Efficiency Ratio (efficiency + ratio)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Efficiency Ratio

  • feed efficiency ratio
  • protein efficiency ratio

  • Selected Abstracts

    Performance and exergetic analysis of vapor compression refrigeration system with an internal heat exchanger using a hydrocarbon, isobutane (R600a)

    Ahmet Kabul
    Abstract Hydrocarbons (HCs) are excellent refrigerants in many ways such as energy efficiency, critical point, solubility, transport and heat transfer properties, but they are also flammable, which causes the need for changes in standards, production and product. There are increasing number of scientists and engineers who believe that an alternative solution, which has been overlooked, may be provided by using HCs. The main objective of this study is to perform energy and exergy analyses for a vapor compression refrigeration system with an internal heat exchanger using a HC, isobutene (R600a). For a refrigeration capacity of 1 kW and cold chamber temperature of 0°C, energy and exergy balances are taken into account to determine the performance of the refrigeration system. Energy and exergy fluxes are determined, and irreversibility rates are calculated for every component of the system. It is seen that the compressor has the highest irreversibility rate, and the heat exchanger has the lowest. Also from the result of the analysis, it is found that condenser and evaporator temperatures have strong effects on energetic and exergetic performances of the system such as coefficient of performance (COP), efficiency ratio (,), exergetic efficiency (,) and irreversibility rate. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Nutritional quality of protein-enriched mumu, a traditional cereal food product

    Emmanuel K. Ingbian
    Summary Protein-enriched mumu was produced using maize supplemented with soybeans or groundnut. Supplementation of maize with groundnut or soybeans at the ratios of 85:15, 80:20, 75:25 and 70:30, respectively to produce maize:groundnut or maize:soybean blends was carried out. Proximate compositions and sensory evaluation of the blends were determined. The rat-based protein efficiency ratio (PER) and body-weight changes were used to assay the protein nutritive quality. Chemical compositions indicated significant increases (P < 0.05) in the protein and fat contents of the supplemented products. Soybean supplemented products had significantly (P < 0.05) higher positive body-weight changes than groundnut supplemented products. The PER of 1.6,2.19 for the soybean supplemented products were also significantly higher (P < 0.05) than the corresponding PER of ,0.2 to ,1.5 for the groundnut supplemented products. Supplementation with soybeans beyond 25% did not further improve the protein quality. [source]

    Medical Comorbidity and Rehabilitation Efficiency in Geriatric Inpatients

    C Psych, Louise Patrick PhD
    OBJECTIVES: To measure and describe medical comorbidity in geriatric rehabilitation patients and investigate its relationship to rehabilitation efficiency. DESIGN: Prospective, multivariate, within-subject design. SETTING: The Geriatric Rehabilitation inpatient unit of the SCO Health Service in Ottawa, Canada. MEASUREMENTS: The rehabilitation efficiency ratio, based on gains in functional status achieved with rehabilitation treatment, and the length of stay were computed for all patients. Values were regressed on the scores of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale (CIRS), the Mini-Mental State Examination, and the Geriatric Depression Scale to establish predictive power. RESULTS: The findings suggest that geriatric rehabilitation patients experience considerable medical comorbidity. Sixty percent of patients had impairments across six of the 13 dimensions of the CIRS, whereas 36% of patients had impairments across 11 of the 13 dimensions. In addition, medical comorbidity was negatively related to rehabilitation efficiency. This relationship was significant even after controlling for age, cognitive status, depressive symptoms, and functional independence status at admission. CONCLUSION: Medical comorbidity was a significant predictor of rehabilitation efficiency in geriatric patients. Comorbidity scores> 5 were prognostic of poorer rehabilitation outcomes and can serve as an empirical guide in estimating a patient's suitability for rehabilitation. Medical comorbidity predicted both the overall functional change achieved with rehabilitation (Functional Independence Measure gains) and the rate at with which those gains were reached (rehabilitation efficiency ratio). [source]

    Dietary arginine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (Hamilton) based on growth, nutrient retention efficiencies, RNA/DNA ratio and body composition

    S. F. Abidi
    Summary To quantify the optimum dietary arginine requirement of fingerling Indian major carp, Labeo rohita (4.10 ± 0.04 cm; 0.62 ± 0.02 g), an 8-week growth trial was conducted in eighteen 70-L indoor circular aqua-coloured troughs provided with a flow-through system at 28 ± 1°C. Isonitrogenous (40 g 100 g,1 crude protein) and isocaloric (4.28 kcal g,1 gross energy) amino acid test diets containing casein and gelatin as intact protein sources with graded levels of arginine (0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25, 1.50 and 1.75 g 100 g,1 dry diet) were fed to triplicate groups of fish to apparent satiation at 07:00, 12:00 and 17:30 hours. Growth performance of fish fed the above diets was evaluated on the basis of absolute weight gain (AWG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), protein retention efficiency (PRE) and energy retention efficiency (ERE). Maximum AWG (2.61), SGR (2.80), best FCR (1.35), highest PER (1.85), PRE (37%) and ERE (76%) were recorded at 1.25 g 100 g,1 dietary arginine. Maximum body protein (18.88 g 100 g,1) and RNA/DNA ratio (5.20) were also obtained in a 1.25 g 100 g,1 arginine dry diet. Except for the reduced growth performance in fish fed arginine-deficient diets, no other deficiency signs were apparent. Based on the broken-line and second-degree polynomial regression analysis of the AWG, SGR, FCR, PER, PRE and ERE data, the optimum arginine requirement for fingerling Labeo rohita was found to be in the range of 1.22,1.39 g 100 g,1 of the dry diet, corresponding to 3.05,3.47 g 100 g,1 of dietary protein. [source]

    Effects of dietary l -carnitine supplements on growth and body composition in beluga sturgeon (Huso huso) juveniles

    M. Mohseni
    Summary The effects of dietary l -carnitine on growth performance, whole body composition and feed utilization were studied in beluga, Huso huso. Fish were randomly allocated in 15 tanks (30 fish per tank) and triplicate groups were fed to satiety during 84 days one of five isonitrogenous (41% CP) and isoenergetic (20 MJ kg,1) diets, each differing in l -carnitine content [0 (control), 300, 600, 900 and 1200 mg kg,1 diet]. At the end of the trial, fish grew from 19- to 23-fold in weight, from 8.4 g to a maximum of 191 g. Fish fed 300,600 mg l -carnitine had the highest specific growth rate (SGR, 3.69 and 3.72% day,1) and protein efficiency ratio (PER, 0.95 and 0.99), and the lowest feed conversion ratio (FCR, 1.4 and 1.3) than the other groups (P < 0.0001). SGR, PER and FCR were the poorest for fish fed 1200 mg l -carnitine, while fish fed the unsupplemented and 900 mg l -carnitine supplemented diet showed intermediate performance. Body lipid concentration decreased significantly from 5.8 to 5.1% (P < 0.0001) with dietary l -carnitine supplementation increasing from 0 to 300 mg. Energy content was significantly lower in fish fed the 900 and 1200 mg l -carnitine diet (5.8 MJ kg,1), when compared with the other treatment groups (6.4,6.6 MJ kg,1). The results indicated that feeding sturgeon on diets supplemented with 300 mg l -carnitine kg,1 diet improved growth performance, and stimulated protein-sparing effects from lipids. [source]

    Growth performance and body composition of sub-yearling Persian sturgeon, (Acipenser persicus, Borodin, 1897), fed different dietary protein and lipid levels

    M. Mohseni
    Summary In order to evaluate the protein and energy requirement of Persian sturgeon (Acipenser persicus) sub-yearlings, eight experimental diets containing two protein levels (40% and 45%) and four lipid levels (10%, 15%, 20% and 25%) were tested. Sturgeons (W0 = 136.8 g) were fed the experimental diets to satiation four times daily for 150 days, resulting in a final mean weight of 375.8 g. Growth was significantly affected by lipid content of the diets. At 40% protein level, weight gain and specific growth rate (% per day) were significantly improved (P < 0.05) by increasing the dietary lipid (energy) content. Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was significantly affected by different dietary treatments for each dietary protein level tested, reaching a mean value of 3.58 in fish fed high lipid diets and a PER of 2.77 in low lipid diets. Results obtained in the present study suggest that the optimum dietary protein content for Persian sturgeon is 40%, with an estimated optimum protein-to-energy ratio of 18,20 mg kJ,1. [source]

    Nutritional evaluation of fermented black gram (Phaseolus mungo) seed meal in compound diets for rohu, Labeo rohita (Hamilton), fingerlings

    S. Ramachandran
    Summary Six isonitrogenous (approximately 35% crude protein) and isocaloric (approximately 4.0 kcal g,1) diets were formulated incorporating raw and fermented black gram, Phaseolus mungo, seed meal at 20%, 30% and 40% levels by weight into a fishmeal-based control diet fed to rohu, Labeo rohita, fingerlings (mean weight, 1.81 ± 0.21 g) for 80 days for a study of fish performance. A particular bacterial strain (Bacillus sp.) isolated from the intestine of adult common carp (Cyprinus carpio) reared in the wild having significant amylolytic, cellulolytic, lipolytic and proteolytic activities was used for fermentation of seed meal for 15 days at 37 ± 2°C. Fermentation of P. mungo seed meal was effective in significantly reducing the crude fibre content and antinutritional factors such as tannins and phytic acid, and enhancing available free amino acids and fatty acids. In terms of growth, feed conversion ratio and protein efficiency ratio, the 30% fermented black gram seed meal incorporated diet resulted in a significantly (P < 0.05) better performance of rohu fingerlings. In general, growth and feed utilization efficiencies of diets containing fermented seed meal were superior to diets containing raw seed meal. The apparent protein digestibility (APD) values decreased with increasing levels of raw seed meal in the diets. The APD for raw seed meal was lower at all levels of inclusion in comparison to those for the fermented seed meals. The maximum deposition of protein in the carcass was recorded in fish fed the diet containing 40% fermented seed meal. The results indicate that fermented black gram seed meal can be incorporated in carp diets up to the 30% level compared to the 10% level of raw seed meal. [source]

    Effects of reduced salinities on growth, food conversion efficiency and osmoregulatory status in the spotted wolffish

    A. Foss
    No significant differences in mean mass between groups were found at any time in spotted wolffish Anarhichas minor, mean (±S.D.) initial mass 76 (±21) g, reared at salinities of 12, 17, 25 and 34, for 12 weeks at 8° C. Salinity did not have a significant effect on daily feeding rates, total food consumption, food conversion efficiency and protein efficiency ratio. Growth trajectories varied between groups, but no overall difference in growth was found. Plasma osmolality and plasma chloride levels decreased with salinity in a 48 h abrupt exposure trial, and in the growth experiment the low salinity groups (12 and 17,) exhibited significantly lower values compared with 25 and 34,. The decrease was moderate and concentrations were well within the range described for other marine species. The results indicate that the spotted wolffish is a strong osmoregulator which could be reared at various salinity levels. [source]


    ABSTRACT The addition of popped Amaranthus cruentus grain to wheat bread formulation at 10, 15 and 20% levels (flour basis) was carried out to test the effects on sensory and nutritional characteristics of the supplemented bread samples. The addition of popped amaranth grain increased ash, protein and crude fiber content significantly. Zinc content increased by 42.6,74.6%, manganese content by 51.7,90.8%, magnesium content by 75.7,88.0% and calcium content by 57,171% in the supplementation ranges from 10 to 20% of popped amaranth grain. Bread samples supplemented with popped grains had a significantly higher content of squalene in comparison with the control sample (8,12 times higher). Loaf volume of supplemented bread samples decreased from 3.54 to 2.36 mL/g. Also, a significant increase in crumb hardness and lower crumb elasticity was observed. The supplementation contributed to denser crumb structure, more uniform porosity, improved crust color and flavor. It might be concluded that supplementation levels up to 15% (flour basis) were sensorially acceptable. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Bread made from refined wheat flour, besides being a good source of energy, is considered to be nutritionally poor. Therefore, the addition of inexpensive staples with superior nutritional quality such as some pulses, cereals or pseudocereals to wheat flour could improve the nutritional quality of wheat products. Amaranth is a pseudocereal that contains high levels of fat, dietary fibers, lysine and minerals, especially calcium and magnesium. The addition of amaranth grain to wheat bread contributes to higher intakes of proteins, fibers, fat and minerals. The usage of popped amaranth grain is advantageous because it excludes the need for grain milling and the necessity for preparative steps before mixing in bakeries. In addition, thermal treatment increases the protein efficiency ratio and gelatinizes starch that affects positively the stability, strength and freshness of the crumb. Popped amaranth grain also contributes to the pleasant taste and overall acceptability of supplemented bread. [source]

    Cognitive Efficiency in Stimulant Abusers With and Without Alcohol Dependence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 3 2003
    Andrea Lawton-Craddock
    Background: Although previous studies have found stimulant (i.e., cocaine, methamphetamine) abusers and alcoholics to have neuropsychological deficits, research examining which cognitive abilities are most affected by concurrent exposure to these substances is lacking. To address this issue, detoxified men and women who met criteria for dependence of (a) alcohol only (ALC) (n= 15); (b) stimulants only (STIM) (n= 15); and (c) both alcohol and stimulants (A/STIM) (n= 15) were compared with age- and education-matched community controls (n= 15). Methods: Tasks that measured visual spatial skills, problem-solving and abstraction, short-term memory, cognitive flexibility, and gross motor speed were administered to participants. For each test, both speed and accuracy were assessed and an efficiency ratio (accuracy/time) was derived. Based on an average of these efficiency ratios, an overall performance index of cognitive efficiency was obtained. Results: Overall, controls performed more efficiently than all other groups. However, they were statistically significantly better only in relation to the A/STIM and STIM groups (p < 0.01). Individual comparisons revealed that the ALC group performed significantly better than the STIM group, although the ALC group did not differ from either the control or A/STIM groups (p, 0.05). This pattern of results was relatively consistent across the individual subtests of problem-solving/abstraction, short-term memory, and cognitive flexibility. Conclusions: As expected, substance abuse was associated with cognitive inefficiency. More importantly, these findings suggest that the cognitive effects of chronic stimulant abuse are not additive with those of alcohol abuse. That is, singly addicted stimulant abusers demonstrated similar or greater neurocognitive impairments than individuals who abuse alcohol and stimulants concurrently. The reason for this pattern is speculative but may be attributed to alcohol's opposing actions on cerebrovascular effects brought on by stimulant abuse. [source]

    Chemical, biological and sensory evaluation of pasta products supplemented with ,-galactoside-free lupin flours

    Alexia Torres
    Abstract ,-Galactoside-free lupin flour has been used to supplement durum wheat semolina flour in order to increase the nutritive value of pasta products. Supplemented pasta products had a shorter cooking time, higher cooking water absorption, cooking loss and protein loss in water than control pasta prepared with only semolina. Sensory evaluation of cooked pastas showed that products supplemented with 80 g kg,1 of ,-galactoside-free Lupinus angustifolius var. Emir flour or with 100 g kg,1 of ,-galactoside-free Lupinus angustifolius var. Troll flour showed the same acceptability by panellists as the semolina pasta. These levels of supplementation were selected for further studies. The cooked ,-galactoside-free lupin/semolina pastas showed higher amounts of protein, dietary fibre, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, zinc and antioxidant capacity than control pasta and a reasonable level of vitamin B1, vitamin B2 and vitamin E. Biological assessment of cooked pastas indicated that the true protein digestibility did not change after the fortification of semolina but protein efficiency ratio increased sharply in the pasta supplemented with ,-galactoside-free lupin flours (2.07 and 1.92 for Emir and Troll lupin varieties, respectively) in comparison with the control pasta (1.11). It is concluded that the ,-galactoside-free lupin flours are an adequate ingredient to improve the nutritional quality of pasta products without adding flatulent oligosaccharides. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Nutritive value of chicken and potato mixtures for infant and preschool children feeding

    Angela Sotelo
    Abstract Two chicken/potato protein mixtures (50:50 and 60:40) were prepared for use in formulas of high nutritive value and low cost for the diet of undernourished children and those with lactose intolerance. The proximate analysis and amino acid content of the raw materials and mixtures were determined and the chemical score (CS) was calculated. The proximate analysis and amino acid content of a commercial soybean formula were used as reference. The protein quality of the mixtures was evaluated by protein efficiency ratio (PER) and digestibility measurements. The protein content of cooked chicken and potato on a dry basis was 889 and 70 g kg,1 respectively and the carbohydrate content of potato was 762 g kg,1. Tryptophan was the limiting amino acid in chicken for infants according to the 1985 FAO pattern (CS = 76), but not for preschool children. Valine was limiting in potato for both infants and preschool children (CS = 56 and 88 respectively). Tryptophan was limiting in both 50:50 and 60:40 mixtures for infants; also the PER was higher in the 60:40 mixture and not significantly different from the control (casein), but both were different from the 50:50 mixture. Since both chicken and potato are available even for low-income people, a formula prepared in the 60:40 ratio is of potential benefit for infants or preschool children who have lactose intolerance, mainly in developing countries. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Evaluation of Glycerol from Biodiesel Production as a Feed Ingredient for Channel Catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    Menghe H. Li
    Glycerol is the main by-product of biodiesel production from vegetable oils and animal fats. It has been evaluated as an energy source for several farm animals. A study was conducted to examine the effects of various levels of glycerol in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Fish with mean initial weight of 6.8 ± 0.1 g were stocked in 110-L flow-through aquaria and fed practical diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% glycerol for 9 wk. There were no significant differences in feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, and liver lipid level among fish fed diets containing 0, 5, and 10% glycerol. However, fish fed diets containing 15 and 20% glycerol had reduced weight gain, feed efficiency, and liver lipid content. Survival was not affected by dietary glycerol levels. Blood glucose level was significantly higher in fish fed 5% glycerol than fish fed other diets. Fillet protein and fat generally decreased and fillet moisture increased as dietary glycerol level increased. It appears that channel catfish can utilize about 10% glycerol in the diet without adverse effects on feed consumption, weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, hemoglobin, hepatosomatic index, and liver lipid. [source]

    Effects of Dietary Heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum on Larval and Post-larval Kuruma Shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate

    Ha Thanh Tung
    Two feeding trials were conducted to evaluate the effects of heat-killed Lactobacillus plantarum (HK-LP) on larval and post-larval kuruma shrimp, Marsupenaeus japonicus Bate. Five microbound diets were formulated to contain levels of a preparation containing 20% HK-LP (HK-LP Prep): 0, 0.001, 0.01, 0.1, and 1 g/kg. In the first experiment, zoea1 stage larvae were fed test diets for 8 d. Some parameters such as survival, developmental stage, metamorphosis to post-larvae, and formalin stress resistance were evaluated. In second trial, post-larval shrimp (16 ± 0.04 mg) were fed test diets for 30 d. Survival, body weight gain, specific growth rate, feed efficiency ratio, individual dry weight, total body length, osmotic and formalin stress resistances, and protease activity were evaluated. Results indicated that the larvae that received HK-LP Prep at 0.1 and 1 g/kg diets showed significantly (P < 0.05) higher survival than that of the control group. For the post-larval trial, shrimp that received HK-LP Prep at 1 g/kg diet were significantly higher than the control group in most of the growth parameters and stress resistance. However, shrimp that received HK-LP Prep at 0.1 g/kg diet were significantly higher than the control group in survival only. For protease activity, there was no significant difference detected among groups. [source]

    Effects of the Prebiotics GroBiotic® -A and Inulin on the Intestinal Microbiota of Red Drum, Sciaenops ocellatus

    Gary Burr
    Two separate feeding trials examined the effects of dietary supplementation of the prebiotics GroBiotic® -A and inulin on growth performance and gastrointestinal tract microbiota of the red drum, Sciaenops ocellatus. In the first feeding trial, fish meal-based diets without prebiotics or supplemented with either GroBiotic® -A or inulin at 1% of dry weight were fed to triplicate groups of juvenile red drum (initial weight of 2.6 g) in 110-L aquaria operated as a brackish water (7 ppt) recirculating system for 8 wk. In the second feeding trial, soybean meal/fish meal-based diets supplemented with either GroBiotic® -A or inulin at 1% of dry weight were fed to triplicate groups of red drum (initial weight of 15.8 g) in 110-L aquaria operated as either a common recirculating water system or closed system with individual biofilters (independent aquaria) for 6 wk. Supplementation of the prebiotics in either feeding trial did not alter weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, or protein efficiency ratio of red drum fed the various diets. In the second feeding trial, the culture system significantly affected weight gain, feed efficiency ratio, and protein efficiency ratio although there were no effects of dietary treatments on fish performance or whole-body protein, lipid, moisture, or ash. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis of the gastrointestinal tract microbial community showed no effect of the dietary prebiotics as the microbial community appeared to be dominated by a single organism with very low diversity when compared with other livestock and fish species. DGGE of the microbial community in the biofilters of the independent aquariums showed a diverse microbial community that was not affected by the dietary prebiotics. [source]

    Effects of Dietary Lipids on Growth and Feed Utilization of Jade Perch, Scortum barcoo

    Li Ping Song
    To examine the effects of dietary lipids on the growth and feed utilization of jade perch juveniles, Scortum barcoo, diets containing 36.3% crude protein supplemented with increasing lipid levels (6, 9, 12, and 15% of the dry matter) were used to feed triplicate groups of 30 fish for 60 d. At the end of the experiment, more than 95% fish survived well from all diet groups (P > 0.05). Measurements on the weight gains and the daily specific growth rates indicated that fish fed with diets of 12 and 15% lipids exhibited higher growth rates (P < 0.05); evaluations for the feed conversion ratio and the protein efficiency ratio indicated that fish fed with 12 and 15% lipid diets used their feed and dietary proteins more efficiently (P < 0.05). The muscle lipid and dry matter contents increased dramatically in fish fed with higher dietary lipid levels (P < 0.05). The highest lipid contents were obtained from fish in the 15% lipid diet group and the highest amount of dry matters from the 12% lipid diet group. On the other hand, protein contents in fish muscles declined with increasing dietary lipid levels (P < 0.05), and the lowest values were shown in the 15% lipid diet group. Ash contents showed no significant differences from muscles of fish fed with four different diets (P > 0.05). Together, increasing lipid levels in fish diets was effective to improve fish growth, feed efficiency, and protein utilization. [source]

    Effects of Carbohydrate-Rich Alternative Feedstuffs on Growth, Survival, Body Composition, Hematology, and Nonspecific Immune Response of Black Pacu, Colossoma macropomum, and Red Pacu, Piaractus brachypomus

    Rebecca Lochmann
    To facilitate economical culture of black pacu, Colossoma macropomum, and red pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, in the Amazon region of South America, we assessed locally available alternative energy sources for practical diets. We tested the effects of control diets (containing wheat products) versus diets with different Amazonian feedstuffs (yucca, Manihot sculenta, plantain, Musa paradisiaca, or pijuayo, Bactris gasipaes) on the performance of the pacus in three feeding trials. Black pacu (22.5 ± 0.03 g; Trial 1) or red pacu (2.56 ± 0.01 g; Trial 2) were fed diets containing 30% wheat bran (control) or cooked or uncooked yucca, plantain, or pijuayo for 12 wk. In Trial 3, larger black pacu (86.9 ± 6.4 g) were grown to market size in 24 wk on similar diets. Weight gain, feed conversion, survival, alternative complement activity, and lysozyme were similar among diets. Hepatosomatic index, liver glycogen, and dry matter were affected by diet in Trials 1 and 2, but effects were not consistent among trials. In Trial 3, protein efficiency ratio was lower in fish fed the diet containing wheat middlings. However, relative to wheat bran or wheat middlings, all feedstuffs tested were effective energy sources for juvenile black pacu and red pacu. [source]

    Effects of Dietary Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Levels on Growth, Plasma Recombinant Bovine Somatotropin Concentrations, and Body Composition of Juvenile Korean Rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli

    Gwangyeol Yoo
    This experiment was conducted to study the effects of the graded recombinant bovine somatotropin (rBST) levels on growth, plasma rBST concentrations, and body composition of Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, and to estimate the optimum oral dosage of rBST. Seven experimental diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric and to contain 49.0% crude protein and 16.7 kJ available energy/g, with 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25, or 50 mg rBST/kg body weight (BW)/wk (rBST0, rBST5, rBST10, rBST15, rBST20, rBST25, and rBST50, respectively). After the feeding trial, fish fed all the diets supplemented with rBST showed higher weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), specific growth rate (SGR), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than those fed the rBST0 diet (P < 0.05). WG of fish fed rBST15, rBST20, rBST25, and rBST50 diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0 and rBST5 diets (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences among fish fed rBST10, rBST15, rBST20, rBST25, and rBST50 diets. FE of fish fed rBST15 and rBST20 diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0, rBST5, rBST10, and rBST50 diets, and fish fed rBST10, rBST25, and rBST50 diets had significantly higher FE than those fed rBST0 and rBST5 diets (P < 0.05). SGR of fish fed all the diets supplemented with rBST was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0 diet (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences among fish fed all the diets supplemented with rBST. PER of fish fed rBST15 and rBST20 diets was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0, rBST5, and rBST50 diets, and fish fed rBST10, rBST25, and rBST50 diets had significantly higher PER than those fed rBST0 and rBST5 diets (P < 0.05). Whole-body protein of fish fed rBST15 diet was significantly higher than that of fish fed rBST0, rBST5, and rBST10 diets (P < 0.05); however, there were no significant differences among fish fed rBST15, rBST20, rBST25, and rBST50 diets. Plasma rBST concentrations of fish fed all the diets began to rise at 3 h after oral administration of rBST; the maximum plasma rBST concentration peaked at 12 h and returned to the basal level at 24 h. Broken-line model analyses of WG and FE were 12.8 and 13.2 mg rBST/kg BW/wk, respectively. These results indicated that the optimum oral dosage could be greater than 12.8 mg rBST/kg BW/wk but less than 13.2 mg rBST/kg BW/wk in juvenile Korean rockfish. [source]

    Effect of Diets Formulated with Native Peruvian Plants on Growth and Feeding Efficiency of Red Pacu (Piaractus brachypomus) Juveniles

    Maria E. Palacios
    We evaluated the effects of casein-based semipurified diets, alone or supplemented with native Peruvian plants, on growth, feed efficiency, and histology of the digestive tract of red pacu, Piaractus brachypomus, juveniles over an 8-wk feeding trial. Three tanks were randomly assigned to one of four casein,gelatin (40:8) diets containing a supplement of 15% wheat meal (control) or an identical level of substitution of three South American native plant as follows: camu-camu fruit (Myrciaria dubia), aguaje fruit (Mauritia flexuosa), or maca tuber meal (Lepidium meyenii). The fish (initial weight, 2.04 ± 0.06 g) were fed experimental diets at decreasing feeding rates from 4 to 2.6% of body weight. After 8 weeks of feeding, fish fed a diet supplemented with maca meal showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) weight gain, specific growth rate, protein efficiency ratio (PER), apparent net protein utilization (NPU), and instantaneous feed intake than fish fed other diets. Feed conversion ratio (FCR), PER, and NPU in fish fed the casein,gelatin diet supplemented with maca meal were among the best ever reported in the scientific literature, 0.64 ± 0.03, 3.13 ± 0.15 and 23.8 ± 2.0, respectively. The camu-camu meal had a negative impact on diet palatability and utilization, which resulted in slower growth. The stomach, intestine, pancreas, and pyloric caeca at the start and end of the experiment showed normal differentiation and appearance of cells and tissues. The liver parenchyma showed lipid infiltration and pigment accumulation in all samples at the initiation of the experiment and may be attributed to the period of decreased feed intake prior to the study. At the end of the study, similar histopathologies were recorded in all samples from the control and camu-camu groups. Normal liver histology (polyhedral hepatocytes with centrally located nuclei) was observed in two of three samples from the maca group and all the samples from the group that was fed the aguaje-supplemented diet. [source]

    Reevaluation of the Dietary Protein Requirement of Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Kangwoong Kim
    An experiment was conducted to determine the dietary protein requirement by different analysis methods and to study the effects of dietary protein levels on growth performance and body composition in Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus fed white fish meal and casein-based diets for 8 wk. After a 1-wk conditioning period, one of six isocaloric diets containing 30, 36, 42, 48, 54, and 60% crude protein (CP) was fed to fish at approximately 4,5% of wet body weight on a dry matter basis to triplicate groups of 15 fish averaging 13.3 ± 0.06 g (mean ± SD). After 8 wk of the feeding trial, weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) from fish fed 48% CP diet were similar to those from fish fed 42% and 54% CP diets, and were significantly higher than those from fish fed 30, 36 and 60% CP diets (P < 0.05). Fish fed 48 and 54% CP diets had a significant higher specific growth rate (SGR) than did fish fed 30 and 36% CP diets (P 0.05). Protein efficiency ratio (PER) was inversely related to the dietary protein level. No significant differences existed in hematocrit (PCV) and survival rate among the dietary treatments. Broken-line model analysis indicated that the optimum dietary protein level could be 44.0 ± 3.0% for maximum WG in Japanese flounder. Polynomial regression analysis of the dose-response showed that maximum WG occurred at 50.2% (R2= 0.94) based on WG, and the second-order polynomial regression analysis with 95% confidence limits revealed that the range of minimum protein requirement was between 38.9% and 40.3% based on WG. Therefore, these findings suggest that the optimum dietary protein requirement for maximum growth of Japanese flounder is greater than 40%, but less than 44% CP in the fish meal and casein-based diets containing 17.0 kJ/g of energy. [source]

    Effects of Dietary Chlorella ellipsoidea Supplementation on Growth, Blood Characteristics, and Whole-Body Composition in Juvenile Japanese Flounder Paralichthys olivaceus

    Kang-Woong Kim
    The study was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary Chlorella powder (C) supplementation on growth performance, blood characteristics, and whole-body composition in juvenile Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Four experimental diets were supplemented with C at 0, 1, 2 and 4% (C0, C1, C2, and C4) on a dry-weight basis. Three replicate groups of fish averaging 1.13 ± 0.02 g (Mean ± SD) were randomly distributed in each aquarium and fed one of four experimental diets for 12 wk. After 12 wk of the feeding trial, fish fed C2 diet had higher weight gain (WG), feed efficiency (FE), and protein efficiency ratio (PER) than did fish fed C0 and C1 diets (P 0.05); however, there was no significant difference among fish fed C1 and C4 diets, and among fish fed C2 and C4 diets (P > 0.05). Fish fed C2 and C4 diets had a lower serum cholesterol level than did fish fed C0 and C1 diets (P 0.05). Fish fed C2 and C4 diets had a lower body fat than did fish fed C0 (P 0.05). These results indicate that dietary supplementation of 2%Chlorella powder in the commercial diets could improve growth, feed utilization, serum cholesterol level, and whole-body fat contents in juvenile Japanese flounder. [source]

    Evaluation of Experimental and Practical Diets for Walleye Stizostedion vitreum

    Anant S. Bharadwaj
    Culture of walleye Sfizostedion vitreum is one of the largest components of public sector aquaculture in the eastern U.S. and there is increasing interest in private sector culture. However, the nutritional requirements of walleye are unknown and experimental diets for use in quantifying nutritional requirements have not been identified. We formulated four experimental and four practical diets and fed those to triplicate groups of walleye with an initial weight of 13 g per fish. The experimental diets contained either casein (CAS), casein + gelatin (CG), casein + arginine (CA), or casein + gelatin + crystalline amino acids (CGAA) as sources of amino acids. The practical diets were formulated to mimic salmon grower (SG) and trout grower (TG) diets, a fish meal-free diet for trout (TFMF), and a walleye grower (WG) diet. Fish were fed twice daily to satiation for 9 wk. Feed consumption, percent weight gain, specific growth rates, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, and protein retention efficiency were not significantly different among fish fed CGAA, SG, and TG, but those values were significantly higher than in fish fed other diets. Weight gain of fish fed CGAA was approximately 80% of that in fish fed SG and 91% of that in fish fed TG. Protein retention efficiency of fish fed CGAA was approximately 69% and 81% of that observed for fish fed SG, and TG, respectively. In general, the carcasses of fish fed diets CGAA, SG and TG had significantly lower moisture and ash concentrations, and higher lipid levels than fish fed other diets. There were no significant differences in carcass protein concentration, muscle proximate composition, or liver lipid concentration among treatments. Livers from fish fed all diets were characterized by microvesicular degeneration and glycogen accumulation in hepatocytes. Results from the study indicate that CGAA can be used as a basal experimental diet in future nutritional research with juvenile walleye and confirms the benefits of trout and salmon grower diets. Fish meal-free diets formulated around the requirements for rainbow trout were consumed at approximately 80% of the values in fish fed TG and SG, but weight gain was approximately 20% of that in fish fed TG and SG. It appears the nutritional requirements for walleye are different than those of rainbow trout. [source]

    Assessment of protein nutritional quality and effects of traditional processes: A comparison between Ethiopian quality protein maize and five Ethiopian adapted normal maize cultivars

    Habtamu Fufa
    Abstract The present study was designed to quantitatively measure and compare the levels and variations of total protein, individual amino acids, and computed protein efficiency ratio (C-PER) in raw and traditionally processed products of one recently released quality protein maize (QPM BH542) with four high-yield maize hybrids, namely flint BH660, semi-dent BH140, Pioneer 30H83, and Pioneer 30G97, as well as one local maize cultivar. The total protein content was variable among the cultivars ranging from 7% for BH660 to 8.6% for Pioneer 30H83, 8.9% for BH140, 9.8% for QPM BH542, 10.1% for local maize cultivar, and 11.8% for Pioneer 30G97, respectively. However, the QPM BH542 maize protein proved to be higher in nutritional quality than common maize proteins because it contained 30% to 82% more lysine, higher levels of arginine, tryptophan, histidine, threonine, cysteine, and valine. As a result, the QPM BH542 amino acid profile gives a good balance of total essential amino acids, limited only in lysine, and has a C-PER ratio of 2.2 compared to 1.14, 1.2, 1.4, 1.66, and 1.67 for Pioneer 30G97, local, BH-140, BH660, and Pioneer 30H83, respectively. The various traditional processes of maize have no significant effect on the protein nutritional quality of the new quality protein maize. Hence, the widely dissemination of it in agricultural cultivation as well as consumption by the general population is recommended. [source]

    Influence of dietary lipid/protein ratio on survival, growth, body indices and digestive lipase activity in Snakehead (Channa striatus, Bloch 1793) fry reared in re-circulating water system

    Abstract Nine isoenergetic (18.5 kJ g,1) diets were formulated in a 3 × 3 factorial design to contain three protein levels (350, 400 and 450 g kg,1) for each of three lipid levels (65, 90 and 115 g kg,1), respectively, and fed twice daily for 8 weeks to fish of mean initial weight 3.34 ± 0.02 g reared in a re-circulatory water system. Temperature, pH and dissolved oxygen (DO) were maintained within the range 28,30 °C, 5.6,6.8 and 4.82,6.65 mg L,1 respectively throughout. Results show that fish survival was better in the groups fed 65 g kg,1 lipid while growth performance (% weight gain, WG; specific growth rate, SGR) and nutrient utilization (feed conversion ratio, FCR; protein efficiency ratio, PER; protein intake, PI) in the 65/450 and 90/450 g kg,1 treatments were similar and significantly (P < 0.05) higher than in fish fed the other lipid/protein ratio combinations. The body indices monitored (Hepatosomatic index, HSI and viscerosomatic index, VSI) were similar among the treatments whereas intestinal lipase activity was not significantly (P < 0.05) affected by increase in dietary lipid and protein levels. Carcass composition showed that dietary protein level affected body protein content positively in the 65 and 90 g kg,1 lipid treatments, but dietary lipid level did not affect body lipid content. A lipid/protein ratio of 65/450 g kg,1 is considered adequate for good growth performance and survival of Channa striatus fry. [source]

    Probiotic applications for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) II.

    Effects on growth performance, feed utilization, intestinal microbiota, related health criteria postantibiotic treatment
    Abstract The effect of dietary probiotics (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis and Enterococcus faecium) was assessed on rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum) previously treated with oxolinic acid. After feeding on supplemented diets for 10 weeks growth performance, feed utilization, gastrointestinal colonization and health status were assessed. B. subtilis + B. licheniformis fed fish displayed a significant improvement of feed conversation ration (FCR), specific growth rate (SGR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER). High levels of probiotic species were observed in the posterior gastrointestinal tract as transient digesta associated populations and potentially resident mucosal populations. Levels of Bacillus spp. reached log 3.74 CFU g,1 on the mucosal epithelium and log 7.41 CFU g,1 in the digesta of fish fed diets supplemented with B. subtilis and B. licheniformis. Enterococci levels reached log 2.84 CFU g,1 on the mucosa and log 7.78 CFU g,1 in the digesta of fish fed E. faecium supplemented diets. Feeding trout the Bacillus probionts alone or synergistically with E. faecium resulted in elevated leucocyte levels. The results of the current study demonstrate a potential role of probiotics for stabilizing/reinforcing the gastrointestinal microbiota after antibiotic treatment. This could reinvigorate the intestinal defensive barrier mechanism and provide protection against secondary potential pathogens. [source]

    Tolerance of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) to dietborne endosulfan assessed by haematology, biochemistry, histology and growth

    Abstract The inclusion of plant-based ingredients in commercial fish feeds may pose a challenge because of the presence of undesirable substances, such as the pesticide endosulfan. Waterborne endosulfan is highly toxic to fish, whereas dietborne exposure has varied toxicity in different species. To investigate the systemic effects of endosulfan exposure, quadruplicate groups of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) were fed either 0 (control), 0.005 mg kg,1; the European Union's maximum limit, or 10 or 20 times this level (0.05 and 0.1 mg kg,1 respectively) for 95 days. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in liver somatic index, spleen somatic index, condition factor or growth among treatments. There were no indications of liver damage in fish from any of the groups in the biomarkers measured: plasma aspartate aminotransferase, plasma alanine aminotransferase and histopathology. Similarly, there were no apparent treatment-related effects on the haematological parameters Hct, Hb, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration and mean corpuscular haemoglobin, and blood sodium, potassium, calcium and chloride levels were not significantly (P > 0.05) different among groups. Lipid digestibility, but not energy, protein, or glycogen digestibility, was significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at the highest exposure concentration. However, no significant differences were observed in lipid production value or lipid efficiency ratio. In contrast to previous studies, clinical histological abnormalities were not observed in the intestine, liver or spleen of endosulfan-treated fish. [source]

    Effect of dietary protein levels on growth performance and whole body composition of summerling and winterling spotted barbel (Hemibarbus maculates Bleeker)

    J.-M. CHEN
    Abstract Six test diets with protein levels varying from 250 to 500 g kg,1 were fed to six triplicate groups of summerling (initial weight: 1.56 g) and seven test diets with protein levels varying from 200 to 500 g kg,1 were fed to seven triplicate groups of winterling (initial weight: 9.49 g) for 8 weeks. Weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) of summerling significantly increased with increasing dietary protein levels from 250 to 350 g kg,1 and slightly declined, but without statistical significance at a dietary protein level of 400 g kg,1, then further significantly decreased with increasing protein levels to 450 and 500 g kg,1; WG of winterling increased significantly with increasing dietary protein levels from 200 to 300 g kg,1 (P < 0.05), and above this level, WG had a tendency to decrease with increasing dietary protein levels. Winterling fed diets with 300 and 400 g kg,1 of dietary protein had significantly higher FE than those fed other diets. WG data analysis by quadratic regressions showed that the optimum dietary protein levels required for the maximum growth of summerling and winterling were 374 and 355 g kg,1 of dry diet respectively. Protein efficiency ratio of both summerling and winterling negatively correlated with levels of dietary protein. The whole body moisture, protein, lipid and ash of summerling after being fed various test diets for 8 weeks were significantly different among treatments (P < 0.05). The whole body moisture and fat of winterling were also significantly affected by dietary protein levels (P < 0.05), while the whole body protein and ash of winterling were not (P > 0.05). [source]

    Estimation of dietary biotin requirement of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus C.

    J. LI
    Abstract A 9-week feeding experiment was conducted to determine the dietary biotin requirement of Japanese seabass, Lateolabrax japonicus C. Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic purified diets (Diets 1,6) containing 0, 0.01, 0.049, 0.247, 1.238 and 6.222 mg biotin kg,1 diet were fed twice daily to triplicate groups (30 fish per group) of fish (initial average weight 2.26 ± 0.03 g) in 18 fibreglass tanks (300 L) filled with 250 L of water in a flow-through system. Water flow rate through each tank was 2 L min,1. Water temperature ranged from 25.0 to 28.0 °C, salinity from 28.0 to 29.5 g L,1, pH from 8.0 to 8.1 and dissolved oxygen content was approximately 7 mg L,1 during the experiment. After the feeding experiment, fish fed Diet 1 developed severe biotin deficiency syndromes characterized by anorexia, poor growth, dark skin colour, atrophy and high mortality. Significant lower survival (73.3%) was observed in the treatment of deficient biotin. The final weight and weight gain of fish significantly increased with increasing dietary biotin up to 0.049 mg kg,1 diet (P < 0.05), and then slightly decreased. Both feed efficiency ratio and protein efficiency ratio showed a very similar change pattern to that of weight gain. Dietary treatments did not significantly affect carcass crude protein, crude lipid, moisture and ash content. However, liver biotin concentration (0,6.1 ,g g,1) significantly increased with the supplementation of dietary biotin (P < 0.05), and no tissue saturation was found within the supplementation scope of biotin. Broken-line regression analysis of weight gain showed that juvenile Japanese seabass require a minimum of 0.046 mg kg,1 biotin for maximal growth. [source]

    Partial or total replacement of fish meal by local agricultural by-products in diets of juvenile African catfish (Clarias gariepinus): growth performance, feed efficiency and digestibility

    Abstract The study was undertaken to evaluate the growth performance and feed utilization of African catfish, Clarias gariepinus, fed six diets (D) in which fishmeal (FM) was gradually replaced by a mixture of local plant by-products. In diets 1 and 2, FM (250 g kg,1) was replaced by sunflower oil cake (SFOC). In diets 3 and 4, FM (250 and 150 g kg,1, respectively) was replaced by SFOC and bean meal (BM) while FM was totally substituted by a mixture of groundnut oil cake (GOC), BM and SFOC in diets 5 and 6. Sunflower oil cake was cooked, soaked or dehulled in order to determine the appropriate processing techniques for improving the SFOC nutritive value and to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) values of the alternative diets. No significant differences were observed for daily feed intake, weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and feed efficiency (FE) among fish fed D1, D2, D3 (250 g kg,1 FM), D4 (150 g kg,1 FM) and D6 (0 g kg,1 FM). The highest SGR (3.2% per day) and FE (1.2) were achieved in fish fed D3, and the lowest in fish fed D5 (0% FM), suggesting a maximum acceptable dietary concentration of hulled SFOC below 250 g kg,1 in African catfish juveniles. Protein efficiency ratio ranged from 2.2 to 3.2 for all dietary treatments and was positively influenced by FM inclusion. African catfish were able to digest plant protein very efficiently in all diets tested. ADC of protein ranged from 88.6 to 89.5%, while ADC of energy was relatively low for diets containing hulled sunflower oilcake (71,74%) and high when sunflower oilcake was dehulled (78.6,81.3%). Similarly, ADC of dry matter was higher when sunflower was dehulled (72.1%) when compared with crude SFOC (60.5%). Soaking increased ADC values for neutral detergent fibre (NDF), dry matter, energy, protein and amino acids (AA). There were no significant differences in protein ADCs (88,90%) with increased levels of dietary vegetable ingredients. Both soaking and dehulling of sunflower before incorporation helped in the reduction of NDF, antitrypsin and tannins. Digestibility of all AA was generally high, greater than 90% for both indispensable and non-indispensable AA. Based on the data obtained, it was possible to totally replace menhaden fish meal with a mixture of vegetable proteins (72% of total dietary protein) when diets contained a relatively low percentage of animal protein (28% based on blood meal and chicken viscera meal) without negative effects. [source]

    Effects of dietary zinc levels on growth, serum zinc, haematological parameters and tissue trace elements of soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis

    S.-C. HUANG
    Abstract A 10-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of dietary zinc (Zn) contents on the growth, tissue trace element contents and serum Zn levels in soft-shelled turtles, Pelodiscus sinensis. Juvenile soft-shelled turtles approximately 4.8 g in body weight were fed casein-based diets containing seven levels of Zn (14, 23, 32, 43, 58, 87 and 100 mg kg,1) for 10 weeks. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in weight gain (WG), feed conversion ratio (FCR) or protein efficiency ratio (PER) among the dietary treatments. However, Zn concentrations in the liver, serum and carapace of turtles fed the basal diet containing 14 mg Zn kg,1 were the lowest among all groups. Zn contents in the liver, serum and carapace increased when dietary Zn increased up to a dietary Zn level of approximately 43 mg kg,1. Beyond this dietary level, tissue Zn contents were relatively constant. Carapace iron (Fe), selenium (Se) in hard tissues and haemoglobin concentrations decreased when dietary Zn increased. Dietary Zn requirements of juvenile soft-shelled turtles derived from regression modelling using the liver, serum, carapace and bone Zn contents as indicators were 42, 39, 35 and 46 mg Zn kg,1, respectively. [source]