Eighteenth Century (eighteenth + century)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Eighteenth Century

  • early eighteenth century
  • late eighteenth century
  • long eighteenth century

  • Selected Abstracts

    Women and Classical Translation in the Eighteenth Century

    Hilary Brown
    Women in Germany first began to take up their pens in substantial numbers during the eighteenth century. One area where they apparently did not leave their mark was in the translation of classical literature, despite a wave of interest in the classics in the literary world at large. However, this article sheds new light on women's involvement in this field. It focuses on a handful of women who translated from Greek or Latin, namely Luise Gottsched (1713,62), Fräulein von Erath (?,1776) and Ernestine Christine Reiske (1735,98). It looks at the conditions in which they did so, at their presentation of the texts, and at contemporary reactions to their work. It shows that women could only make their way in this area in exceptional cases, and that they usually exercised a considerable degree of caution. Yet, in some rare instances, translation gave women a new freedom. A translator could put her name to works of a surprising nature, such as philosophy and erotica. Adopting the detached stance of translator meant she could publish texts which women at the time would probably never have dared to write themselves. Thus, the act of translation could open up new spheres of literary activity for women. [source]

    Providence and Sympathy: Consoling the Bereaved in the Late Eighteenth Century

    Anna Richards
    In the Enlightenment period restrictions were imposed on mourning practices but grief was valued as a sign of natural humanity, as long as it remained moderate. Consolation was offered to the bereaved to help them temper excessive sadness. In the second half of the eighteenth century, influenced by the period's psychological thinking, the theory and the practice of consolation became more secular and more individualised than they had previously been; consolers took the demands of self-interest and of the emotions into account to a greater extent. This meant an emphasis on the role of providence in the death of the loved one and on the need for sympathy. This article discusses the consequences and the challenges of these developments for consolatory texts. It suggests that they called for narrative strategies and concludes that the ,Trostschrift' and the sentimental novel began to occupy some of the same ground at this period. [source]

    Continental Connections: Britain and Europe in the Eighteenth Century

    HISTORY, Issue 299 2005
    The topic of empire has loomed large in recent writings on eighteenth-century Britain. This article attempts to encourage greater appreciation of Britain's multifarious connections with continental Europe in this period. It also seeks to establish that empire and Europe were seen by many Britons as complementary rather than competing areas of interest and engagement. [source]

    Finding the Middle-Ground: The Middling Sort in the Eighteenth Century

    Perry Gauci
    Since the 1980s the debate on the impact of the middle classes in eighteenth-century Britain has helped to transform current interest and thinking on the period. No consensus has been reached on the degree of social and political change at this time, but our understanding of middling experience has been enhanced by a range of new themes and approaches, the resonance of which continues to enliven the field. [source]

    Anglo-Italian Cultural Relations before and during the Long Eighteenth Century

    Abstract This introduction sketches some of the key factors and moments in Anglo-Italian contact from the Roman occupation of Britain to the emergence of the Grand Tour in the seventeenth century as a channel for cultural interchange. It then indicates some of the changes that occurred in the nature of that interchange during the eighteenth century. These are explored in the ensuing essays, whose subjects range from the impact in Italy of the writings of Hobbes, through the motivations and prejudices of British travellers to the peninsula, to the reciprocal journeys to England of Italian painters and art dealers. [source]

    The Changing View of Rome in the Long Eighteenth Century

    Abstract This article surveys the responses of British travellers to Rome in the long eighteenth century, as expressed in topographical literature, correspondence and diaries, and considers how these were shaped by changing domestic preoccupations. British depictions of the city in its ancient and modern state are compared with the accounts that they would have encountered in the topographical literature and prints available in Rome and in the information offered to them by the local ciceroni. This comparison highlights revealing differences between the Rome that the Romans sought to project and the one the British wished to see. [source]

    Religion, Reform and Modernity in the Eighteenth Century: Thomas Secker and the Church of England , By Robert G. Ingram

    Geordan Hammond
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Clerical Profession in the Long Eighteenth Century, 1680-1840 , By W. M. Jacob

    D. J. Cummins

    Rehearsals at the Comédie-Française in the Late Eighteenth Century

    John Golder
    First page of article [source]

    ,Brainomania': Brain, Mind and Soul in the Long Eighteenth Century

    George Rousseau
    First page of article [source]

    The Clerical Profession in the Long Eighteenth Century, 1680,1840 , By W. M. Jacob

    Ryan K. Frace
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    New Directions in British Art History of the Eighteenth Century

    Douglas Fordham
    This essay examines new developments in the history of eighteenth-century British art since the publication of David Solkin's Painting for Money: The Visual Arts and the Public Sphere in Eighteenth-Century England in 1993. While Solkin's account of an urban professional class recasting a civic humanist ideology in its own polite and commercial image continues to hold tremendous sway in the field, this state of the field article identifies three major trends that have tempered and challenged that account. Recent scholarship dealing with gender, space, and empire has subtly reoriented the field towards a more inclusive notion of artistic agency and reception, a more synchronic and spatial approach, and an increasingly global perspective. [source]

    Materializing the Eighteenth Century: Dress History, Literature, and Interdisciplinary Study

    Chloe Wigston Smith
    Drawing on an interview with Linda Baumgarten, curator of clothing and textiles at Colonial Williamsburg, and recent interdisciplinary studies, this article considers how eighteenth-century scholars use the history of dress in literary history and cultural studies. It explores how the study of material culture can illuminate and complicate literary history, but also how dress history comprises its own language and ideas. [source]

    William Blackstone: Law and Letters in the Eighteenth Century , By Wilfrid Prest

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Coastal Encounters: The Transformation of the Gulf South in the Eighteenth Century , Edited by Richmond F. Brown

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 2 2010
    Tammy L. Ingram
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Historiography of the English State during ,the Long Eighteenth Century': Part I , Decentralized Perspectives

    Simon Devereaux
    This article reviews the four most prominent themes in the historiography of the modern English state during the last six decades, with a particular focus on ,the long eighteenth century' (1660,1837). The first is the vision of an expansive and centralized administrative state in Victorian England most famously set forth in the work of the late Oliver MacDonagh. Second is the notion of the state as an information-gathering entity that has recently been forcefully stated by Edward Higgs. Third is the vision of an unexpectedly powerful, substantially centralized ,fiscal-military' state during the eighteenth century, powerfully evoked in the work of John Brewer. Finally, a brief overview is given of the prodigious historical literature that has arisen in recent years surrounding the notion of the state as abstract entity capable of commanding the loyalties of those people over whom it rules. The article concludes by suggesting how a more fully integrated vision of the English state in history might be achieved through a deeper, more dynamic interrelation of changing political-administrative structures and shifting social-cultural forces. [source]

    Analysis of the 2002 May earthquake sequence in the central Pyrenees, consequences for the evaluation of the seismic risk at Lourdes, France

    Noalwenn Dubos
    SUMMARY Three earthquakes of magnitudes 4.6, 4.3 and 3.7 occurred in 2002 May at two locations 20 km from the pilgrimage city of Lourdes in the French Pyrenees. They were well recorded by the permanent Pyrenean seismic networks, by a temporary local network, as well as by accelerometric stations. In order to understand their tectonic contexts, and to come to a better evaluation of the seismic risk at Lourdes, a detailed analysis of these events is performed. The first two events are located south of Lourdes in an area where only a few earthquakes have occurred up to now. Their focal solutions derived from first-motion polarities indicate reverse faulting, with a N110°E strike consistent with the geological structures. 10 aftershocks were recorded and relocated with respect to the main events, benefiting from the waveform similarity of the various events. This analysis reveals that the two main events concern probably the same fault, the second rupture being in the prolongation of the first one, whereas the other small aftershocks are located on fault segments in the vicinity of the hypocentre of the second event. The third large event, located to the SE of Lourdes, involves a normal mechanism with a N120°E plane parallel to the main geological structures. It occurred in a region of intense activity, including in particular an event of maximum macroseismic intensity IX in 1660. The first two events are at the boundary of a large quiet zone. In order to understand the related structural context, a new crustal tomographic model has been computed. It reveals that this quiet zone coincides with a block of high P -velocity. In contrast, the seismicity appears to be stronger at the northern and eastern boundaries of this block. The accelerometric data of the three main events recorded at Lourdes have been used to estimate the maximum peak ground accelerations in this city if a large event occurred, similar to those which damaged the city in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Horizontal accelerations of 0.25 ± 0.07 g are predicted in the frequency domain 1,5 Hz at the location of the Sanctuary for a magnitude 6 event occurring 10 km away from the city. Taking into account the error bars, these values could in some cases exceed those specified by the building codes in this region. [source]

    Friedrich Friese's Dialect Comedy of 1687: A Taste of Altenburg School Theatre

    Anna Carrdus
    The little-known work of Friedrich Friese, pupil and then teacher at the school in Altenburg during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, displays an interest in the popular culture of his day which he united with pedagogic responsibilities. His interest in the customs of the peasant and artisan classes is reflected in his preference for the comic genre, which traditionally focuses on behaviour and misbehaviour among the lower social levels. Friese's work offers insights into school thratre in Altenburg, which flourished in the seventeenth century but has as yet attracted little scholarly attention. The school not only put on hitherto unrecorded performances of plays by the well-known Christian Weise and Andreas Gryphius; between 1660 and 1703 it also presented independent dramas to mark the annual 'Gregoriusfest'. This civic school festival originated in ancient Rome and had many popular elements. Although it was widely celebrated in early modern Germany, celebration in Altenburg was particularly highly developed. Friese prepared several comedies for performance in 'Gregoriusfeste' as 'Nachspiele' to the main, more elevated dramatic pieces by the current Rector of the school. The text of his dialect comedy of 1687 is reprinted at the end of this article as a sample of his work and of Altenburg school theatre. [source]

    Lancashire, India, and shifting competitive advantage in cotton textiles, 1700,1850: the neglected role of factor prices1

    In the early eighteenth century, wages in Britain were more than four times as high as in India, the world's major exporter of cotton textiles. This induced the adoption of more capital-intensive production methods in Britain and a faster rate of technological progress, so that competitive advantage had begun to shift in Britain's favour by the late eighteenth century. However, the completion of the process was delayed until after the Napoleonic Wars by increasing raw cotton costs, before supply adjusted to the major increase in demand for inputs. [source]

    Avoiding tragedies: a Flemish common and its commoners under the pressure of social and economic change during the eighteenth century1

    Despite the wide application of the metaphor of ,the tragedy of the commons', there is little historical literature that points to the weaknesses of its historical basis. There is, however, sufficient qualitative and quantitative evidence to prove that commons were well regulated and organized in order to achieve a sustainable management, that also took into account the needs and wishes of its commoners. This case study of a common in Flanders looks at the evidence for this in the eighteenth century, examining bookkeeping and other archival sources. A model that incorporates the different functions of the commons (sustainability, efficiency, and utility) is explained and applied. [source]

    Private borrowing during the financial revolution: Hoare's Bank and its customers, 1702,241

    The financial revolution improved the British government's ability to borrow, and thus its ability to wage war. North and Weingast argued that it also permitted private parties to borrow more cheaply and widely. We test these inferences with evidence from a London bank. We confirm that private bank credit was cheap in the early eighteenth century, but we argue that it was not available widely. Importantly, the government reduced the usury rate in 1714, sharply reducing the circle of private clients that could be served profitably. [source]

    The emergence of a private clientele for banks in the early eighteenth century: Hoare's Bank and some women customers1

    The records of Hoare's Bank and the correspondence of six of its women customers show how these women started to use the new banking services both for transferring money and for trading in the stock market. It is clear that alongside their use of the new facilities, older systems of money transfer remained important for customers. Much of the business of the bank and its customers, including their ventures into the stock market, took place within groups of people united by kinship, religion, and politics. [source]

    Baltic iron in the Atlantic world in the eighteenth century , By Chris Evans and Göran Rydén

    William J. Ashworth
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    English county populations in the later eighteenth century1

    SUMMARY When directing the first English census John Rickman was intent not only on discovering the size of the population in 1801 but also on tracing past trends both nationally and for individual counties. He returned to the latter investigation on several later occasions, notably in the 1830s. There have been many subsequent attempts to improve upon his national estimates, but his estimates of county totals have continued to be used extensively, either unchanged or slightly modified. Rickman was aware that his estimates were subject to wide margins of error. For the later eighteenth century it is possible to produce new estimates which are probably substantially more accurate, taking advantage of the fact that after Hardwicke's Act (1753) the registration of marriages in Anglican parish registers, unlike that of baptisms and burials, was virtually complete. They show that the contrast between population growth rates in ,industrial' counties and those in which agriculture continued to predominate were significantly more marked than suggested by Rickman's estimates. The same exercise that produces county estimates also yields hundredal totals, which will in future allow a more refined account of relative growth and stagnation to be made. [source]

    Baltic iron and the British iron industry in the eighteenth century

    Chris Evans
    Before the revolution in coal technology that swept the British iron industry in the last years of the eighteenth century, native ironmasters were unable to meet the burgeoning demand for malleable bar iron. The shortfall was made good by imports of bar iron from the Baltic, first from Sweden, then from Russia. This article presents new empirical evidence on the role played by Baltic iron in the Georgian economy. It also considers the impact of Swedish and Russian iron on domestic ironmasters as they sought organizational, as well as technological, ways to overcome the energy constraints facing the industry. [source]

    From imitation to invention: creating commodities in eighteenth-century Britain

    Maxine Berg
    This article presents the history of new goods in the eighteenth century as a part of the broader history of invention and industrialization. It focuses on product innovation in manufactured commodities as this engages with economic, technological and cultural theories. Recent theories of consumer demand are applied to the invention of commodities in the eighteenth century; special attention is given to the process of imitation in product innovation. The theoretical framework for imitation can be found in evolutionary theories of memetic transmission, in archaeological theories of skeuomorphous, and in eighteenth-century theories of taste and aesthetics. Inventors, projectors, economic policy makers, and commercial and economic writers of the period dwelt upon the invention of new British products. The emulative, imitative context for their invention made British consumer goods the distinctive modern alternatives to earlier Asian and European luxuries. [source]

    The wholesale and retail markets of London, 1660,1840

    Colin Smith
    Markets and marketing are perennial themes in English economic and social history. Yet they remain largely unexplored in relation to London during a period of remarkable growth and change, the long eighteenth century. This article begins to fill that void, by surveying over 70 London produce markets that existed during the period, and identifying patterns in their collective development. It concludes that the physical market place, though ancient in origin, evolved through the ,commercial revolution' as a highly dynamic and diverse institution that played a significant role in London's distribution. [source]

    A common-features analysis of Amsterdam and London financial markets during the eighteenth century

    ECONOMIC INQUIRY, Issue 1 2000
    G Dempster
    We examine the financial linkage between the London and Amsterdam financial markets using stock prices recorded in each market over the period 1723-94 in conjunction with tests for common trends, cycles, and regime shifts. These tests reveal a surprising degree of integration between the markets as their prices move together in both the short and long run. Moreover, shocks to the assets translate quickly and accurately between markets. It also appears that Dutch investment did not destabilize London markets and stock prices in London were the primary determinant of prices in Amsterdam. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2010
    Robert A. Davis
    In this essay, Robert Davis argues that much of the moral anxiety currently surrounding children in Europe and North America emerges at ages and stages curiously familiar from traditional Western constructions of childhood. The symbolism of infancy has proven enduringly effective over the last two centuries in associating the earliest years of children's lives with a peculiar prestige and aura. Infancy is then vouchsafed within this symbolism as a state in which all of society's hopes and ideals for the young might somehow be enthusiastically invested, regardless of the complications that can be anticipated in the later, more ambivalent years of childhood and adolescence. According to Davis, the understanding of the concept of infancy associated with the rise of popular education can trace its pedigree to a genuine shift in sensibility that occurred in the middle of the eighteenth century. After exploring the essentially Romantic positions of Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi and Friedrich Fröbel and their relevance to the pattern of reform of early childhood education in the United Kingdom and the United States, Davis also assesses the influence of figures such as Stanley Hall and John Dewey in determining the rationale for modern early childhood education. A central contention of Davis's essay is that the assumptions evident in the theory and practice of Pestalozzi and his followers crystallize a series of tensions in the understanding of infancy and infant education that have haunted early childhood education from the origins of popular schooling in the late eighteenth century down to the policy dilemmas of the present day. [source]

    Men Making Home: Masculinity and Domesticity in Eighteenth-Century Britain

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 3 2009
    Karen Harvey
    Eighteenth-century England is, for many scholars, the time and place where modern domesticity was invented; the point at which ,home' became a key concept sustained by new literary imaginings and new social practices. But as gendered individuals, and certainly compared to women, men are notable for their absence in accounts of the eighteenth-century domestic interior. In this essay, I examine the relationship between constructs of masculinity and meanings of home. During the eighteenth century, ,home' came to mean more than one's dwelling; it became a multi-faceted state of being, encompassing the emotional, physical, moral and spatial. Masculinity intersected with domesticity at all levels and stages in its development. The nature of men's engagements with home were understood through a model of ,oeconomy', which brought together the home and the world, primarily through men's activities. Indeed, this essay proposes that attention to how this multi-faceted eighteenth-century ,home' was made in relation to masculinity shifts our understanding of home as a private and feminine space opposed to an ,outside' and public world. [source]