrent control group, and reported frequency data on breastfeeding initiation or duration. The suitability of design and quality of execution were evaluated using the Centers for Disease Control procedure for systematic reviews. Twenty-one articles met the criteria for inclusion. Data Extraction: Study design, demographics, intervention/control conditions, settings, sampling strategies, potential threats to validity, and breastfeeding outcomes were abstracted and entered into a database for analysis and synthesis. Data Synthesis: Odds ratios were calculated for each individual study, and studies were stratified into 2 groups by intervention delivery type. The pooled results indicated that studies using e-based interventions had a moderate effect on breastfeeding (odds ratio=2.2 [1.9-2.7], d=0.5); whereas provider-based interventions had very little to no effect (odds ratio=1.1 [1.0-1.2], d=0.03). Conclusions: Results indicate that breastfeeding promotion programs delivered via the Internet may be an appealing alternative to time-consuming and expensive provider-based breastfeeding education and support. [source]

    Hollywood and the Culture Elite: How the Movies Became American by Peter Decherney

    Ray B. Browne
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    From Canadian Corporate Elite to Transnational Capitalist Class: Transitions in the Organization of Corporate Power,

    William K. Carroll
    Cet article se penche sur un programme de recherche qui a consigné les transitions qui ont été effectuées dans l'élite de l'entreprise canadienne et qui a enquêté dernièrement sur la formation d'une classe capitaliste transnationale. Le programme s'est concentré sur l'organisation sociale du pouvoir des grandes sociétés sous ses aspects à la fois cumulatifs et hégémoniques, telle qu'elle a été retrouvée par le réeseau des conseils d'administration interdépendants dans les plus grandes entreprises. Des événements récents au Canada illustrent les transitions qui semblent indispensables a la forme financière de l'accumulation et aux « politiques axées sur le marché» caractérisant le capitalisme néolibéral Dans l'ensemble, l'analyse du réseau démontre que la classe capitaliste transnationale ne se trouve qu'à l'état naissant malgré l'organisation sociale fournie par les réseaux internationaux et les groupes de planification de politiques mondiaux. This article reflects on a research program that has mapped transitions in the Canadian corporate elite and has more recently investigated the formation of a transnational capitalist class. The program has focussed on the social organization of corporate power in both its accumulative and hegemonic aspects, as traced by the network of interlwkmg directorates among the largest fms. Recent developments in Canada exempw transitions that seem integral to the fmancialized form of accumulation and the "market-driven politics" that characterize neo-liberal capitalism. Globally, network analysis shows the transnational capitalist class to be only nascent, despite the social organization provided by transnational interlocks and global policy-planning groups. [source]

    Entering the Political Elite in Canada: The Case of Minority Women as Parliamentary Candidates and MPs,

    Jerome H. Black
    Cette recherche analyse les femmes des minorités ethniques comme nouveau groupe social visant à accéder à l'élite politique. Elle est axée sur les conséquences liées à leur appartenance à une «double minorité». L'analyse examine deux modèles de cheminement de carrière qui offrent des caractérisations alternatives quant aux obstacles de recrutement auxquels se heurtent les nouveaux groupes sociaux et qui créent des attentes différentes quant aux ressources détenues par les femmes des minorités, comparativement à celles des groupes plus établis. Les résultats principaux, fondés sur un sondage canadien de 1993 sur les candidats parlementaires et completés par de l'information sur les députés, appuient davantage le modèle de «compensation» et, en général, semblent indiquer que l'inégalité continue de caractériser le processus d'accès à l'élite politique. This study examines minority women as a new social group seeking access to the political elite, emphasizing the consequences of their "double minority" status. The analysis considers two career path models that make alternative characterizations about the recruitment barriers faced by new social groups and that yield different expectations about the resources held by minority women compared with more established groups. The main results, based on a 1993 Canadian survey of parliamentary candidates, supplemented by information on MPs, indicate more support for the "compensation" model and, generally, suggest that inequity continues to characterize the process of political elite access. [source]

    Making the Monkey: How the Togean Macaque Went from "New Form" to "Endemic Species" in Indonesians' Conservation Biology

    Celia Lowe
    Indonesian scientists inhabit a postcolonial world where they are both elite (within the nation) and subaltern (within transnational science) at precisely the same moments. A study of science that is neither "ethno" nor "Euro" requires a postcolonial refiguration not only of how science's matter is made but of where and by whom. In the 1990s, the Togean macaque (Macaca togeanus) was proposed as a new species endemic to the Togean Islands, the proposed site of a new conservation area in Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. In the scientific production of biodiverse nature, Indonesian primatologists identified the monkey first as a "new form," then as a "dubious name," and subsequently, as an "endemic species." Throughout these acts of making, unmaking, and remaking the monkey, its unique and endemic status was important for developing Indonesian conservation biology, attracting foreign donors, and enlisting government and public interest in Togean Island nature, even as forms of nature important to Togean peoples were overwritten in this process. [source]

    Education, Values, and Valuing in Cosmopolitan Perspective

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 5 2009
    ABSTRACT In this article we describe a cosmopolitan orientation toward the place of values in human life. We argue that a cosmopolitan outlook can assist people in engaging the challenges of being thrown together with others whose roots, traditions, and inheritances differ. We show that cosmopolitanism implies neither an elite nor an aloof posture toward human affairs. On the contrary, the concept illuminates how people everywhere can retain individual and cultural integrity while also keeping themselves open to the larger world. A cosmopolitan outlook positions people to consider not just the specific values they subscribe to, but also their ways of holding and enacting them. This move provides people valuable distance from values although not a break with them. It helps people consider the value of valuing as well as the value of reflecting upon values. We examine three arts, or artful methods, that can fuel this orientation. They are hope, memory, and dialogue: three familiar concepts that we accent in a distinctive way in light of the idea of cosmopolitanism. We show how these arts can be cultivated continuously through education. [source]

    Orofacial trauma and rugby in France: epidemiological survey

    Michèle Muller-Bolla
    Abstract ,,,A stratified epidemiological survey was carried out among the best French rugby players to assess the prevalence of trauma to the lower or middle part of the face (TLMPF) and the frequency at which the mouthguards (MGs) were worn. The 1140 randomized players (elite 1, elite 2 and national 1 clubs) filled in the same form anonymously. The variables were first subjected to univariate analysis (Chi-square, anova). Secondly, they were included in a multivariate model (logistic regression). Some 29.57% of players had already been affected by a TLMPF. The risk increased for the oldest forward players. It also increased with the number of yearly competitions and number of hours of weekly training. Some 64.3% of players used a MG. The frequency at which it was worn increased with the number of yearly competitions, for those who had experinced a previous trauma and for the pack players who had been playing for a long time. [source]

    Use of mouthguards by basketball players in Victoria, Australia

    Helen Cornwell
    Abstract ,,,Basketball is a popular sport in Australia. Although orofacial injuries are common, mouthguard (MG) wear in basketball appears to be low. The purposes of this study were: to measure mouthguard wear by basketball players before and after a promotional intervention; to assess players' knowledge of the value of mouthguards for prevention of injury; and to describe their experience of orofacial injury. Two questionnaires (baseline and follow-up) were administered to a convenience sample of 496 basketball players in Victoria, Australia. Players recruited were youths (12,15-year olds, n = 208) and adults (18 years and over, n = 288), from all basketball levels (social to elite). Completion of the baseline questionnaire was followed immediately by an intervention comprising written and verbal information, a mouthguard blank and instructions on mouthguard construction. The follow-up questionnaire was mailed to all respondents 10,12 weeks later; 135 youths (65%) and 157 adults (54%) completed this. Mouthguard wear at baseline was low but was more frequent at games (62%) than at training (25%). Despite 90% of players acknowledging the protective value of a mouthguard, wear by youths did not increase following the intervention, and wear by adults increased by only 14% for training and 10% at games. Previous orofacial injury was recorded at baseline by 23% of players, but few had requested compensation from Basketball Australia (youths, 17%; adults, 30%). Two predictor variables were statistically identified as related to mouthguard wear: previous orofacial injury and age group. Mouthguard wear was significantly more frequent amongst players with previous injury; such players were 2.76 times more likely to be wearers than those without previous injury. Youths were 2.31 times more likely to wear mouthguards than adults. Only 34 players (12% of respondents at follow-up) had a mouthguard constructed from the blank provided. Although youth and adult groups differed, the overall extent of mouthguard use was disappointingly low. Despite wide recognition of mouthguard value, the intervention had little effect on promoting their use. [source]

    Elites, Rent-Cycling and Development: Adjustment to Land Scarcity in Mauritius, Kenya and Côte d'Ivoire

    Richard M. Auty
    According to rent-cycling theory, low rent aligns the interests of the elite and the majority in providing public goods and efficiency incentives to promote economic growth, while high rent risks deflecting the elite into self-enriching rent deployment, which distorts the economy and triggers a collapse from which recovery is protracted because rent recipients resist reform. The theory also predicts, however, that this collapse will self-correct by shrinking per capita rent, which strengthens incentives for wealth creation. This article tests the prediction in Mauritius, Kenya and Côte d'Ivoire where intensifying land scarcity has shrunk per capita rent; Mauritius meets the prediction, but Kenya and Côte d'Ivoire do not. [source]

    Towards a new Bradshaw?

    1960s, Economic statistics, the British state in the 1950s
    SUMMARY This article outlines the attempts of British central government to react to the perceived inadequacy of official economic statistics. A huge amount of work went into this project, the main aim of which was to speed up the production of statistics so that the economy could be analysed in more detail, and thus better managed. If this was to work, more data was required on the labour market, on productivity, on production, and on the interlinkages between those indicators. British official statistics clearly were more comprehensive and more detailed at the end of this period than they had been at the start. Even so, the effort was usually thought to have been a failure by the early 1970s. More detail took time to produce; it was difficult to recruit the necessary staff; successive administrative reorganizations also absorbed energies. The devolved informality of British government hampered the emergence of an overall picture. Businesses and trade unions resisted attempts to collect more data, especially when it showed them in an unflattering light. Above all, the elite, specialist, and technical nature of the reform process meant that very little political and popular pressure built up to force through further changes. [source]

    Cooption and Repression in the Soviet Union

    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 1 2001
    Dmitriy Gershenson
    The Soviet ruling elite, the nomenklatura, used both cooption and political repression to encourage loyalty to the communist regime. Loyalty was critical both in defusing internal opposition to the rule of the nomenklatura and in either deterring or defeating foreign enemies of the Soviet Union. The cost of coopting people into the Communist Party was a decrease in the standard of living of members of the nomenklatura, whereas the cost of political repression was the danger that members of the nomenklatura would themselves be victimized. We assume that the nomenklatura determined the extent of cooption and the intensity of political repression by equating perceived marginal benefits and marginal costs. We use this assumption to construct an account of the historical evolution of policies of cooption and political repression in the Soviet Union. [source]

    A Defense of Puttenham's Arte of English Poesy

    Julian Lamb
    Recent critical accounts of Puttenham's treatise have tended to focus on the political nature of its poetics, and have in turn read the text as an exercise in courtly dissembling, or in self-fashioning. My argument is that such readings misunderstand the pedagogical nature of Puttenham's text, which distinguishes it from Sidney's Defense of Poetry and Daniel's Defense of Rhyme (to which the Art has been compared unfavourably). In the first half of this article I provide a re-interpretation of Puttenham's conception of decorum, suggesting that it is not an inexplicable rule designed to keep poetry the property the courtly elite, but rather a appetite and an imperative motivating the writing of poetry. In the second half of the article I consider Puttenham's understanding of the nature of decorum in terms of the relationship between custom and the rule. I suggest that Puttenham conceptualises this relationship as one between the aural and visual properties of language; between the ear and the eye. [source]

    Association of type of sport and performance level with anatomical site of orthopaedic injury diagnosis

    R. C. MURRAY
    Summary Reason for performing study: Although anecdotal reports of increased orthopaedic injury risk in equine sports exist, there is little scientific evidence to support this. Objectives: To test whether horses undertaking a single competitive sport have increased risk of specific injuries compared to those used for general purpose riding (GP); and whether injury type varies with sport category and performance level. Methods: Data from 1069 records of horses undergoing orthopaedic evaluation (1998,2003) and meeting inclusion criteria were reviewed. Sport category (GP, showjumping, dressage, eventing, racing), level (nonelite or elite) and diagnosis were recorded. Effects of sport category and level on probability of a specific diagnosis were assessed using chisquared tests. Logistic regression was used to determine which competitive sports and levels increased risk of injury compared with GP. Results: Overall there was a significant effect of sport category and level on diagnosis (P<0.0001). There was significant difference between anatomical site injured and sport category (P<0.0001); a high risk of forelimb superficial digital flexor tendon injury in elite eventing (P<0.0001) and elite showjumping (P=0.02); distal deep digital flexor tendon (DDFT) injury in elite showjumping (P=0.002); and hindlimb suspensory ligament injury in elite (P<0.0001) and nonelite (P=0.001) dressage. There was a low risk of tarsal injury in elite eventing (P=0.01) and proximal DDFT injury in dressage (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Horses competing in different sports are predisposed to specific injuries; particular sports may increase the risk of injury at certain anatomical sites; and the type and site of injury may reflect the type and level of performance. Potential relevance: These findings could guide clinicians in the diagnosis of sport related injuries. [source]

    The conditional party mandate: A model for the study of mass and elite opinion patterns

    What is the level of issue congruence between voters and elected leaders? The article introduces two ideas for the analysis of mass and elite opinion patterns. First, the authors challenge the unidimensional conception of mass-elite linkages, and argue that the opinion structure of political parties may best be understood in the context of a multidimensional policy space. Second, they contest the proximity logic of the traditional party mandate model. In so doing, they propose the ,conditional party mandate model', arguing that ,direction' rather than ,proximity' attracts voters' interest and attention. The authors contend that in issues of principle significance for a particular party (so-called ,core issues'), the party's voters and representatives will proceed in the same direction, but the representatives will stress their position more strongly than the voters. In issues that are less significant to the parties, the relationship between the two levels will be fortuitous and less clear. The analyses, which are based on elite and mass survey data from the Norwegian political system, support the authors' hypotheses concerning positional issues. When the direction of an issue is given, representatives are more extreme than voters. [source]

    National territory in European space: Reconfiguring the island of Ireland

    Uncovering such connections in a case study notable for its recent transformation, this article explores the way in which the narratives and models of European integration have been used in the discourse of Irish official nationalism. Its central thesis is that participation in the space of European Union has facilitated the conceptualization of a common Irish space in which borders (specifically the Irish border) are not conceived as barriers to be overcome, but rather as bridges to the fulfilment of interests. Thus, the Irish governmental elite have used the language of European integration to reconfigure traditional ideals of latent anti-partitionism for a context of peaceful settlement. [source]

    Sand in the machinery?

    Comparing bureaucrats', politicians' attitudes toward public sector reform
    This article addresses the general notion that bureaucrats may oppose the introduction of reforms in the public sector, and that their views concerning reform will differ from that of politicians. Such a situation may create a sense of conflict between the two spheres, but different views on public sector reform can also follow other conflict dimensions. Two such dimensions are outlined: the one between political parties, and the one between a political-administrative elite and a group of more peripheral politicians and administrators. The hypotheses set forward are tested by comparing local authority politicians' and administrative leaders' views on public sector reform. The data does not support the notion of general conflict between politicians and administrators, or that of conflict of interest between an elite and a more peripheral group. In general, politicians and administrators have rather similar views, but there is a wide difference between political parties. The administration places itself somewhat in the middle between political extremes, being moderately positive towards most reforms. [source]

    Foreign Policy Making Under Koizumi: Norms and Japan's Role in the 2003 Iraq War

    Yukiko Miyagi
    Japan's policy toward the 2003 Iraq War is a test of the constructivist argument about the weight of norms as opposed to material systemic factors in foreign policy making. Constructions of external threats and interests were contested between a largely realist-minded elite around prime minister Koizumi bent on Japan's remilitarization and those still holding to antimilitarist norms. This contest is traced in an analysis of the policy-making process, including the role of bureaucratic and political institutions, the opposition parties and the public. Indicative of the power of norms, Koizumi was forced to compromise his ambition to use the Iraq crisis to help make Japan a "normal" great power. [source]

    Germans as Venutians: The Culture of German Foreign Policy Behavior

    The end of the Cold War eliminated many of the external constraints that had straitjacketed German policy during the Cold War era. At the same time, unification augmented Germany's already substantial power base. In light of these changed geopolitical circumstances, it was only logical for the dominant theory of security studies, namely realism, to expect a reorientation in German foreign policy behavior toward unilateralism and increased levels of power politics. Yet these expectations proved wrong. This article argues that German foreign policy behavior in the post-Cold War era can be ascribed to a foreign policy culture of reticence,a culture of restraint and accommodation that can be traced to well-defined sets of fundamental beliefs of the German decision-making elite. This article systematically examines these beliefs in the post-Cold War era, relates them to foreign policy choices, and concludes with a plea for increased attention to ideational variables. [source]

    Un/safe/ly at Home: Narratives of Sexual Coercion in 1920s Egypt

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 3 2004
    Marilyn Booth
    This paper takes up an Arabic narrative genre that appeared in the 1920s. Its distinctive narrative properties included adoption of a first-person female experiental voice and a focus on `impolite' social realms. Combining confessional exposé and social polemic in what I am calling `simulated memoirs', these narrating voices offered readers the narrative authority of first-hand experience in Cairo's underworld and critique of elite politics and spaces of behaviour from the constructed perspective of subaltern social figures. I argue that these text's inscriptions of bodily coercion trace an anxiety about growing female visibility throughout urban space. Construction of feminine narrative voices apparently wrests authority to speak about gendered bodily violence away from elite, mostly male commentators and representatives of the state, transferring that authority to the figure of the `fallen' female who `speaks'. But this is an act of ventriloquism: complex layerings of authorial and narrative attribution recoup that authority, reasserting the disciplinary power of the patriarchal father over the lives and vulnerabilities of the young. [source]


    Donald McNeill
    ABSTRACT. This article seeks to contribute to debates about the mobile nature of contemporary economic practice, through a discussion of some key themes in the evolution of airport hotels as business spaces. It argues that despite being emblematic of a hypermobile business elite, the nature of hotels as business spaces requires careful unpacking. The article begins by discussing the evolution of the airport hotel, charting the shift from basic lodging standards to recent developments of five star airport hotels. It then seeks to explain the locational geographies of airport hotel development, in response to these new trends. Finally, the article describes how the business traveller is conceived of and (speculatively) catered for by airport hotel operators and designers within a discourse of connectivity, before providing some counter-examples of how such claims fail to address the hotel's place within the complexity of airport spatial organization. [source]

    The network of global corporations and elite policy groups: a structure for transnational capitalist class formation?

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 1 2003
    William K. Carroll
    This study situates five top transnational policy,planning groups within the larger structure of corporate power that is constituted through interlocking directorates among the world's largest companies. Each group makes a distinct contribution towards transnational capitalist hegemony both by building consensus within the global corporate elite and by educating publics and states on the virtues of one or another variant of the neo,liberal paradigm. Analysis of corporate,policy interlocks reveals that a few dozen cosmopolitans , primarily men based in Europe and North America and actively engaged in corporate management , knit the network together via participation in transnational interlocking and/or multiple policy groups. As a structure underwriting transnational business activism, the network is highly centralized, yet from its core it extends unevenly to corporations and individuals positioned on its fringes. The policy groups pull the directorates of the world's major corporations together, and collaterally integrate the lifeworld of the global corporate elite, but they do so selectively, reproducing regional differences in participation. These findings support the claim that a well,integrated global corporate elite has formed, and that global policy groups have contributed to its formation. Whether this elite confirms the arrival of a transnational capitalist class is a matter partly of semantics and partly of substance. [source]

    Central State Power and its Limits in Bulpitt's Territory and Power

    Peter John
    This article assesses Bulpitt's treatment of the centre or central state. It begins by reviewing Bulpitt's argument that the UK centre elite developed a detached style of territorial management and recognized the limits to the state's power. The argument is that the elite at the centre sought to avoid the costs of intervention in the periphery so it could retain its autonomy over decisions affecting the economy and international affairs. The article then assesses Bulpitt's claims against extant evidence from the study of UK politics. It concludes that, in spite of Bulpitt's failure to appreciate the interest of the centre in the detail of local administration, the account holds up surprisingly well and could be adopted as a comparative framework for analysing how central elites seek to keep their grip on power by managing territorial politics successfully. [source]

    Napoleon and the Universal Monarchy

    HISTORY, Issue 319 2010
    Although the idea of ,Universal Monarchy' has existed since the early middle ages, the term started to be used pejoratively from the sixteenth century onwards. This article looks at the manner in which contemporaries perceived Napoleon's actions on the international scene, and how they used the term in relation to his foreign policy. Most of Europe's political elite believed that Napoleon was bent on some sort of ,universal domination', and that it was not limited to Europe. That perception was a direct result of an aggressive, expansionist French foreign policy. Napoleon's intentions, on the other hand, are more ambiguous. While at times he adopted a rhetoric which informed contemporary fears, the practical limits to his foreign policy were such that ,Universal Monarchy' could never be anything more than an ephemeral dream. [source]

    Extending Gregory VII's ,Friendship Network': Social Contacts in Late Eleventh-Century France

    HISTORY, Issue 312 2008
    In the last quarter of the eleventh century, the Roman Church had a capable ruler and defender in Pope Gregory VII (1073,85). Despite his otherwise charismatic authority, however, Gregory's ability to extend his influence beyond the papacy's more immediate control of Rome and the Campagna was limited. Filling this administrative and legal gap was the emerging office of legation, developing ad hoc under Gregory VII in matters of reform and law. Papal legates such as the French representative, Bishop Hugh of Die (later archbishop of Lyons), became crucial figures in the machinery of papal government. They assumed a vital role in the transmission of reforming legislation north of the Alps while effectively widening Gregory VII's ,friendship network' to encompass influential members of the local and regional clerical and lay elite. With the assistance of this ecclesiastical office, moreover, the papacy significantly enhanced its opportunity for social contacts, thereby strengthening its hold on the more distant provinces of Western Christendom. By focusing on existing and growing social networks in late eleventh-century France, this article examines Hugh of Die's role as an instrument of church reform, and assesses this legate's impact on the larger papal reform initiative in France. [source]

    Persistence, Principle and Patriotism in the Making of the Union of 1707: The Revolution, Scottish Parliament and the squadrone volante

    HISTORY, Issue 306 2007
    Since the 1960s most historians of the Union of 1707 have considered it a less than glorious chapter in Scotland's history. Driven by ambition and greed, Scots politicians, covetous of English wealth and swayed by promises and bribes, bartered their nation's independence for personal gain. Those genuinely committed to political union were in a minority. The following article maintains that this interpretation is based on an essentially short-term approach to the subject. Concentrating on the worsening relations between Scotland and England in the years immediately preceding the Union gives a distorted impression of what was a more enduring concern. It suggests the Revolution of 1688,9 had a far greater impact on the politics of union than previously anticipated, with the religious and political freedoms it guaranteed shaping the beliefs of a large number of Scots MPs who sat in Parliament 1706,7, almost half of whom had been members of King William's Convention Parliament with a majority supporting union. Focusing on the squadrone volante, one of the two much-maligned Scots unionist parties , the article traces the ideological roots of its key members and illustrates the various factors that led them to endorse an incorporating union which offered security for presbyterianism and a solution to Scotland's economic underdevelopment. Not denying that management and ambition played a significant part in securing the Union, it highlights the fact that amongst the Scottish political elite there was also a degree of genuine commitment and principled support. [source]

    Ignoring ,History from Below': People's History in the Historiography of Singapore

    Ernest Koh Wee Song
    The history of Singapore is widely understood as a history of its economic success. From its heyday as a nexus of trade during the imperial era to the ,technotropolis' that boasts high living standards for most of its citizens, Singapore as a historical subject is often viewed through the lens of the ruling elite. By expending the need to acknowledge the historical function of the citizenry in the island's socio-economic development, the policies and personalities of the Singaporean leadership have been erroneously and simplistically used by many as an example of how the sheer genius of a few can triumph in the face of overwhelming adversity. This article seeks to trace tangents in the wider development of Singapore's historiography in order to account for the general disinterest in people's histories of Singapore. [source]

    A Model of Declining Standards

    Joel Sobel
    This paper presents a model in which relative standing determines standards. There are three kinds of agents in the model: candidates who wish to pass a test, members of the elite who have passed the test, and the judge who decides who passes. In order to pass, a candidate's performance must be at least as good as the performance of a representative member of the elite. Without perturbations in the underlying data, the model predicts that standards will not change. Perturbations in the preferences used to judge candidates lead to a reduction in standards. [source]