Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Economic

  • global economic
  • high economic
  • local economic
  • major economic
  • substantial economic

  • Terms modified by Economic

  • economic action
  • economic activity
  • economic actor
  • economic advantage
  • economic affair
  • economic agent
  • economic alternative
  • economic analysis
  • economic application
  • economic approach
  • economic area
  • economic argument
  • economic aspect
  • economic assessment
  • economic balance
  • economic barrier
  • economic base
  • economic behavior
  • economic behaviour
  • economic benefit
  • economic boom
  • economic burden
  • economic capital
  • economic case
  • economic center
  • economic challenge
  • economic change
  • economic characteristic
  • economic circumstance
  • economic climate
  • economic co-operation
  • economic collapse
  • economic community
  • economic competition
  • economic competitiveness
  • economic component
  • economic concept
  • economic condition
  • economic consequence
  • economic consideration
  • economic constraint
  • economic context
  • economic contribution
  • economic cooperation
  • economic cost
  • economic crisis
  • economic criterioN
  • economic cycle
  • economic damage
  • economic data
  • economic decision
  • economic decline
  • economic dependence
  • economic depression
  • economic design
  • economic determinant
  • economic development
  • economic development policy
  • economic development strategy
  • economic difference
  • economic difficulty
  • economic dimension
  • economic disadvantage
  • economic disparity
  • economic distortion
  • economic distress
  • economic downturn
  • economic dynamics
  • economic effect
  • economic effects
  • economic efficiency
  • economic empowerment
  • economic environment
  • economic evaluation
  • economic event
  • economic evidence
  • economic expansion
  • economic explanation
  • economic exploitation
  • economic factor
  • economic feasibility
  • economic fluctuation
  • economic force
  • economic forecast
  • economic framework
  • economic freedom
  • economic fundamental
  • economic gain
  • economic geographer
  • economic geography
  • economic geography literature
  • economic globalisation
  • economic globalization
  • economic goal
  • economic governance
  • economic ground
  • economic growth
  • economic growth and development
  • economic hardship
  • economic historian
  • economic history
  • economic idea
  • economic impact
  • economic implication
  • economic importance
  • economic incentive
  • economic income
  • economic independence
  • economic index
  • economic indicator
  • economic inequality
  • economic influence
  • economic information
  • economic infrastructure
  • economic initiative
  • economic insecurity
  • economic instability
  • economic institution
  • economic instruments
  • economic integration
  • economic interdependence
  • economic interest
  • economic issues
  • economic journal
  • economic justice
  • economic liberalisation
  • economic liberalism
  • economic liberalization
  • economic life
  • economic link
  • economic literature
  • economic logic
  • economic loss
  • economic market
  • economic mean
  • economic measure
  • economic mechanism
  • economic migrant
  • economic miracle
  • economic mobility
  • economic model
  • economic models
  • economic modernisation
  • economic need
  • economic network
  • economic objective
  • economic openness
  • economic opportunity
  • economic order
  • economic order quantity
  • economic organisation
  • economic organization
  • economic outcome
  • economic outlook
  • economic output
  • economic parameter
  • economic penetration
  • economic performance
  • economic perspective
  • economic point
  • economic policy
  • economic position
  • economic potential
  • economic power
  • economic practice
  • economic prediction
  • economic pressure
  • economic principle
  • economic problem
  • economic process
  • economic profit
  • economic profitability
  • economic progress
  • economic prosperity
  • economic question
  • economic rationale
  • economic rationality
  • economic reality
  • economic reason
  • economic recession
  • economic recovery
  • economic regime
  • economic regulation
  • economic relation
  • economic relationship
  • economic rent
  • economic research
  • economic resource
  • economic restructuring
  • economic return
  • economic review
  • economic right
  • economic risk
  • economic role
  • economic sanction
  • economic scale
  • economic science
  • economic sector
  • economic security
  • economic shock
  • economic significance
  • economic situation
  • economic society
  • economic stability
  • economic statistics
  • economic status
  • economic stimulus package
  • economic strain
  • economic strategy
  • economic stress
  • economic structure
  • economic studies
  • economic success
  • economic support
  • economic surplus
  • economic survival
  • economic system
  • economic term
  • economic theory
  • economic thinking
  • economic thought
  • economic tie
  • economic time series
  • economic transactions
  • economic transformation
  • economic transition
  • economic trend
  • economic uncertainty
  • economic understanding
  • economic valuation
  • economic value
  • economic variable
  • economic viability
  • economic vitality
  • economic voting
  • economic way
  • economic welfare
  • economic well-being
  • economic zone

  • Selected Abstracts


    Warren P. Hogan
    The focus of this article is on the Report of the inquiry into residential aged care in Australia. Consideration is given to the results of a confidential survey of financial submissions from providers of aged care. Most attention is given to labour costs and earnings before interest, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA). The most important result is the evidence showing providers whatever their size, location, ownership and resident mix, can perform in the top 10 per cent and 25 per cent of providers as measured by EBITDA. Management is vital to the performance of entities whether they be ,for-profit' or ,not-for-profit' entities. Attention is also directed to other studies about efficiency and productivity and modelling. Treating technical efficiency as a measure by which the industry lags behind best practice, the analysis of regulatory efficiency explains much about ways to secure gains in efficiency. [source]


    ECONOMICS & POLITICS, Issue 2 2008
    In this paper we look at the impact of broad policy reforms on the levels of corruption. We use a structural break approach to identify country-specific time periods in which significant shifts in corruption levels take place. We then correlate these times of change with a set of covariates with specific focus on the impact of democratization, and trade and equity market liberalization. We find robust support for the hypothesis that episodes of reduction in corruption levels tend to be correlated with democratization and equity market liberalization. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Michael H. Graham
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Combining Economic and Conjoint Analysis to Determine Optimal Academic Services

    Mona Whitley Howard
    ABSTRACT In today's era of global competition, organizations must manage their functions and activities in a manner such that they are responsive to customers' needs and can provide excellence in service to the customer while also being efficient and cost conscious. These issues are extremely common in corporate organizations, but such concerns are equally relevant in service industries, including institutions of higher education. This study is conducted at a private, undergraduate institution of higher education. We utilize focus group evaluation and conjoint analysis combined with economic analysis in the form of a newly designed preferred utility economic cost diagram to pick the ideal services that should be provided to enrolled students at the institution. The package of ideal services accounts for preferred utility expressed by students and a new methodology (preferred utility function) to balance these against financial considerations to optimize services and financial gains for a college adult education program. This combination of focus groups and mathematical techniques can be easily employed by educational institutes. [source]

    Global Lessons from the AIDS Pandemic: Economic, Financial, Legal and Political Implications,by Bradly J. Condon and Tapen Sinha

    Karunesh Tuli
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Cartagena Protocol: Implications for Regional Trade and Technology Development in Africa

    E. Jane Morris
    The majority of African countries have ratified or acceded to the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and many have received support through the Global Environment Facility and the UN Environment Programme for development of their National Biosafety Frameworks. This article examines the extent to which these frameworks are aligned with the goals of the Regional Economic and Regional Research Communities of which they are members. Many national approaches lack alignment with regional trade, economic, science and technology policies. The strict application of the precautionary principle and the imposition of costly administrative hurdles are likely to hinder intra-regional trade and technology development. [source]

    Entangled in the Trinity: Economic and Immanent Trinity in Recent Theology

    DIALOG, Issue 3 2001
    Fred Sanders
    First page of article [source]

    Sterling and the Euro

    ECONOMIC OUTLOOK, Issue 1 2000
    Erik Britton
    The question of whether and when sterling should join Economic and Monetary Union is likely to be one of the key battlegrounds in the next election campaign. In this article, Erik Britton and Scott Livermore argue that there is no clear economic case in favour of sterling's entry to EMU. However, if as the government asserts , the political will to join exists, steps could be taken now, adjusting the mix of macroeconomic policy, to ensure that convergence was likely shortly after the next election. [source]

    Economic and cultural correlates of cannabis use among mid-adolescents in 31 countries

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2006
    Tom Ter Bogt
    ABSTRACT Aims To examine cannabis use among mid-adolescents in 31 countries and associations with per-capita personal consumer expenditure (PCE), unemployment, peer factors and national rates of cannabis use in 1999. Design, participants and measurement Nationally representative, self-report, classroom survey with 22 223 male and 24 900 female 15-year-olds. Country characteristics were derived from publicly available economic databases and previously conducted cross-national surveys on substance use. Findings Cannabis use appears to be normative among mid-adolescents in North America and several countries in Europe. The life-time prevalence of cannabis use was 26% among males and 15% among females and was lowest for males and females in the former Yugoslav Republic (TFYR) of Macedonia: 2.5% and to 2.5%, respectively; and highest for males in Switzerland (49.1%) and in Greenland for females (47.0%). The highest prevalence of frequent cannabis use (more than 40 times in life-time) was seen in Canada for males (14.2%) and in the United States for females (5.5%). Overall, life-time prevalence and frequent use are associated with PCE, perceived availability of cannabis (peer culture) and the presence of communities of older cannabis users (drug climate). Conclusions As PCE increases, cannabis use may be expected to increase and gender differences decease. Cross-national comparable policy measures should be developed and evaluated to examine which harm reduction strategies are most effective. [source]

    Transition-Metal-Free Synthesis of Perdeuterated Imidazolium Ionic Liquids by Alkylation and H/D Exchange

    Ralf Giernoth
    Abstract Economic, transition-metal-free syntheses of partially or completely deuterated imidazolium ionic liquids (ILs) were developed. Double alkylation starting from imidazole afforded side-chain deuterated imidazolium ionic liquids, which subsequently were fully deuterated by H/D-exchange on the cation ring. Isotopic exchange was studied for a range of ionic liquids, solvents and bases. Here, the presence of small amounts of basic impurities was found to significantly affect the exchange behaviour.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2008) [source]

    Occupational Cultures and the Embodiment of Masculinity: Hairdressing, Estate Agency and Firefighting

    Alex Hall
    Drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council-funded project, this article explores the implications of different occupational cultures for men's masculine identity. With a focus on embodiment and individual agency, it explores the argument that it is within ,scenes of constraint' that gendered identities are both ,done' and ,undone'. In this article we examine embodied experience in occupational cultures commonly stereotyped as ,masculine' or ,feminine' (hairdressing, estate agency and firefighting), showing how men conform to, draw upon and resist the gendered stereotypes associated with these occupations. What we argue is that gendered conceptions of ,the body' need to be differentiated from individual men's embodiment. Instead, processes of identification can be shown to emerge via embodied experiences of particular kinds of gendered body, and in the ways in which men negotiate the perception of these bodies in different occupational contexts. [source]

    Reconciling Economic and Cultural Explanations for Participation in Alternative Consumption Spaces

    Colin C Williams
    ABSTRACT With the cultural turn in economic geography, the emphasis on economic necessity when explaining participation in alternative consumption spaces (i.e. informal and/or second-hand retail channels) has been contested by an agency-orientated cultural reading that views engagement in such spaces as about the search for fun, sociality, distinction, discernment, the spectacular and so forth, and more recently by a geographically sensitive approach that ascribes agency to affluent populations and economic rationales to deprived populations. Drawing upon evidence collected during 120 face-to-face interviews in the English city of Leicester, however, this paper finds that people's reasons for engaging in such practices cannot be reduced simply to either economic necessity or agency. Instead, it reveals that such either/or thinking obfuscates how both co-exist in people's explanations for engagement and combine in contrasting ways in different neighbourhood types, modes of goods acquisition and according to the type of good sought. The outcome of this paper is thus to transcend and reconcile previous reductive explanations using a both/and approach that recognises the varying ways in which economic necessity and choice are entangled in rationales for participation in alternative consumption spaces. [source]

    Communities in Catchments: Implications for Natural Resource Management

    Abstract Economic and social considerations in natural resource management include the need for community participation and a greater appreciation of social and economic processes in understanding environmental problems. It is anticipated that new frameworks will guide these inclusions and redirect planning and management activities to achieve environmental sustainability. This paper examines issues of participation and the nature of ,community' through an analysis of relevant natural resource management policy documents and a case study of a public drinking water supply catchment in Western Australia. The findings indicate that if NRM strategies are to be successful, then a much wider and more inclusive view of community is needed, one that fully captures the different stakeholder groups beyond farmers, such as town residents, indigenous people, and those involved in other land uses. We need strategies that can accommodate differences within and between communities. [source]

    Innovative Governance and Development in the New Ireland: Social Partnership and the Integrated Approach

    GOVERNANCE, Issue 1 2004
    J. D. House
    Since the mid-1980s, the economy of the Republic of Ireland has displayed a remarkable turnaround. Its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has grown at a faster rate than any developed country in the world. The government's deficit has been cut severely and the debt-to-GDP ration sharply reduced. Average incomes have risen significantly, and the unemployment rate reduced dramatically. This article documents these changes. Its main purpose, however, is to provide a plausible explanation for the "Irish miracle." While many factors have been important,support for the Economic Union's regional development programs, a favorable tax structure, locational and language advantages for attracting multinational corporations, strong education and training programs,these factors in themselves do not explain the emergence of the "Celtic tiger." They were in place before the mid-1980s when Ireland was suffering from a fiscal, economic, and political crisis. Instead, the article argues, it was the creative and innovative response of Irish leaders in government, industry, and labor movement and community organizations to the crisis, and the subsequent institutionalization of this response in a new form of governance, that has been the catalyst for the Irish success story. Based on the thorough background research of the Economic and Social Research Council, a farsighted group of leaders developed a strategic plan in 1987 that provided a blueprint for constructive economic and social change. This was then formally instituted for wage restraint on the part of labor in return for income tax and social supposed provisions by government. Irish social Partnership is modeled to some extent on Northern European corporatism. The article reviews corporatism as an early form of innovative governance, using classical corporatism in Sweden and competitive corporatism in the Netherlands to illustrate how this approach has evolved over the years. Dutch economic success in recent years is due in part to its new form of corporatism that has helped it become globally competitive. It is argued, however, that Irish social partnership goes beyond continental corporatism in several important ways. It is more inclusive, covering a large array of social interests; it is more strategic, with a well-articulated integrated approach to social and economic development that is self-corrective and articulated in a new national agreement every three years; and it is more firmly institutionalized in both government and nongovernment agencies in the country. Social partnership and the integrated approach have become part of the culture of the new Ireland. This innovative form of governance underlies the Irish turnaround and augurs well for the future. It can also serve as a model, with appropriate modification tailor-made to each case, for other jurisdictions hoping to emulate Ireland's success. [source]

    Britain, EMU and the European economy

    Steve Bradley
    In January 1999, 11 member countries of the European Union ,irrevocably' locked the foreign exchange values of their currencies to the euro, and they committed themselves to abandon their currencies in favour of the euro in 2002. As a result, these countries ceased to operate independent monetary policies. Monetary policy for the whole euro-zone became the responsibility of the European Central Bank (ECB), whose primary objective is to maintain a low and stable rate of price inflation for the euro currency. The rules governing Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) were laid down in the treaty of Maastricht in 1992. As conditions for entry to EMU, the treaty specified ,convergence criteria' which consisted of upper limits for several macroeconomic aggregates including, notably, a 3 per cent maximum for the ratio of the public sector deficit to GDP and 60 per cent for the ratio of public debt to GDP.1 In February 1998 the 11 applicant countries submitted statistical analyses relating to their satisfaction of these conditions. Despite doubts as to whether some of them had strictly met the conditions, the European Commission deemed them all eligible, and the euro was launched.2 The British government, though more clearly eligible than most other EU countries on the basis of the convergence criteria, decided to defer its decision on entry. In this paper we consider the arguments for and against Economic and Monetary Union, and in particular whether it would be in Britain's interest to join. We begin with a brief review of the state of the European economy and an analysis of the first year performance of the new Euro currency. [source]

    Using knowledge within small and medium-sized firms: A systematic review of the evidence

    Richard Thorpe
    This paper provides a systematic review of the literature on how small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) use and acquire knowledge. The review was undertaken as part of the Economic and Social Research Council's Evolution of Business Knowledge Programme. The paper describes the systematic review protocol and provides a detailed explanation of the methods used. From the review, it is evident that SME knowledge research concentrates primarily on the acquisition and use of knowledge, treating it as an asset that is transferred by routines. The findings suggest that research is focused in three main areas. First, on the influence and abilities of the entrepreneur to extract, use and develop knowledge resources. Secondly, on firm-wide systems and the social capital that facilitates knowledge exploration and exploitation. Thirdly, on the provision of knowledge and learning experiences through government policy. From a practical perspective, the review concludes that policies encouraging entrepreneurship and economic regeneration need to be more flexible and sensitive to the often complex contexts within which knowledge is used by SMEs. From a research perspective, and given the flexible, opportunity-oriented and often novel nature of SMEs identified in these studies, there is a need to consider the relational and embedded qualities of knowledge by which these characteristics are framed; qualities that resist conceptualization as some form of separable, material asset. [source]

    International Labour Migrants' Return to Meiji-era Yamaguchi and Hiroshima: Economic and Social Effects

    Jonathan Dresner
    International labour migration from Meiji era (1868,1912) Japan was intensely concentrated: over 60 per cent of the 29,000 participants in the government-managed Hawai'i emigration programme (kan'yaku imin, 1885,1894) came from seven coastal counties around the Hiroshima-Yamaguchi prefectural border in southwest Japan. Almost half of the emigrants became long-term settlers instead of returning to their hometowns, but this paper examines what happened to returning emigrants and to their home communities. Since the migration was primarily economic in nature, the effect of migrant earnings was carefully monitored and is frequently cited by scholars. Surveys showed high rates of debt repayment and savings, and improved living conditions, but investment and entrepreneurship were limited. High-emigration regions rarely became economic centers of any importance. Less carefully studied are non-economic effects, partially because the labour programme was structured to minimize contact with Hawaiian or Caucasian culture, and thus returnees had little cultural experience to transfer to their hometowns. Local officials in Yamaguchi seemed proud of the lack of social change. Even long-term sojourners, who returned due to family needs after a decade or more overseas, exhibited no readjustment difficulties. Returnees, particularly in Yamaguchi, sometimes moved on to Japanese colonial territories, creating multilateral and complex relationships with overseas communities. This sojourning migration, like contemporary analogs, was a powerful form of poverty relief in the midst of dislocating globalization, but did not produce a rise in entrepreneurship or a Westernization of local culture. Because this sojourning migration was structurally similar to our modern-day patterns, it provides evidence of the longevity of those patterns and the possible long-term effects, and raises questions about our expectations for migration policy. Retour des travailleurs migrants internationaux de l'ère Meiji à Yamaguchi et Hiroshima: effets économiques et sociaux Au Japon, la migration internationale de main-d',uvre de l'ère Meiji (1868,1912) a été très concentrée: plus de soixante pour cent des 29 000 participants au programme gouvernemental d'émigration à destination d'Hawaï (kan'yaku imin, 1885-1894) venaient de sept régions côtières proches de la limite entre les préfectures d'Hiroshima et de Yamaguchi dans le Sud-Ouest du Japon. Sachant que la moitié des émigrants sont devenus des résidents de longue durée et ne sont pas rentrés dans leur communauté d'origine, le présent document s'intéresse à ceux qui ont fait le choix inverse. Etant donné que cette migration était principalement de nature économique, les effets des gains des migrants ont étéétudiés avec attention et sont souvent cités par les chercheurs. Si des enquêtes ont révélé des taux importants de remboursement de dettes et d'épargne, ainsi qu'un niveau de vie en hausse, les investissements et la création d'entreprises, en revanche, sont restés limités. On a rarement vu des régions à fort taux d'émigration devenir des centres économiques d'importance. Les effets non économiques ont été moins étudiés, en partie parce que ce programme de main-d',uvre était structuré de façon à réduire le plus possible les contacts avec la culture hawaïenne ou caucasienne, ce qui fait que les rapatriés n'avaient guère d'acquis culturels exogènes à transmettre. Les responsables locaux de Yamaguchi semblaient d'ailleurs se réjouir de l'absence de changements sociaux. Même les résidents de longue durée, qui étaient rentrés pour raisons familiales au bout d'au moins une décennie à l'étranger, ne montraient aucune difficultéà se réadapter. Les rapatriés, en particulier à Yamaguchi, ont parfois déménagé vers les territoires coloniaux japonais, créant des relations multilatérales complexes avec les communautés de l'outre-mer. Cette migration temporaire, comme les mouvements analogues à la même époque, était une formidable façon de réduire la pauvreté dans un contexte de bouleversement mondial, mais elle n'a pas renforcé l'esprit d'entreprise ni conduit à une occidentalisation de la culture locale. Comme cette migration temporaire était structurellement semblable à nos modèles contemporains, elle témoigne de la longue durée de vie de ces modèles et de leurs effets possibles à long terme, et soulève des questions quant à nos attentes en matière de politique migratoire. Retorno a los trabajadores migrantes internacionales a la era Meiji en Yamaguchi e Hiroshima: Efectos socioeconómicos La migración laboral internacional en la era Meiji del Japón (1868,1912) era sumamente concentrada: más del 60 por ciento de los 29.000 participantes en el programa de emigración Hawai'i (kan'yaku imin, 1885-1894) administrado por el Gobierno, provenía de varios condados costeros en torno a la frontera prefectural entre Hiroshima-Yamaguchi en el sudeste del Japón. Casi la mitad de los emigrantes residía en albergues semipermanentes y no retornaban a sus lugares de origen. Ahora bien, en este artículo se examina lo ocurrido con los migrantes que retornaron y con las comunidades de retorno. Habida cuenta que la migración era mayormente de carácter económico, el efecto de los ingresos de los migrantes se siguió de cerca y, frecuentemente, ha sido citado por los estudiosos en la materia. Las encuestas demuestran elevadas tasas de reembolso de deudas y de ahorro, así como un mejoramiento de las condiciones de vida, pero también apuntan a limitadas inversiones o empresas. Las regiones de alta emigración rara vez se convirtieron en centros de importancia económica. No se ha estudiado en detalle los efectos extra económicos, en parte porque el programa de migración laboral estaba estructurado para minimizar el contacto con la cultura hawaiana o caucasiana, por lo cual las personas que retornaban tenían poca experiencia cultural que aportar a sus lugares de origen. Los funcionarios locales en Yamaguchi se enorgullecían de la falta de intercambio social. Incluso aquéllos residentes de larga duración que retornaron debido a cuestiones familiares tras una década o más en ultramar, no presentaron ninguna dificultad en readaptarse. Las personas que retornaron, particularmente a Yamaguchi, se desplazaron a veces a territorios coloniales japoneses, estableciendo complejas relaciones multilaterales con comunidades en ultramar. La migración de carácter permanente, al igual que sus análogos contemporáneos, era un sólido medio de aliviar la pobreza en medio de una globalización perturbadora, pero no dio lugar a un incremento empresarial o a una occidentalización de la cultura local. La similitud estructural de la migración de larga duración con nuestros patrones de hoy en día, aporta pruebas de la longevidad de los mismos, de los posibles efectos a largo plazo de dichos patrones y plantea una serie de preguntas sobre las expectativas en cuanto a las políticas migratorias. [source]

    Social, Economic and Demographic Consequences of Migration on Kerala

    K.C. Zachariah
    Migration has been the single most dynamic factor in the otherwise dreary development scenario of Kerala during the last quarter of the last century. It has contributed more to poverty alleviation and reduction in unemployment in Kerala than any other factor. As a result of migration, the proportion of the population below the poverty line has declined by 12 per cent. The number of unemployed persons , estimated to be only about 13 lakhs in 1998 compared with 37 lakhs reported by the Kerala Employment Exchanges , has declined by over 30 per cent. Migration has caused nearly a million married women in Kerala to live away from their husbands. Most of these so-called "Gulf wives" experienced extreme loneliness to begin with, and were burdened with added family responsibilities to which they had not been accustomed when their husbands were with them. But over a period, and with a helping hand from abroad over the ISD, most came out of their early gloom. Their gain in autonomy, status, management skills and experience in dealing with the world outside their homes were developed the hard way and would remain with them for the rest of their lives for the benefit of their families and society. In the long run, the transformation of these million women will have contributed more to the development of Kerala society than all the temporary euphoria created by remittances and modern gadgetry. Kerala is dependent on migration for employment, subsistence, housing, household amenities, institution building, and many other developmental activities. The danger is that migration could cease, as shown by the Kuwait war of 1993, and repercussions could be disastrous for the State. Understanding migration trends and instituting policies to maintain the flow of migration is more important today than at any time in the past. Kerala workers seem to be losing out in international competition for jobs in the Gulf market. Corrective policies are needed urgently to raise their competitive edge over workers in competing countries in South and South-East Asia. Like any other industry, migration from Kerala needs periodic technological upgrading of workers. Otherwise, there is a danger that the State might lose the Gulf market permanently. The crux of the problem is Kerala workers' inability to compete with expatriates from other South and South-East Asian countries. The solution lies in equipping workers with better general education and job training. This study suggests a twofold approach. In the short run, the need is to improve the job skills of prospective emigrant workers. This could be achieved through ad hoc training programmes focussed on the job market in Gulf countries. In the long run, the need is to restructure the educational system, taking into consideration the future demand of workers not only in Kerala but also in potential destination countries all over the world, including the US and other developed countries. Kerala emigrants need not always be construction workers in the Gulf countries; they could also be software engineers in developed countries. [source]

    Protection of Migrants' Human Rights: Principles and Practice

    Heikki S. Mattila
    In principle, migrants enjoy the protection of international law. Key human rights instruments oblige the States Parties to extend their protection to all human beings. Such important treaties as the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights have been ratified by more than 140 states, but many political, social or economic obstacles seem to stand in the way of offering those rights to migrants. In an attempt to bridge this protection gap, the more specifically targeted International Convention on the Protection of All Migrant Workers and Members of their Families was created and adopted by the United Nations in 1990. This treaty is not yet in force, but the number of States Parties is increasing towards the required 20. In the past few years the human rights machinery of the United Nations has increased its attention towards migrants' human rights, appointing in 1999 the Special Rapporteur on the Human Rights of Migrants. Governments, as the acceding parties to international human rights instruments, remain the principal actors as guardians of the human rights of all individuals residing in their territories. Receiving countries are in a key position in the protection of the migrants that they host. However, active defence of migrants' rights is politically difficult in many countries where anti-immigrant factions are influential. Trafficking in migrants is one example of the complexity faced by states in formulating their migration policies. On the one hand, trafficking has made governments increasingly act together and combine both enforcement and protection. On the other, trafficking, with its easily acceptable human rights concerns, is often separated from the more migration-related human smuggling. The latter is a more contentious issue, related also to unofficial interests in utilizing cheap undocumented immigrant labour. [source]

    The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights as a tool for combating discrimination against women: general observations and a case study on Algeria*

    Karima Bennoune
    The International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (ICESCR) is vital to protecting the human rights of women. This is reflected in the substantive rights which the treaty guarantees and its procedural emphasis on non-discrimination. The ICESCR now has 151 State Parties, as compared with 180 states that have ratified the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW). While the latter is a lightning rod for opposition to the advancement of women's rights, the former is not. It may, therefore, be a particularly useful tool for combating discrimination against women, especially in the Muslim world where resistance to CEDAW in conservative quarters is strong. Still, some argue that the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights, which monitors implementation of the ICESCR, needs to further elaborate its jurisprudence on women's issues. Against such a complex backdrop, this study will explore the utility of the ICESCR in combating discrimination against women, looking in particular at the example of Algeria, which became a State Party in 1989. [source]

    The MOST Project: Economic and Social Transformations Connected with the International Drug Problem

    Article first published online: 16 DEC 200

    Explaining Europe's Monetary Union: A Survey of the Literature

    Tal Sadeh
    This article offers a survey of the literature on European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), in particular works that deal with the question why EMU happened and, based on this literature, what one might be able to conclude about its sustainability. It reviews the literature by dividing up the analyses into four categories: those that explain EMU at the global and at the European Union (EU) levels of analysis, explanations at the national level, and explanations at the domestic level of analysis. The review suggests that EMU was a particular European response to global developments, which was possible because of existing EU institutions. EMU was causally motivated by a Franco-German deal, balancing national interests. Domestic motives reflect essentially opportunistic motives, and thus, cannot explain EMU. In our judgment the review suggests that Europe's single currency will remain sustainable as long as the Franco-German political deal sticks, the belief in the "sound money" idea remains hegemonic in Europe, and the losers from EMU are underrepresented in national and EU institutions. While opportunistic domestic motives cannot explain embarking on a long-term project, they can definitely be sufficient to derail such a project. [source]

    Reinventing Poland: Economic and Political Transformation and Evolving National Identity , Edited by M. Myant and T. Cox

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Economic and Legal Issues in Reducing the Eurosystem's Excess of International Reserves

    Harald Badinger
    Economic studies suggest that the Eurosystem's international reserves ($370 billion) could be reduced by up to half of its existing level. The article discusses the likely size and distribution of excess reserves and proposals for their uses. Small economic gains can be expected from a reserve reduction, as well as an elimination of incompatibilities and conflicts of interest between the conduct of monetary and investment policy. A careful and co-ordinated reserve reduction would pose no threat to financial stability, making it also admissible from a legal perspective against the background of Art. 31 of the ESCB (European System of Central Banks) Statute. Finally, transferring reserves as an extraordinary gain to the government does not constitute monetary financing as prohibited by Art. 101 EC Treaty. [source]

    The Logic of Access to the European Parliament: Business Lobbying in the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs

    Pieter Bouwen
    This article is an attempt to test empirically a theory of access that investigates the logic behind the lobbying behaviour of business interests in the European Parliament. The theoretical framework tries to explain the degree of access of different organizational forms of business interest representation (companies, associations and consultants) to the supranational assembly in terms of a theory of the supply and demand of ,access goods'. On the basis of 14 exploratory and 27 semi-structured interviews, the hypotheses are checked in the Committee on Economic and Monetary Affairs (ECON) of the European Parliament. Surprisingly, European and national associations enjoy a similar degree of access to the Parliament. Individual companies and consultants have a much lower degree of access than the two collective forms of interest representation. In the conclusion, these results are analysed in the light of the existing literature on party cohesion and coalition formation in the European Parliament. [source]

    A Nursing Home in Arab-Israeli Society: Targeting Utilization in a Changing Social and Economic Environment

    Khalid Suleiman MD
    This article is a case study of the first 10 years of operation (1992,2002) of the Dabouriya Home for the Aged, the first publicly funded culturally adapted nursing home for Israeli citizens of Arab descent. Although 44% of Arab Israelis and 26% of Jewish Israelis aged 65 and older are disabled, in 1999, 4.3% of the Jewish population but only 0.7% of the Arab-Israeli population aged 65 or older lived in long-term care institutions; disabled Arab-Israeli elderly were mainly cared for by families. As Arab-Israeli society modernizes and traditional caregiving is reduced, alternatives must be found for this growing, disabled population. Medical and administrative records of 404 people admitted consecutively to a 136-bed facility over 10 years were analyzed. Two distinct segments of the needy population were served: people with independent activity of daily living (ADL) function but little or no family to provide help with intermediate ADLs and those dependent in ADLs and with health problems, especially dementia. Economic, demographic, and social changes in Arab-Israeli society may mean that traditional caregivers will not be able to adequately care for this highly disabled population. Administrators of the public health system in Israel should be aware of the underutilization of publicly funded long-term care by disabled Arab Israelis and the lack of care alternatives for the population that does use nursing homes, because there may be severe consequences in terms of caregiver burden and social stress when disabled elderly people remain in unsuitable environments. [source]

    2009 Annual Index: A Supplement to the Africa Research Bulletin Economic, Financial and Technical Series

    Article first published online: 3 AUG 2010
    First page of article [source]

    South Africa: Selected Economic and Financial Indicators, 2005,09

    Article first published online: 1 OCT 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    2008 Annual Index: A Supplement to Africa Research Bulletin Economic, Financial and Technical Series

    Article first published online: 30 JUL 200
    First page of article [source]

    BBVA-ARIES: a forecasting and simulation model for EMU

    Fernando C. Ballabriga
    Abstract This paper describes the BBVA-ARIES, a Bayesian vector autoregression (BVAR) for the European Economic and Monetary Union (EMU). In addition to providing EMU-wide growth and inflation forecasts, the model provides an assessment of the interactions between key EMU macroeconomic variables and external ones, such as world GDP or commodity prices. A comparison of the forecasts generated by the model and those of private analysts and public institutions reveals a very positive balance in favour of the model. For their part, the simulations allow us to assess the potential macroeconomic effects of macroeconomic developments in the EMU.,Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]