Early-type Galaxies (early-type + galaxy)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Variations in 24-,m morphologies among galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey: new insights into the Hubble sequence

G. J. Bendo
ABSTRACT To study the distribution of star formation and dust emission within nearby galaxies, we measured five morphological parameters in the 3.6- and 24-,m wavebands for 65 galaxies in the Spitzer Infrared Nearby Galaxies Survey (SINGS) and eight galaxies that were serendipitously observed by SINGS. The morphological parameters demonstrate strong variations along the Hubble sequence, including statistically significant differences between S0/a-Sab and Sc-Sd galaxies. Early-type galaxies are generally found to be compact, centralized, symmetric sources in the 24-,m band, while late-type galaxies are generally found to be extended, asymmetric sources. These results suggest that the processes that increase the real or apparent sizes of galaxies' bulges also lead to more centralized 24-,m dust emission. Several phenomena, such as strong nuclear star formation, Seyfert activity, or outer ring structures, may cause galaxies to deviate from the general morphological trends observed at 24 ,m. We also note that the 24-,m morphologies of Sdm-Im galaxies are quite varied, with some objects appearing very compact and symmetric but others appearing diffuse and asymmetric. These variations reflect the wide variation in star formation in irregular galaxies as observed at other wavelengths. The variations in the 24-,m morphological parameters across the Hubble sequence mirror many of the morphological trends seen in other tracers of the ISM and in stellar emission. However, the 24-,m morphological parameters for the galaxies in this sample do not match the morphological parameters measured in the stellar wavebands. This implies that the distribution of dust emission is related to but not equivalent to the distribution of stellar emission. [source]

The redshift distribution of FIRST radio sources at 1 mJy

M. Magliocchetti
We present spectra for a sample of radio sources from the FIRST survey, and use them to define the form of the redshift distribution of radio sources at mJy levels. We targeted 365 sources and obtained 46 redshifts (13 per cent of the sample). We find that our sample is complete in redshift measurement to R,18.6, corresponding to z,0.2. Galaxies were assigned spectral types based on emission-line strengths. Early-type galaxies represent the largest subset (45 per cent) of the sample and have redshifts 0.15,z,0.5; late-type galaxies make up 15 per cent of the sample and have redshifts 0.05,z,0.2; starbursting galaxies are a small fraction (,6 per cent), and are very nearby (z,0.05). Some 9 per cent of the population have Seyfert 1/quasar-type spectra, all at z,0.8, and 4 per cent are Seyfert 2 type galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z,0.2). Using our measurements and data from the Phoenix survey (Hopkins et al.), we obtain an estimate for N(z) at S1.4 GHz,1 mJy and compare this with model predictions. At variance with previous conclusions, we find that the population of starbursting objects makes up ,5 per cent of the radio population at S,1 mJy. [source]

Structures in the fundamental plane of early-type galaxies

D. Fraix-Burnet
ABSTRACT The fundamental plane of early-type galaxies is a rather tight three-parameter correlation discovered more than 20 yr ago. It has resisted both a global and precise physical interpretation despite a consequent number of works, observational, theoretical or using numerical simulations. It appears that its precise properties depend on the population of galaxies in study. Instead of selecting a priori these populations, we propose to objectively construct homologous populations from multivariate analyses. We have undertaken multivariate cluster and cladistic analyses of a sample of 56 low-redshift galaxy clusters containing 699 early-type galaxies, using four parameters: effective radius, velocity dispersion, surface brightness averaged over effective radius and Mg2 index. All our analyses are consistent with seven groups that define separate regions on the global fundamental plane, not across its thickness. In fact, each group shows its own fundamental plane, which is more loosely defined for less diversified groups. We conclude that the global fundamental plane is not a bent surface, but made of a collection of several groups characterizing several fundamental planes with different thicknesses and orientations in the parameter space. Our diversification scenario probably indicates that the level of diversity is linked to the number and the nature of transforming events and that the fundamental plane is the result of several transforming events. We also show that our classification, not the fundamental planes, is universal within our redshift range (0.007,0.053). We find that the three groups with the thinnest fundamental planes presumably formed through dissipative (wet) mergers. In one of them, this(ese) merger(s) must have been quite ancient because of the relatively low metallicity of its galaxies, Two of these groups have subsequently undergone dry mergers to increase their masses. In the k-space, the third one clearly occupies the region where bulges (of lenticular or spiral galaxies) lie and might also have formed through minor mergers and accretions. The two least diversified groups probably did not form by major mergers and must have been strongly affected by interactions, some of the gas in the objects of one of these groups having possibly been swept out. The interpretation, based on specific assembly histories of galaxies of our seven groups, shows that they are truly homologous. They were obtained directly from several observables, thus independently of any a priori classification. The diversification scenario relating these groups does not depend on models or numerical simulations, but is objectively provided by the cladistic analysis. Consequently, our classification is more easily compared to models and numerical simulations, and our work can be readily repeated with additional observables. [source]

The variation of the galaxy luminosity function with group properties

Aaron Robotham
ABSTRACT We explore the shape of the galaxy luminosity function (LF) in groups of different mass by creating composite LFs over large numbers of groups. Following previous work using total group luminosity as the mass indicator, here we split our groups by multiplicity and by estimated virial (group halo) mass, and consider red (passive) and blue (star-forming) galaxies separately. In addition, we utilize two different group catalogues (2PIGG and Yang et al.) in order to ascertain the impact of the specific grouping algorithm and further investigate the environmental effects via variations in the LF with position in groups. Our main results are that LFs show a steepening faint end for early-type galaxies as a function of group mass/multiplicity, with a much suppressed trend (evident only in high mass groups) for late-type galaxies. Variations between LFs as a function of group mass are robust irrespective of which grouping catalogue is used, and broadly speaking what method for determining group ,mass' is used. We find in particular that there is a significant deficit of low-mass passive galaxies in low-multiplicity groups, as seen in high-redshift clusters. Further to this, the variation in the LF appears to only occur in the central regions of systems, and in fact seems to be most strongly dependent on the position in the group relative to the virial radius. Finally, distance,rank magnitude relations were considered. Only the Yang groups demonstrated any evidence of a correlation between a galaxy's position relative to the brightest group member and its luminosity. 2PIGG possessed no such gradient, the conclusion being the friend-of-friend algorithm suppresses the signal for weak luminosity,position trends and the Yang grouping algorithm naturally enhances it. [source]

The nature of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in various classes based on morphology, colour and spectral features , III.

ABSTRACT We present a study on the environments of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies divided into fine classes based on their morphology, colour and spectral features. The SDSS galaxies are classified into early-type and late-type; red and blue; passive, H ii, Seyfert and low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER), which returns a total of 16 fine classes of galaxies. We estimate the local number density, target-excluded local luminosity density, local colour, close pair fraction and the luminosity and colour of the brightest neighbour, which are compared between the fine classes comprehensively. The morphology,colour class of galaxies strongly depends on the local density, with the approximate order of high-density preference: red early-type galaxies (REGs); red late-type galaxies (RLGs); blue early-type galaxies (BEGs) and blue late-type galaxies (BLGs). We find that high-density environments (like cluster environments) seem to suppress active galactic nucleus activity. The pair fraction of H ii REGs does not show a statistically significant difference from that of passive REGs, while the pair fraction of H ii BLGs is smaller than that of non-H ii BLGs. H ii BLGs show obvious double (red + blue) peaks in the distribution of the brightest neighbour colour, while red galaxies show a single red peak. The brightest neighbours of Seyfert BLGs tend to be blue, while those of LINER BLGs tend to be red, which implies that the difference between Seyfert and LINER may be related to the pair interaction. Other various environments of the fine classes are investigated, and their implications for galaxy evolution are discussed. [source]

The properties of the heterogeneous Shakhbazyan groups of galaxies in the SDSS

D. Capozzi
ABSTRACT We present a systematic study of the subsample of Shakhbazyan (SHK) groups covered by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 (SDSS DR5). SHK groups probe an environment with characteristics which are intermediate between those of loose and very compact groups. Surprisingly, we found that several groups identifying algorithms, e.g. Berlind et al. and Tago et al., miss this type of structures. Using the SDSS DR5 spectroscopic data and the photometric redshifts derived in D'Abrusco et al., we identified possible group members in photometric redshift space and derived, for each group, several individual properties (richness, size, mean photometric redshift, fraction of red galaxies, etc.). We also combined pointed and stacked Rosat All Sky Survey (RASS) data to investigate the X-ray luminosities of these systems. Our study confirms that the majority of groups are physical entities with richness in the range 3,13 galaxies, and properties ranging between those of loose and compact groups. We confirm that SHK groups are richer in early-type galaxies than the surrounding environment and the field, as expected from the morphology,density relation and from the selection of groups of red galaxies. Furthermore, our work supports the existence of two subclasses of structures, the first one being formed by compact and isolated groups and the second formed by extended structures. We suggest that while the first class of objects dwells in less dense regions like the outer parts of clusters or the field, possibly sharing the properties of Hickson Compact Groups, the more extended structures represent a mixture of [core + halo] configurations and cores of rich clusters. X-ray luminosities for SHK groups are generally consistent with these results and with the expectations for the LX,,v relation, but also suggest the velocity dispersions reported in literature are underestimated for some of the richest systems. [source]

An optimized H, index for disentangling stellar population ages

J. L. Cervantes
ABSTRACT We have defined a new H, absorption index definition, H,o, which has been optimized as an age indicator for old and intermediate age stellar populations. Rather than using stellar spectra, we employed for this purpose a library of stellar population spectral energy distributions of different ages and metallicities at moderately high resolution. H,o provides us with improved abilities for lifting the age,metallicity degeneracy affecting the standard H, Lick index definition. The new index, which has also been optimized against photon noise and velocity dispersion, is fully characterized with wavelength shift, spectrum shape, dust extinction and [,/Fe] abundance ratio effects. H,o requires spectra of similar qualities as those commonly used for measuring the standard H, Lick index definition. Aiming at illustrating the use and capabilities of H,o as an age indicator we apply it to Milky Way globular clusters and to a well selected sample of early-type galaxies covering a wide range in mass. The results shown here are particularly useful for applying this index and understand the involved uncertainties. [source]

Effects of galaxy-halo alignment and adiabatic contraction on gravitational lens statistics

Quinn E. Minor
ABSTRACT We study the strong gravitational lens statistics of triaxial cold dark matter haloes occupied by central early-type galaxies. We calculate the image separation distribution for double, cusp and quad configurations. The ratios of image multiplicities at large separations are consistent with the triaxial NFW model, and at small separations are consistent with the singular isothermal ellipsoid model. At all the separations, the total lensing probability is enhanced by adiabatic contraction. If no adiabatic contraction is assumed, naked cusp configurations become dominant at ,2.5 arcsec, which is inconsistent with the data. We also show that at small-to-moderate separations (,5 arcsec) the image multiplicities depend sensitively on the alignment of the shapes of the luminous and dark matter projected density profiles. In contrast to other properties that affect these ratios, the degree of alignment does not have a significant effect on the total lensing probability. These correlations may therefore be constrained by comparing the theoretical image separation distribution to a sufficiently large lens sample from future wide and deep sky surveys such as Pan-Stars, LSST and JDEM. Understanding the correlations in the shapes of galaxies and their dark matter halo is important for future weak lensing surveys. [source]

Global properties of the rich cluster ABCG 209 at z, 0.2. Spectroscopic and photometric catalogue

A. Mercurio
ABSTRACT This paper is aimed at giving an overview of the global properties of the rich cluster of galaxies ABCG 209. This is achieved by complementing the already available data with new medium-resolution spectroscopy and near-infrared (NIR) photometry which allow us to (i) analyse in detail the cluster dynamics, distinguishing among galaxies belonging to different substructures and deriving their individual velocity distributions, using a total sample of 148 galaxies in the cluster region, of which 134 belonging to the cluster; (ii) derive the cluster NIR luminosity function; (iii) study the Kormendy relation and the photometric plane of cluster early-type galaxies (ETGs). Finally we provide an extensive photometric (optical and NIR) and spectroscopic data set for such a complex system to be used in further analyses investigating the nature, formation and evolution of rich clusters of galaxies. The present study shows that the cluster is characterized by a very high value of the line-of-sight velocity dispersion: ,v= 1268+93,84 km s,1, that results in a virial mass of Mvir= 2.95+0.80,0.78× 1015 h,170 M, within Rvir= 3.42 h,170 Mpc. The analysis of the velocity dispersion profile shows that such high value of ,v is already reached in the central cluster region. There is evidence of three significant substructures, the primary one having a velocity dispersion of ,v= 847+52,49 km s,1, which makes it consistent with mass estimates from weak lensing analyses. This observational scenario confirms that ABCG 209 is presently undergoing strong dynamical evolution with the merging of two or more subclumps. This interpretation is also supported by the detection of a radio halo suggesting that there is a recent or ongoing merging. Cluster ETGs follow a Kormendy relation whose slope is consistent with previous studies both at optical and NIR wavelengths. We investigate the origin of the intrinsic scatter of the photometric plane due to trends of stellar populations, using line indices as indicators of age, metallicity and ,/Fe enhancement. We find that the chemical evolution of galaxies could be responsible for the intrinsic dispersion of the photometric plane. [source]

Is AGN feedback necessary to form red elliptical galaxies?

A. Khalatyan
ABSTRACT We have used the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code gadget-2 to simulate the formation of an elliptical galaxy in a group-size cosmological dark matter halo with mass Mhalo, 3 × 1012 h,1 M, at z= 0. The use of a stellar population synthesis model has allowed us to compute magnitudes, colours and surface brightness profiles. We have included a model to follow the growth of a central black hole and we have compared the results of simulations with and without feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN). We have studied the interplay between cold gas accretion and merging in the development of galactic morphologies, the link between colour and morphology evolution, the effect of AGN feedback on the photometry of early-type galaxies, the redshift evolution in the properties of quasar hosts, and the impact of AGN winds on the chemical enrichment of the intergalactic medium (IGM). We have found that the early phases of galaxy formation are driven by the accretion of cold filamentary flows, which form a disc galaxy at the centre of the dark matter halo. Disc star formation rates in this mode of galaxy growth are about as high as the peak star formation rates attained at a later epoch in galaxy mergers. When the dark matter halo is sufficiently massive to support the propagation of a stable shock, the gas in the filaments is heated to the virial temperature, cold accretion is shut down, and the star formation rate begins to decline. Mergers transform the spiral galaxy into an elliptical one, but they also reactivate star formation by bringing gas into the galaxy. Without a mechanism that removes gas from the merger remnants, the galaxy ends up with blue colours, which are atypical for its elliptical morphology. We have demonstrated that AGN feedback can solve this problem even with a fairly low heating efficiency. Our simulations support a picture where AGN feedback is important for quenching star formation in the remnant of wet mergers and for moving them to the red sequence. This picture is consistent with recent observational results, which suggest that AGN hosts are galaxies in migration from the blue cloud to the red sequence on the colour,magnitude diagram. However, we have also seen a transition in the properties of AGN hosts from blue and star forming at z, 2 to mainly red and dead at z, 0. Ongoing merging is the primary but not the only triggering mechanism for luminous AGN activity. Quenching by AGN is only effective after the cold filaments have dried out, since otherwise the galaxy is constantly replenished with gas. AGN feedback also contributes to raising the entropy of the hot IGM by removing low-entropy tails vulnerable to developing cooling flows. We have also demonstrated that AGN winds are potentially important for the metal enrichment of the IGM a high redshift. [source]

Photometric properties and scaling relations of early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies

F. S. Liu
ABSTRACT We investigate the photometric properties of the early-type Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) using a carefully selected sample of 85 BCGs from the C4 cluster catalogue with a redshift of less than 0.1. We perform accurate background subtractions and surface photometry for these BCGs to 25 mag arcsec,2 in the Sloan r band. By quantitatively analysing the gradient of the Petrosian profiles of BCGs, we find that a large fraction of BCGs have extended stellar envelopes in their outskirts; more luminous BCGs tend to have more extended stellar haloes that are likely to be connected with mergers. A comparison sample of elliptical galaxies was chosen with similar apparent magnitude and redshift ranges, for which the same photometric analysis procedure is applied. We find that BCGs have steeper size,luminosity (R,L,) and Faber,Jackson (L,,,) relations than the bulk of early-type galaxies. Furthermore, the power-law indices (, and ,) in these relations increase as the isophotal limits become deeper. For isophotal limits from 22 to 25 mag arcsec,2, BCGs are usually larger than the bulk of early-type galaxies, and a large fraction (,49 per cent) of BCGs have discy isophotal shapes. The differences in the scaling relations are consistent with a scenario where the dynamical structure and formation route of BCGs may be different from the bulk of early-type galaxies; in particular dry (dissipationless) mergers may play a more important role in their formation. We highlight several possible dry merger candidates in our sample. [source]

Spectral models for solar-scaled and ,-enhanced stellar populations

P. Coelho
ABSTRACT We present the first models allowing one to explore in a consistent way the influence of changes in the ,-element-to-iron abundance ratio on the high-resolution spectral properties of evolving stellar populations. The models cover the wavelength range from 3000 Ĺ to 1.34 ,m at a constant resolution of full width at half-maximum (FWHM) = 1 Ĺ and a sampling of 0.2 Ĺ, for overall metallicities in the range 0.005 ,Z, 0.048 and for stellar population ages between 3 and 14 Gyr. These models are based on a recent library of synthetic stellar spectra and a new library of stellar evolutionary tracks, both computed for three different iron abundances ([Fe/H]=,0.5, 0.0 and 0.2) and two different ,-element-to-iron abundance ratios ([,/Fe]= 0.0 and 0.4). We expect our fully synthetic models to be primarily useful for evaluating the differential effect of changes in the ,/Fe ratio on spectral properties such as broad-band colours and narrow spectral features. In addition, we assess the accuracy of absolute model predictions in two ways: first, by comparing the predictions of models for scaled-solar metal abundances ([,/Fe]= 0.0) to those of existing models based on libraries of observed stellar spectra; and secondly, by comparing the predictions of models for ,-enhanced metal abundances ([,/Fe]= 0.4) to observed spectra of massive early-type galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 4. We find that our models predict accurate strengths for those spectral indices that are strongly sensitive to the abundances of Fe and , elements. The predictions are less reliable for the strengths of other spectral features, such as those dominated by the abundances of C and N, as expected from the fact that the models do not yet allow one to explore the influence of these elements in an independent way. We conclude that our models are a powerful tool for extracting new information about the chemical properties of galaxies for which high-quality spectra have been gathered by modern surveys. [source]

Dynamical modelling of luminous and dark matter in 17 Coma early-type galaxies

J. Thomas
ABSTRACT Dynamical models for 17 early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster are presented. The galaxy sample consists of flattened, rotating as well as non-rotating early-types including cD and S0 galaxies with luminosities between MB=,18.79 and ,22.56. Kinematical long-slit observations cover at least the major-axis and minor-axis and extend to 1,4reff. Axisymmetric Schwarzschild models are used to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios and dark halo parameters. In every galaxy, the best fit with dark matter matches the data better than the best fit without. The statistical significance is over 95 per cent for eight galaxies, around 90 per cent for five galaxies and for four galaxies it is not significant. For the highly significant cases, systematic deviations between models without dark matter and the observed kinematics are clearly seen; for the remaining galaxies, differences are more statistical in nature. Best-fitting models contain 10,50 per cent dark matter inside the half-light radius. The central dark matter density is at least one order of magnitude lower than the luminous mass density, independent of the assumed dark matter density profile. The central phase-space density of dark matter is often orders of magnitude lower than that in the luminous component, especially when the halo core radius is large. The orbital system of the stars along the major-axis is slightly dominated by radial motions. Some galaxies show tangential anisotropy along the minor-axis, which is correlated with the minor-axis Gauss,Hermite coefficient H4. Changing the balance between data-fit and regularization constraints does not change the reconstructed mass structure significantly: model anisotropies tend to strengthen if the weight on regularization is reduced, but the general property of a galaxy to be radially or tangentially anisotropic does not change. This paper is aimed to set the basis for a subsequent detailed analysis of luminous and dark matter scaling relations, orbital dynamics and stellar populations. [source]

X-ray active galactic nuclei in the core of the Perseus cluster

S. Santra
ABSTRACT We present a study of the X-ray emission from the nuclei of galaxies observed in the core of the Perseus cluster in a deep exposure with Chandra. Point sources are found coincident with the nuclei of 13 early-type galaxies, as well as the central galaxy NGC 1275. This corresponds to all galaxies brighter than MB > ,18 in the Chandra field. All of these sources have a steep power-law spectral component and four have an additional thermal component. The unabsorbed power-law luminosities in the 0.5,7.0 keV band range from 8 × 1038 to 5 × 1040 erg s,1. We find no simple correlations between the K -band luminosity, or the FUV and NUV AB magnitudes of these galaxies and their X-ray properties. We have estimated the black hole masses of the nuclei using the K -band MBH,LKbol relation and again find no correlation between black hole mass and the X-ray luminosity. Bondi accretion on to the black holes in the galaxies with minihaloes should make them much more luminous than observed. [source]

The DEEP2 galaxy redshift survey: evolution of the colour,density relation at 0.4 < z < 1.35

Michael C. Cooper
ABSTRACT Using a sample of 19 464 galaxies drawn from the DEEP2 Galaxy Redshift Survey, we study the relationship between galaxy colour and environment at 0.4 < z < 1.35. We find that the fraction of galaxies on the red sequence depends strongly on local environment out to z > 1, being larger in regions of greater galaxy density. At all epochs probed, we also find a small population of red, morphologically early-type galaxies residing in regions of low measured overdensity. The observed correlations between the red fraction and local overdensity are highly significant, with the trend at z > 1 detected at a greater than 5, level. Over the entire redshift regime studied, we find that the colour,density relation evolves continuously, with red galaxies more strongly favouring overdense regions at low z relative to their red-sequence counterparts at high redshift. At z, 1.3, the red fraction only weakly correlates with overdensity, implying that any colour dependence to the clustering of ,L* galaxies at that epoch must be small. Our findings add weight to existing evidence that the build-up of galaxies on the red sequence has occurred preferentially in overdense environments (i.e. galaxy groups) at z, 1.5. Furthermore, we identify the epoch (z, 2) at which typical ,L* galaxies began quenching and moved on to the red sequence in significant number. The strength of the observed evolutionary trends at 0 < z < 1.35 suggests that the correlations observed locally, such as the morphology,density and colour,density relations, are the result of environment-driven mechanisms (i.e. ,nurture') and do not appear to have been imprinted (by ,nature') upon the galaxy population during their epoch of formation. [source]

The SAURON project , IV.

The mass-to-light ratio, lenticular galaxies, the Fundamental Plane of elliptical, the virial mass estimator
ABSTRACT We investigate the well-known correlations between the dynamical mass-to-light ratio (M/L) and other global observables of elliptical (E) and lenticular (S0) galaxies. We construct two-integral Jeans and three-integral Schwarzschild dynamical models for a sample of 25 E/S0 galaxies with SAURON integral-field stellar kinematics to about one effective (half-light) radius Re. They have well-calibrated I -band Hubble Space Telescope WFPC2 and large-field ground-based photometry, accurate surface brightness fluctuation distances, and their observed kinematics is consistent with an axisymmetric intrinsic shape. All these factors result in an unprecedented accuracy in the M/L measurements. We find a tight correlation of the form (M/L) = (3.80 ± 0.14) × (,e/200 km s,1)0.84±0.07 between the M/L (in the I band) measured from the dynamical models and the luminosity-weighted second moment ,e of the LOSVD within Re. The observed rms scatter in M/L for our sample is 18 per cent, while the inferred intrinsic scatter is ,13 per cent. The (M/L),,e relation can be included in the remarkable series of tight correlations between ,e and other galaxy global observables. The comparison of the observed correlations with the predictions of the Fundamental Plane (FP), and with simple virial estimates, shows that the ,tilt' of the FP of early-type galaxies, describing the deviation of the FP from the virial relation, is almost exclusively due to a real M/L variation, while structural and orbital non-homology have a negligible effect. When the photometric parameters are determined in the ,classic' way, using growth curves, and the ,e is measured in a large aperture, the virial mass appears to be a reliable estimator of the mass in the central regions of galaxies, and can be safely used where more ,expensive' models are not feasible (e.g. in high-redshift studies). In this case the best-fitting virial relation has the form (M/L)vir= (5.0 ± 0.1) ×Re,2e/(LG), in reasonable agreement with simple theoretical predictions. We find no difference between the M/L of the galaxies in clusters and in the field. The comparison of the dynamical M/L with the (M/L)pop inferred from the analysis of the stellar population, indicates a median dark matter fraction in early-type galaxies of ,30 per cent of the total mass inside one Re, in broad agreement with previous studies, and it also shows that the stellar initial mass function varies little among different galaxies. Our results suggest a variation in M/L at constant (M/L)pop, which seems to be linked to the galaxy dynamics. We speculate that fast-rotating galaxies have lower dark matter fractions than the slow-rotating and generally more-massive ones. If correct, this would suggest a connection between the galaxy assembly history and the dark matter halo structure. The tightness of our correlation provides some evidence against cuspy nuclear dark matter profiles in galaxies. [source]

Extracting star formation histories from medium-resolution galaxy spectra

H. Mathis
ABSTRACT We adapt an existing data compression algorithm, moped, to the extraction of median-likelihood star formation histories from medium-resolution galaxy spectra. By focusing on the high-pass components of galaxy spectra, we minimize potential uncertainties arising from the spectrophotometric calibration and intrinsic attenuation by dust. We validate our approach using model high-pass spectra of galaxies with different star formation histories covering the wavelength range 3650,8500 Ĺ at a resolving power of ,2000. We show that the method can recover the full star formation histories of these models, without prior knowledge of the metallicity, to within an accuracy that depends sensitively on the signal-to-noise ratio. The investigation of the sensitivity of the flux at each wavelength to the mass fraction of stars of different ages allows us to identify new age-sensitive features in galaxy spectra. We also highlight a fundamental limitation in the recovery of the star formation histories of galaxies for which the optical signatures of intermediate-age stars are masked by those of younger and older stars. As an example of application, we use this method to derive average star formation histories from the highest-quality spectra of typical (in terms of their stellar mass), morphologically identified early- and late-type galaxies in the Early Data Release (EDR) of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). We find that, in agreement with the common expectation, early-type galaxies must have formed most of their stars over 8 Gyr ago, although a small fraction of the total stellar mass of these galaxies may be accounted for by stars with ages down to 4 Gyr. In contrast, late-type galaxies appear to have formed stars at a roughly constant rate. We also investigate the constraints set by the high-pass signal in the stacked spectra of a magnitude-limited sample of 20 623 SDSS-EDR galaxies on the global star formation history of the Universe and its distribution among galaxies in different mass ranges. We confirm that the stellar populations in the most massive galaxies today appear to have formed on average earlier than those in the least massive galaxies. Our results do not support the recent suggestion of a statistically significant peak in the star formation activity of the Universe at redshifts below unity, although such a peak is not ruled out. [source]

Supermassive black hole mass functions at intermediate redshifts from spheroid and AGN luminosity functions

Naoyuki Tamura
ABSTRACT Redshift evolution of supermassive black hole mass functions (BHMFs) is investigated up to z, 1. BHMFs at intermediate redshifts are calculated in two ways. One way is from early-type galaxy luminosity functions (LFs); we assume an MBH,Lsph correlation at a redshift by considering a passive evolution of Lsph in the local relationship. The resultant BHMFs (spheroid-BHMFs) from LFs of red-sequence galaxies indicate a slight decrease of number density with increasing redshift at MBH, 107.5,8 M,. Since a redshift evolution in slope and zeropoint of the MBH,Lsph relation is unlikely to be capable of making such an evolution in BHMF, the evolution of the spheroid-BHMFs is perhaps due mainly to the decreasing normalization in the galaxy LFs. We also derive BHMFs from LFs of morphologically selected early-type galaxies. The resultant BHMFs are similar to those from the red-sequence galaxies, but show a small discrepancy at z, 1 corresponding to an increase of supermassive black hole (SMBH) number density by ,0.3 dex. We also investigate how spheroid-BHMFs are affected by uncertainties existing in the derivation in detail. The other way of deriving a BHMF is based on the continuity equation for number density of SMBHs and LFs of active galactic nucleus (AGN). The resultant BHMFs (AGN-BHMFs) show no clear evolution out to z= 1 at MBH, 108 M,, but exhibit a significant decrease with redshift in the lower mass range. Interestingly, these AGN-BHMFs are quite different in the range of MBH, 108 M, from those derived by Merloni (2004), where the fundamental plane of black hole activity is exploited. Comparison of the spheroid-BHMFs with the AGN-BHMFs suggests that at MBH, 108 M,, the spheroid-BHMFs are broadly consistent with the AGN-BHMFs out to z, 1. Although the decrease of SMBH number density with redshift suggested by the spheroid-BHMFs is slightly faster than that suggested by the AGN-BHMFs, we presume this to be due at least partly to a selection effect on the LFs of red-sequence galaxies; the colour selection could miss spheroids with blue colours. The agreement between the spheroid-BHMFs and the AGN-BHMFs appears to support that most of the SMBHs are already hosted by massive spheroids at z, 1 and they evolve without significant mass growth since then. [source]

Radial variation of optical and near-infrared colours in luminous early-type galaxies in A2199

Naoyuki Tamura
ABSTRACT We performed K -band surface photometry for luminous early-type galaxies in a nearby rich cluster A2199. Combining it with B - and R -band surface photometry, radial variations of B,R and R,K colours in the galaxies were investigated. It is found that the inner regions of the galaxies are redder in both B,R and R,K colours. Comparing the radial variations of both colours with predictions of simple stellar population models for a range of ages and metallicities, it is suggested that the cluster ellipticals have negative metallicity gradients, but their age gradients are consistent with zero, although our sample is small; the typical metallicity gradient is estimated to be ,0.16 ± 0.09 in d log Z/d log r, while the age gradient is estimated to be ,0.10 ± 0.14 in d log (age)/d log r. Considering that similar results have also been derived in the other recent studies using samples of ellipticals in the Coma cluster and less dense environments, it seems that there is no strong dependence on galaxy environment in the radial gradient of stellar population in an elliptical galaxy. [source]

Quantitative morphological analysis of the Hubble Deep Field North and Hubble Deep Field South , I. Early- and late-type luminosity,size relations of galaxies out to z, 1

I. Trujillo
ABSTRACT Based on drizzled F606W and F814W images, we present quantitative structural parameters in the V -band rest-frame for all galaxies with z < 1 and I814(AB) < 24.5 mag in the Hubble Deep Fields North and South. Our structural parameters are based on a two-component surface brightness distribution using a Sérsic bulge and an exponential disc. Detailed simulations and comparisons with previous work are presented. The luminosity,size distribution of early-type galaxies is consistent with the hypothesis that their structural properties were already in place by z, 1 and have evolved passively since then; early-type galaxies were ,1.35(±0.1) mag brighter in rest-frame V -band luminosity at z, 0.7 than now. Compared with present-day late-type galaxies, those at z, 0.7 with LV > 0.2 × 1010 h,2 L, show a moderate decrease [,30(±10) per cent] in size [or interpreted differently, a decrease of ,0.77(±0.30) mag in the central surface brightness] at a given luminosity. Finally, we make a comparison of our results with the infall and hierarchical models. [source]

The internal structure of the lens PG1115+080: breaking degeneracies in the value of the Hubble constant

T. Treu
ABSTRACT We combine lensing, stellar kinematic and mass-to-light ratio constraints to build a two-component (luminous plus dark) mass model of the early-type lens galaxy in PG1115+080. We find a total mass density profile steeper than r,2, effectively ,,r,,, with ,,= 2.35 ± 0.1 ± 0.05 (random + systematic). The stellar mass fraction is f*= 0.67+0.20,0.25± 0.03 inside the Einstein radius (RE, 1.2 effective radii). The dynamical mass model breaks the degeneracies in the mass profile of the lens galaxy and allows us to obtain a value of the Hubble constant that is no longer dominated by systematic errors: H0= 59+12,7± 3 km s,1 Mpc,1 (68 per cent confidence level; ,m= 0.3, ,,= 0.7). The offset of PG1115+080 from the Fundamental Plane might indicate deviations from homology of the mass profile of some early-type galaxies. [source]

A catalogue and analysis of X-ray luminosities of early-type galaxies

Ewan O'Sullivan
We present a catalogue of X-ray luminosities for 401 early-type galaxies, of which 136 are based on newly analysed ROSAT PSPC pointed observations. The remaining luminosities are taken from the literature and converted to a common energy band, spectral model and distance scale. Using this sample we fit the LX : LB relation for early-type galaxies and find a best-fit slope for the catalogue of ,2.2. We demonstrate the influence of group-dominant galaxies on the fit and present evidence that the relation is not well modelled by a single power-law fit. We also derive estimates of the contribution to galaxy X-ray luminosities from discrete-sources and conclude that they provide . We compare this result with luminosities from our catalogue. Lastly, we examine the influence of environment on galaxy X-ray luminosity and on the form of the relation. We conclude that although environment undoubtedly affects the X-ray properties of individual galaxies, particularly those in the centres of groups and clusters, it does not change the nature of whole populations. [source]

The evolution of cluster early-type galaxies over the past 8 Gyr

A. Fritz
Abstract We present the Fundamental Plane (FP) of early-type galaxies in the clusters of galaxies RXJ1415.1+3612 at z = 1.013. This is the first detailed FP investigation of cluster early-type galaxies at redshift z = 1. The distant cluster galaxies follow a steeper FP relation compared to the local FP. The change in the slope of the FP can be interpreted as a massdependent evolution. To analyse in more detail the galaxy population in high redshift galaxy clusters at 0.8 < z < 1, we combine our sample with a previous detailed spectroscopic study of 38 early-type galaxies in two distant galaxy clusters, RXJ0152.7,1357 at z = 0.83 and RXJ1226.9+3332 at z = 0.89. For all clusters Gemini/GMOS spectroscopy with high signal-to-noise and intermediate-resolution has been acquired to measure the internal kinematics and stellar populations of the galaxies. From HST/ACS imaging, surface brightness profiles, morphologies and structural parameters were derived for the galaxy sample. The least massive galaxies (M = 2 x 1010 M,) in our sample have experienced their most recent major star formation burst at zform , 1.1. For massive galaxies (M > 2 x 1011 M,) the bulk of their stellar populations have been formed earlier zform , 1.6. Our results confirm previous findings by Jřrgensen et al. This suggests that the less massive galaxies in the distant clusters have much younger stellar populations than their more massive counterparts. One explanation is that low-mass cluster galaxies have experienced more extended star formation histories with more frequent bursts of star formation with shorter duration compared to the formation history of high-mass cluster galaxies (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

A continuum of structure and stellar content from Virgo cluster earlytype dwarfs to giants?

J. Janz
Abstract Based on the wealth of multiwavelength imaging data from the SDSS, we investigate whether dwarf and giant early-type galaxies in the Virgo cluster follow a continuum in their structural parameters and their stellar population characteristics. More specifically we study the relation between size and brightness for the galaxies and their color magnitude relation. In both cases, we find noticeable deviations from a simple joint behavior of dwarfs and giants. We discuss these findings in the light of the different formation mechanisms commonly assumed for dwarf and giant early types, thereby taking into account the existence of several distinct early-type dwarf subclasses. By comparing our results to a semianalytic model of galaxy formation, we argue that the analyzed relations might be reproduced by processes that form dwarfs and giants altogether. The work presented here is based on Janz & Lisker (2008, 2009) (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

The FIRST radio survey: Panchromatic properties of FIRST radio sources identified in the Boötes and Cetus fields

K. El Bouchefry
Abstract In this paper the availability of multi-wavelength optical/infrared information of FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at 20 cm) radio sources counterparts over ,9.2 deg2 in the Boötes field and ,2.4 deg2 in the Cetus field is exploited to infer the physical properties of the faint radio population. The radio sources optically identified have been divided into resolved galaxies and stellar-like objects finding that the faint radio population is mainly composed of early-type galaxies with very red colour (Bw , R , 4.6). A total number of 57 counterparts of FIRST radio sources have extremely red colour (R , K , 5). Photometric redshift from Hyperz implies that the Extremely Red Objects (EROs) counterparts to FIRST radio sources are mostly located in the range z = 0.7,2, with the bulk of the population at z , 1. Taking advantage of the near infrared imaging with FLAMEX (FLAMINGOS Extragalactic Infrared Survey), the EROs counterparts to FIRST radio sources are separated into passively-evolving and dusty star-forming galaxies using their RJK colours; the relatively blue J , K of these galaxies suggest that most are old elliptical galaxies (18/25) rather than dusty starburst galaxies (7/25). A total of 15 Distant Red Galaxy (DRGs) have been identified as counterparts to FIRST radio sources in the Cetus field and 3 DRGs in the Boötes field with J , K > 2.3 (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

A SAURON look at galaxy bulges

J. Falcón-Barroso
Abstract Kinematic and population studies show that bulges are generally rotationally flattened systems similar to lowluminosity ellipticals. However, observations with state-of-the-art integral field spectrographs, such as SAURON, indicate that the situation is much more complex, and allow us to investigate phenomena such as triaxiality, kinematic decoupling and population substructure, and to study their connection to current formation and evolution scenarios for bulges of early-type galaxies. We present the examples of two S0 bulges from galaxies in our sample of nearby galaxies: one that shows all the properties expected from classical bulges (NGC5866), and another case that presents kinematic features appropriate for barred disk galaxies (NGC7332). (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]