Early Adolescence (early + adolescence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Selected Abstracts

Parental Divorce and Offspring Depressive Symptoms: Dutch Developmental Trends During Early Adolescence

Albertine J. Oldehinkel
In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 , 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and parent-reported depressive symptoms. The effects of divorce were adjusted for parental depression. In both self-reported and parent-reported data, we found a three-way interaction of gender, age, and parental divorce, indicating that with increasing age, parental divorce became more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among girls, but not boys. These results suggest that girls with divorced parents are at particularly high risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. [source]

Longitudinal Associations Between Alcohol Problems and Depressive Symptoms: Early Adolescence Through Early Adulthood

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
Naomi R. Marmorstein
Background:, Alcohol use-related problems and depressive symptoms are clearly associated with each other, but results regarding the nature of this association have been inconsistent. In addition, the possible moderating effects of age and gender have not been comprehensively examined. The goals of this study were to clarify: (i) how depressive symptoms affect the levels and trajectory of alcohol use-related problems, (ii) how alcohol use-related problems affect the levels and trajectory of depressive symptoms, and (iii) whether there are differences in these associations at different points in development or between males and females. Methods:, Participants for this study were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) data set, a community-based sample of 20,728 adolescents followed from adolescence through early adulthood. Multilevel models were used to assess how each problem affected the level and rate of change in the other problem over time; gender was considered as a possible moderator of these associations. Results:, The results indicated that alcohol use-related problems and depressive symptoms had reciprocal, positive associations with each other during the period from early adolescence through early adulthood; however, these effects differed somewhat by gender and age. High levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher initial levels of alcohol problems (particularly among females), as well as faster increases in alcohol problems over time among males. High levels of alcohol problems were associated with higher initial levels of depressive symptoms (particularly among females), as well as less curvature in the slope of depressive symptoms so that although there was a large difference between people with high and low depressive symptoms in early adolescence, by early adulthood the difference was smaller (particularly among females). Conclusions:, These results highlight the importance of examining gender and age in studies on the associations between affective disorders and substance use disorders. [source]

Managing Threat: Do Social-Cognitive Processes Mediate the Link Between Peer Victimization and Adjustment Problems in Early Adolescence?

Wendy L. Hoglund
Peer victimization has been linked concurrently and over time with multiple adjustment problems. However, the reasons for this multi-finality in victimization are not well understood. The current study examines social-cognitive processes (hostile attributions, social perspective awareness, and interpersonal skills) as mediators of the relations between subtypes of peer victimization (relational, physical) and depression and anxiety, social withdrawal, and physical aggression in early adolescence. The overall pattern of associations among subtypes of victimization, social-cognitive processes, and adjustment converged with expectations that victimization biases adolescents' cognitions about peers in conflict situations and skills relating to peers. In turn, these cognitions and skills differentially compromised their ability to regulate diverse emotions or limit reticent behaviors in response to peer threats. Modest gender differences in these associations were found. [source]

The Sexual Debut of Girls in Early Adolescence: The Intersection of Race, Pubertal Timing, and Friendship Group Characteristics

Shannon E. Cavanagh
Scholars who have studied the effects of early pubertal timing on girls' sexual debut contend that this association may result from the company they keep. Although this basic biosocial model of adolescent behavior has been applied to various outcomes with diverse samples of adolescent girls, less work has contextualized this microlevel developmental phenomenon within the larger macrolevel structures of race and ethnicity. Using a sample of White, African American, and Latina girls (N=1,299) drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study conducted within-group multivariate analyses and found important differences in the linkages that make up this biosocial model by race and ethnicity, with the linkages strongest for Whites, followed by Latina, and African American girls. These differences in association may reflect differences in the social construction of girlhood across race and ethnicity. [source]

Mixed-Gender Groups, Dating, and Romantic Relationships in Early Adolescence

Jennifer Connolly
This study examined dating-stage and developmental-contextual models of romantic relationships during early adolescence. Same-gender friendships, affiliation with mixed-gender groups, dating, and romantic relationships were investigated in a sample of 1,284 young adolescents of diverse ethnocultural backgrounds. Data were collected cross-sectionally in Grades 5 through 8, as well as longitudinally in the fall and spring of an academic year. Consistent with a stage model, affiliation with mixed-gender groups and dating were qualitatively distinct activities that were sequentially organized and facilitated the progression from same-gender friendships to dyadic romantic relationships. The results also provide insights on how the developmental context may alter stage pathways: Dating activities were incorporated with mixed-gender affiliations, group-based romantic stages showed more stability than other stages, and the ethnocultural context influenced romantic timing. Finally, results indicated that participation in romantic activities heightened adolescents' future interest in having a romantic relationship. [source]

Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: Their Relations with Classroom Problem Behavior and Peer Status

Jeff Kiesner
It has been suggested that early antisocial behavior plays a causal role in the development of depression during childhood and adolescence through pervasive failures in social competence and social acceptance (Patterson & Capaldi, 1990). The present study was conducted to test this hypothesis by examining longitudinal data from a sample of 215 Italian middle school students. Analyses revealed that Time 1 (T1) problem behavior predicted both Time 2 (T2) peer status and T2 depressive symptoms, even after controlling for T1 peer status and depressive symptoms, respectively. Moreover, T1 peer status predicted depressive symptoms at T2, even after controlling for prior levels of depressive symptoms. However, analyses did not support the hypothesis that peer rejection mediates the effects of problem behavior on depression. [source]

Middle-Class African American Parents' Conceptions of Parenting in Early Adolescence

Judith Smetana
Conceptions of parenting were examined in 87 middle-class African American parents (87 mothers and 51 fathers) of early adolescents (M= 13.11 years of age). Using semistructured interviews, parents were queried about two developmentally salient issues of early adolescence: parental limit-setting and adolescent independence. Parents primarily defined firm limits in terms of nonnegotiation, strongly endorsed setting firm limits regarding a range of issues, and justified the importance of limits by focusing on adolescents' socialization and psychological development. Mothers rated limiting adolescents' behavior as more important than permitting or encouraging adolescents' independence. Limits were seen as more important by mothers of younger rather than older early adolescent females, but mothers encouraged independence more for younger rather than older early adolescent males. Mothers permitted independent decisions regarding a limited range of issues such as clothes and appearance, based on psychological concerns with adolescents' developing autonomy and competence; they encouraged independence primarily by encouraging greater responsibility. The results demonstrate that there is considerable heterogeneity in African American parents' beliefs and goals about parenting in early adolescence. [source]

The Dynamics of Life Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in Early Adolescence: A Test of Six Theoretical Models

Margaret Clements
Structural equation modeling was used to compare 6 competing theoretically based psychosocial models of the longitudinal association between life stressors and depressive symptoms in a sample of early adolescents (N= 907; 40% Hispanic, 32% Black, and 19% White; mean age at Time 1 = 11.4 years). Only two models fit the data, both of which included paths modeling the effect of depressive symptoms on stressors recall: The mood-congruent cognitive bias model included only depressive symptoms to life stressors paths (DS,S), whereas the fully transactional model included paths representing both the DS,S and stressors to depressive symptoms (S,DS) effects. Social causation models and the stress generation model did not fit the data. Findings demonstrate the importance of accounting for mood-congruent cognitive bias in stressors,depressive symptoms investigations. [source]

Do the Effects of Early Severe Deprivation on Cognition Persist Into Early Adolescence?

Findings From the English, Romanian Adoptees Study
Cognitive outcomes at age 11 of 131 Romanian adoptees from institutions were compared with 50 U.K. adopted children. Key findings were of both continuity and change: (1) marked adverse effects persisted at age 11 for many of the children who were over 6 months on arrival; (2) there was some catch-up between ages 6 and 11 for the bottom 15%; (3) there was a decrease of 15 points for those over 6 months on arrival, but no differentiation within the 6,42-month range; (4) there was marked heterogeneity of outcome but this was not associated with the educational background of the adoptive families. The findings draw attention to the psychological as well as physical risks of institutional deprivation. [source]

Reciprocal Influences Among Relational Self-Views, Social Disengagement, and Peer Stress During Early Adolescence

Melissa S. Caldwell
This study examined reciprocal-influence models of the association between relational self-views and peer stress during early adolescence. The first model posited that adolescents with negative self-views disengage from peers, creating stress in their relationships. The second model posited that exposure to peer stress fosters social disengagement, which elicits negative self-views. Participants were 605 early adolescents (M age=11.7). As part of a 3-wave longitudinal study adolescents reported on self-views and stress, and teachers reported on social disengagement. As hypothesized, negative self-views predicted social disengagement, which contributed to peer stress. Stress predicted subsequent disengagement and negative self-views. These findings suggest that adolescents and their environments participate in reciprocal-influence processes that account for cross-temporal continuity in personal attributes of youth and their social experiences. [source]

Parents Do Matter: Trajectories of Change in Externalizing and Internalizing Problems in Early Adolescence

Nancy L. Galambos
This study examined the relative influence of three parenting behaviors (support, behavioral control, and psychological control) and deviant peers on trajectories of externalizing and internalizing problems in early adolescence. A white, working-to-middle-class sample of adolescents and their mothers and fathers in two-earner families participated in a 3½-year longitudinal study (N=lies). The study began when the adolescents were in sixth grade (M age=rs). Analyses showed that parents' firm behavioral control seemed to halt the upward trajectory in externalizing problems among adolescents with deviant peers. Initial levels of internalizing problems were higher among adolescents with parents who reported lower levels of behavioral control and among adolescents with deviant peers. This study suggests that parenting exerts an important influence in adolescents' lives and may do so even in the face of potentially negative peer influence. [source]

Race and Gender Influences on Adjustment in Early Adolescence: Investigation of an Integrative Model

David L. DuBois
This research investigated an integrative model of race, and gender,related influences on adjustment during early adolescence using a sample of 350 Black and White youth. In the proposed model, prejudice/discrimination events, as well as race and gender daily hassles, contribute to a general stress context. The stress context, in turn, influences levels of emotional and behavioral problems in adjustment, with these associations mediated (in part) by intervening effects on self,esteem. Racial and gender identity similarly have positive effects on adjustment via their intermediary linkages with self,esteem. Structural equation modeling analyses provided support for all of these aspects of the model. Findings also revealed theoretically predicted differences in model parameters across race by gender subgroups. These include a direct effect of prejudice/discrimination events on emotional problems specific to Black youth and an effect of gender identity on self,esteem specific to girls. Black girls appeared to be most vulnerable to exhibiting significant adjustment difficulties as a result of the processes under investigation. [source]

Antecedents and Behavior-Problem Outcomes of Parental Monitoring and Psychological Control in Early Adolescence

Gregory S. Pettit
The early childhood antecedents and behavior-problem correlates of monitoring and psychological control were examined in this prospective, longitudinal, multi-informant study. Parenting data were collected during home visit interviews with 440 mothers and their 13-year-old children. Behavior problems (anxiety/depression and delinquent behavior) were assessed via mother, teacher, and/or adolescent reports at ages 8 through 10 years and again at ages 13 through 14. Home-interview data collected at age 5 years were used to measure antecedent parenting (harsh/reactive, positive/proactive), family background (e.g., socioeconomic status), and mother-rated child behavior problems. Consistent with expectation, monitoring was anteceded by a proactive parenting style and by advantageous family,ecological characteristics, and psychological control was anteceded by harsh parenting and by mothers' earlier reports of child externalizing problems. Consistent with prior research, monitoring was associated with fewer delinquent behavior problems. Links between psychological control and adjustment were more complex: High levels of psychological control were associated with more delinquent problems for girls and for teens who were low in preadolescent delinquent problems, and with more anxiety/depression for girls and for teens who were high in preadolescent anxiety/depression. [source]

Conflict resolution education and antisocial behavior in U.S. schools: A meta-analysis

Wendy M. Garrard
This meta-analysis examines more than twenty-five years of evidence to determine whether participation in school-based conflict resolution education (CRE) contributes to reduced antisocial behaviors among youth in kindergarten through twelfth grade in U.S. schools. Evidence from thirty-six studies, representing 4,971 students, shows improvements in antisocial behaviors in CRE participants compared to control groups (Effect Size = .26), with larger effects observed during midadolescence ( ES = .53) and early adolescence ( ES = .22) compared to middle childhood ( ES = .06). Improvements in antisocial behavior outcomes attributable to CRE are significant in both practical and statistical terms and are similar for different CRE program approaches. [source]


CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2005
The aim of this paper is to describe the development of criminal behavior from early adolescence to late adulthood based on conviction data for a sample of Dutch offenders. Measuring over an age span of 12 to 72, we ask whether there is evidence for (1) criminal trajectories that are distinct in terms of time path, (2) a small group of persistent offenders, (3) criminal trajectories that are distinct in the mix of crimes committed, or, more specifically, persistent offenders disproportionately engaging in violent offences, and (4) different offender groups having different social profiles in life domains other than crime. The analysis is based on the conviction histories of the Dutch offenders in the Criminal Career and Life Course Study. Four trajectory groups were identified using a semi-parametric, group-based model: sporadic offenders, low-rate desisters, moderate-rate desisters and high-rate persisters. Analyses show that high-rate persisters engage in crime at a very substantial rate, even after age 50. Compared to other trajectory groups the high-rate persistent trajectory group disproportionately engages in property crimes rather than violent crimes. Also, these distinct trajectories are found to be remarkably similar across age cohorts. [source]

Dental trauma that require fixation in a children's hospital

Timothy Bruns
Complex injuries to permanent teeth and their periodontium require immediate repositioning and stabilization. Many of these emergencies are treated by pediatric dental residents at the Women and Children's Hospital of Buffalo, Buffalo, New York. The purpose of this study was to characterize these complex injuries of permanent teeth that require emergency treatment in a Children's Hospital. All of the cases of dental trauma which had involved permanent teeth and which had been treated with a splint in 2001 and 2002 were reviewed. There were 79 patients that were between 5 and 19 years of age with twice as many males (54) as females (25). The number of males increased from childhood (5,10 years) to early adolescence (11,15 years) and then decreased rapidly in late adolescence (16,19 years), whereas the number of females decreased steadily with age. Most of the incidents occurred during the summer months (72%), particularly in June and July (42%), and Fridays and Saturdays were the busiest days of the week. Most of the injuries were caused by organized and recreational sporting activities (39%) and accidental falls (33%), followed by interpersonal violence (15%) and a few motor vehicle accidents (7%). The 173 permanent tooth injuries were mostly luxations (62%) or avulsions (20%), with only a few fractures of the alveolar bone (5%) or tooth root (1%). Most of the displacements were lateral luxations (40%) or extrusions (18%) with only a few intrusions (3%). These injuries most commonly afflicted the maxillary central incisors (54%), followed by the maxillary laterals (18%) and mandibular centrals (17%). The emergency treatment that was provided at the Children's Hospital included replantation and repositioning, and the placement of a semi-rigid or flexible splint. [source]

Baseline cortisol measures and developmental pathways of anxiety in early adolescence

K. Greaves-Lord
Objective:, This study investigated whether baseline cortisol measures predicted future anxiety, and compared cortisol values of groups with different developmental pathways of anxiety. Method:, Cortisol levels were assessed in 1768 individuals (10,12 years). Anxiety levels were assessed at the same age and 2 years later. Results:, Cortisol measures did not predict future anxiety levels. Individuals with persistent anxiety problems did not show higher morning cortisol levels than those with persistently low, decreasing, or increasing anxiety levels. Instead, individuals with persistently high anxiety levels showed significantly lower evening cortisol levels than all other individuals. Further, participants with increasing anxiety levels showed higher morning cortisol levels (area under the curve; AUC) than individuals with persistently low anxiety levels. Conclusion:, The extent to which the HPA-axis , by itself , plays a role in the aetiology of anxiety is questionable. Interactions of the HPA-axis with other biological or environmental factors may be more important. [source]

Age-related changes in transient and oscillatory brain responses to auditory stimulation during early adolescence

Catherine Poulsen
Maturational changes in the capacity to process quickly the temporal envelope of sound have been linked to language abilities in typically developing individuals. As part of a longitudinal study of brain maturation and cognitive development during adolescence, we employed dense-array EEG and spatiotemporal source analysis to characterize maturational changes in the timing of brain responses to temporal variations in sound. We found significant changes in the brain responses compared longitudinally at two time points in early adolescence, namely 10 years (65 subjects) and 11.5 years (60 of the 65 subjects), as well as large differences between adults, studied with the same protocol (Poulsen, Picton & Paus, 2007), and the children at 10 and 11.5 years of age. The transient auditory evoked potential to tone onset showed decreases in the latency of vertex and T-complex components, and a highly significant increase in the amplitude of the N1 wave with increasing age. The auditory steady state response to a 40-Hz frequency-modulated tone increased in amplitude with increasing age. The peak frequency of the envelope-following response to sweeps of amplitude-modulated white noise also increased significantly with increasing age. These results indicate persistent maturation of the cortical mechanisms for auditory processing from childhood into middle adulthood. [source]

Epidemiology and natural course of social fears and social phobia,

H.-U. Wittchen
Objective: To summarize epidemiological studies providing data on prevalence, incidence, comorbidity, natural course, risk factors and consequences of social phobia (SP). Method: Data from cross-sectional studies and prospective longitudinal studies in particular are considered. Results: These studies portray SP as a frequent mental disorder, which begins typically in early adolescence, and is highly comorbid with other anxiety disorders, as well as secondary depression and substance abuse disorders. Several possible risk factors have already been identified for the onset and unfavorable course of SP; some of them have been tested in prospective longitudinal studies. SP is a chronic disorder when compared with other mental disorders and when subclinical symptomatic levels are considered. Impairment caused by SP is considerable and increases over a patient's life span. The negative impact of SP is not only reflected in subjective well-being and reduced quality of life but also in social role functioning, and it impacts negatively on career progression. Conclusion: Prospective longitudinal studies in representative samples drawn from the general population provide information that allows the overall direct and indirect costs of the disorder (treatment costs, disability, social welfare) to be determined, and enables an improvement in long-term care strategies as well as preventive efforts to be established. [source]

Childhood negative experiences and subclinical psychosis in adolescence: a longitudinal general population study

Ellen De Loore
Abstract Background:, Accumulating evidence suggests that experiences of trauma and victimization during childhood are associated with an increased risk to develop clinical and subclinical psychosis in adulthood. A recent cross-sectional study showed a significant association between trauma and psychotic experiences in adolescents. The current study aimed to extend these findings by investigating the longitudinal effects of negative life experiences on the risk for subclinical psychotic symptoms 2 years later in an adolescent general community sample. Methods:, Data were derived from the standard health screenings of the Youth Health Care Divisions of the Public Health Services, in the South of the Netherlands. A total of 1129 adolescents filled out a self-report questionnaire at age 13/14 years and 2 years later (15/16 years), assessing psychotic experiences, as well as experiences of being bullied, sexual trauma, and negative life events. Results:, Logistic regression analyses revealed that sexual trauma increased the risk for psychotic symptoms 2 years later. Life events contributed to the risk for psychosis over time and psychosis in turn gave rise to new life events. No significant association with bullying was found after controlling for confounders. Conclusion:, The results provide further evidence for an association between childhood environment and psychosis in the crucial developmental period of early adolescence. Early and later psychological stress, if severe, may impact on the risk for psychosis in adolescence through mechanisms of person,environment interaction and correlation. [source]

The importance of family management, closeness with father and family structure in early adolescent alcohol use

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
Cherine Habib
ABSTRACT Aims To examine the importance of family management, family structure and father,adolescent relationships on early adolescent alcohol use. Design Cross-sectional data was collected across 30 randomly selected Australian communities stratified to represent a range of socio-economic and regional variation. Setting Data were collected during school time from adolescents attending a broad range of schools. Participants The sample consisted of a combined 8256 students (aged 10,14 years). Measurements Students completed a web-based survey as part of the Healthy Neighbourhoods project. Findings Family management,which included practices such as parental monitoring and family rules about alcohol use,had the strongest and most consistent relationship with alcohol use in early adolescence. Adolescents reporting higher family management were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time, less likely to drink alcohol in the preceding 30 days and less likely to have had an alcohol binge. Adolescents reporting emotionally close relationships with their fathers were less likely to have drunk alcohol in their life-time and less likely to have had an alcohol binge in the preceding fortnight. Conclusions Findings indicate that family management practices may contribute to alcohol abstinence in adolescents. Furthermore, emotionally close father,adolescent relationships may also foster abstinence; however, fathers' drinking behaviours need to be considered. [source]

Hypothalamic,pituitary,adrenal axis and smoking and drinking onset among adolescents: the longitudinal cohort TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS)

ADDICTION, Issue 11 2009
Anja C. Huizink
ABSTRACT Aims We examined within a prospective longitudinal study whether cortisol levels were associated with smoking or drinking behaviours, taking parental substance use into account. Design The influence of parental substance use on cortisol levels of their adolescent offspring at age 10,12 years was examined. Next, cortisol levels of adolescents who initiated smoking or drinking at the first data collection (age 10,12) were compared to non-users. Finally, we examined whether cortisol levels could predict new onset and frequency of smoking and drinking 2 years later. Setting and participants First and second assessment data of the TRacking Adolescents' Individual Lives Survey (TRAILS) were used, including 1768 Dutch adolescents aged 10,12 years, who were followed-up across a period of 2 years. Measurements Cortisol was measured in saliva samples at awakening, 30 minutes later, and at 8 p.m. at age 10,12. Self-reported substance use at age 10,12 and 13,14, and parental self-reported substance use were used. Findings Only maternal substance use was related to slightly lower adolescent cortisol levels at 8 p.m. Both maternal and paternal substance use were associated with adolescent smoking and drinking at age 13,14, although fathers' use only predicted the amount used and not the chance of ever use. Finally, higher cortisol levels were related moderately to current smoking and future frequency of smoking, but not to alcohol use. Conclusions In a general population, parental heavy substance use does not seem to affect cortisol levels consistently in their offspring. We found some evidence for higher, instead of lower, hypothalamic,pituitary,adrenal axis activity as a predictor of smoking in early adolescence. [source]

Preventing growth in amphetamine use: long-term effects of the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) from early adolescence to early adulthood

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
Nathaniel R. Riggs
ABSTRACT Aim The aim of the current study was to examine the long-term effect of an early adolescent substance abuse prevention program on trajectories and initiation of amphetamine use into early adulthood. Design Eight middle schools were assigned randomly to a program or control condition. The randomized controlled trial followed participants through 15 waves of data, from ages 11,28 years. This longitudinal study design includes four separate periods of development from early adolescence to early adulthood. Setting The intervention took place in middle schools. Participants A total of 1002 adolescents from one large mid-western US city were the participants in the study. Intervention The intervention was a multi-component community-based program delivered in early adolescence with a primary emphasis on tobacco, alcohol and marijuana use. Measures At each wave of data collection participants completed a self-report survey that included questions about life-time amphetamine use. Findings Compared to a control group, participants in the Midwestern Prevention Project (MPP) intervention condition had reduced growth (slope) in amphetamine use in emerging adulthood, a lower amphetamine use intercept at the commencement of the early adulthood and delayed amphetamine use initiation. Conclusions The pattern of results suggests that the program worked first to prevent amphetamine use, and then to maintain the preventive effect into adulthood. Study findings suggest that early adolescent substance use prevention programs that focus initially on the ,gateway' drugs have utility for long-term prevention of amphetamine use. [source]

Interplay of genetic risk factors and parent monitoring in risk for nicotine dependence

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
Li-Shiun Chen
ABSTRACT Background Several studies have found replicable associations between nicotine dependence and specific variants in the nicotinic receptor genes CHRNA5(rs16969968) and CHRNA3(rs3743078). How these newly identified genetic risks combine with known environmental risks is unknown. This study examined whether the level of parent monitoring during early adolescence modified the risk of nicotine dependence associated with these genetic variants. Methods In a cross-sectional case,control study of US-based community sample of 2027 subjects, we use a systematic series of regression models to examine the effect of parent monitoring on risk associated with two distinct variants in the nicotinic receptor genes CHRNA5(rs16969968) and CHRNA3(rs3743078). Results Low parent monitoring as well as the previously identified genetic variants were associated with an increased risk of nicotine dependence. An interaction was found between the SNP(rs16969968) and parent monitoring (P = 0.034). The risk for nicotine dependence increased significantly with the risk genotype of SNP(rs16969968) when combined with lowest-quartile parent monitoring. In contrast, there was no evidence of an interaction between SNP(rs3743078) and parent monitoring (P = 0.80). Conclusions The genetic risk of nicotine dependence associated with rs16969968 was modified by level of parent monitoring, while the genetic risk associated with rs3743078 was not, suggesting that the increased risk due to some genes may be mitigated by environmental factors such as parent monitoring. [source]

Early pubertal maturation in the prediction of early adult substance use: a prospective study

ADDICTION, Issue 1 2009
Mohammad R. Hayatbakhsh
ABSTRACT Aims To examine whether self-reporting a later stage of pubertal development in early adolescence predicts young adults' use of illicit drugs. Design Population-based prospective birth cohort study. Setting Follow-up of a cohort of mothers and their children, recruited between 1981 and 1983. Participants Cohort of 2710 young adults who completed a self-report questionnaire about their use of cannabis and amphetamines at the 21-year follow-up. Measurements Young adults' use of cannabis and amphetamines were measured at the 21-year follow-up. Stage of pubertal development was assessed at the 14-year follow-up. Potential confounding and mediating variables were assessed between birth and when the child was 14 years. Findings Of 2710 young adults, 49.9% (47.3 females and 52.7% males) reported that they had used cannabis and 21.0% (18.9% females and 23.3% males) reported that they had used amphetamines and cannabis by 21 years. In multivariate analyses, adolescents with a later stage of puberty were more likely to use cannabis or amphetamines in young adulthood. This association was not confounded by mother's education or child's gender and age. Part of the relationship was explained by the higher frequency of child externalizing behaviour at 14 years. Conclusions The findings warrant further attention to puberty as a sensitive period in an individual's development. With regard to prevention, there is a need to understand more about the pathways between pubertal development, child behaviour problems and substance use. [source]

Trajectories of smoking among freshmen college students with prior smoking history and risk for future smoking: data from the University Project Tobacco Etiology Research Network (UpTERN) study

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2008
Craig R. Colder
ABSTRACT Aims Little is known about smoking during the transition to college. The current study examined trajectories of smoking among college freshmen, how trajectories predicted later smoking and the social context of smoking. Design Weekly assessments of daily smoking were collected via the web during the first year of college for a large cohort with a previous history of smoking. Participants and setting A total of 193 college freshmen from a large public university with a previous history of smoking who smoked frequently enough to be included in trajectory analysis. Measurements Measures included weekly reports of daily smoking, family smoking, perceived peer attitudes and smoking, social norms and social smoking environment. Findings Seven trajectories were identified: one of low-level sporadic smoking, one of low-level smoking with a small increase during the year, two classes with a substantial decrease during the year, two classes with relatively small decreases and one class with a substantial increase in smoking. Trajectories of smoking in the freshman year predicted levels of sophomore year smoking, and some social context variables tended to change as smoking increased or decreased for a given trajectory class. Conclusions The transition into college is marked by changes in smoking, with smoking escalating for some students and continuing into the sophomore year. Shifts in social context that support smoking were associated with trajectories of smoking. Despite the focus of developmental models on smoking in early adolescence, the transition into college warrants further investigation as a dynamic period for smoking. [source]

Effects of home access and availability of alcohol on young adolescents' alcohol use

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2007
Kelli A. Komro
ABSTRACT Aims The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of parental provision of alcohol and home alcohol accessibility on the trajectories of young adolescent alcohol use and intentions. Design Data were part of a longitudinal study of alcohol use among multi-ethnic urban young adolescents who were assigned randomly to the control group of a prevention trial. Setting Data were collected from a cohort of youth, and their parents, who attended public schools in Chicago, Illinois (2002,2005). Participants The sample comprised the 1388 students, and their parents, who had been assigned randomly to the control group and were present and completed surveys at baseline, in the beginning of 6th grade (age 12). The sample was primarily low-income, and African American and Hispanic. Measurements Students completed self-report questionnaires when in the 6th, 7th and 8th grades (age 12,14 years; response rates 91,96%). Parents of the 6th grade students also completed questionnaires (70% response rate). Findings Student report, at age 12, of parental provision of alcohol and home alcohol availability, and parental report of providing alcohol to their child and the accessibility of alcohol in the home, were associated with significant increases in the trajectories of young adolescent alcohol use and intentions from ages 12,14 years. Student report of receiving alcohol from their parent or taking it from home during their last drinking occasion were the most robust predictors of increases in alcohol use and intentions over time. Conclusions Results indicate that it is risky for parents to allow children to drink during early adolescence. When these findings are considered together with the risks associated with early onset of alcohol use, it is clear that parents can play an important role in prevention. [source]

"Ice" use and eating disorders: A report of three cases

Alice Neale MD
Abstract Objective: To describe the use of crystal methamphetamine hydrochloride "ice," a powerful, synthetic stimulant drug associated with rapid weight loss. Method: We report the first three cases of young women "ice" users requiring admission to a specialized eating disorders unit. Results: Case one had no prior history of an eating disorder and became emaciated following regular use of "ice"; she regarded weight gain positively. Case 2 had polysubstance abuse since early adolescence and commenced binge eating and vomiting in response to weight gain when not using "ice"; she learned to maintain her weight without weight losing behaviors. Case 3 developed anorexia nervosa in early adolescence, required numerous inpatient admissions and commenced using stimulant drugs for weight loss in her late teens; she discharged prematurely. All patients had features of personality disorder on interview and drug abuse had impaired their work and social adjustment. Discussion: "Ice" use may be associated with the onset of disordered eating or used as an efficient weight losing behavior in an established eating disorder. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009. [source]

Estrogen and Bone,a Reproductive and Locomotive Perspective,

Teppo Ln Järvinen MD
Abstract The primary function of the skeleton is locomotion, and the primary function of estrogen is reproduction. When the skeleton is considered within this locomotive context, the onset of estrogen secretion at puberty leads to packing of mechanically excess mineral into female bones for reproductive needs. Accordingly, the unpacking of this reproductive safety deposit at menopause denotes the origin of type I osteoporosis. Introduction: According to the prevailing unitary model of involutional osteoporosis, female postmenopausal bone loss can be described as having an initial accelerated, transient phase (type I), followed by a gradual continuous phase (type II). Estrogen withdrawal is generally accepted as the primary cause of the type I osteoporosis. Thus, the quest to uncover the origin of type I osteoporosis has focused on the estrogen withdrawal-related skeletal changes at and around the menopause. However, considering that the cyclical secretion of estrogen normally begins in early adolescence and continues over the entire fertile period, one could argue that focusing on perimenopause alone may be too narrow. Materials and Methods: This is not a systematic review of the literature on the skeletal function of estrogen(s), but rather, an introduction of a novel structure- and locomotion-oriented perspective to this particular issue through pertinent experimental and clinical studies. Results and Conclusions: When considering locomotion as the primary function of the skeleton and integrating the classic findings of the pubertal effects of estrogen on female bones and the more recent hypothesis-driven experimental and clinical studies on estrogen and mechanical loading on bone within this context, a novel evolution-based explanation for the role of estrogen in controlling female bone mass can be outlined: the onset of estrogen secretion at puberty induces packing of mechanically excess bone into female skeleton for needs of reproduction (pregnancy and lactation). Accordingly, the unpacking of this reproductive safety deposit of calcium at menopause denotes the accelerated phase of bone loss and thus the origin of type I osteoporosis. [source]

Interpretation of teasing during early adolescence

Allison Kanter Agliata
Research has suggested that teasing, especially about physical appearance, is a common experience with negative consequences for adolescents. This study aimed to examine the cognitive processes of adolescents exposed to teasing. Students from two middle schools were assigned randomly to view videotaped vignettes of appearance-related teasing, competency teasing, or a control situation and completed questionnaires to assess their cognitive reactions and memories of the teasing. Results indicated that adolescent girls recalled appearance-related teasing more readily than competency teasing, adolescent girls with high body dissatisfaction recalled fewer positive appearance words, and participants exposed to competency teasing were more likely to recall competency words. The findings indicated that cognitive processes may be important in the study of adolescents' interpretation of teasing and for clinical treatment of adolescents who are teased. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 23,30, 2007. [source]