Eating Disorder Symptoms (eating + disorder_symptom)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Inappropriate eating behaviors during pregnancy: Prevalence and associated factors among pregnant women attending primary care in southern Brazil,

Rafael Marques Soares RD
Abstract Objective: To examine the prevalence of inappropriate eating behaviors and associated factors among pregnant women in primary care. Method: The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorders and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders was used to examine anxiety and depressive symptoms. Body mass index (BMI) and pregestational weight were also assessed. Results: Prevalence of binge eating during pregnancy was 17.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.5,20.0], followed by excessive shape (5.6%; 95% CI 4,8) and weight concerns (5.5%; 95% CI 4,8). Binge eating during pregnancy was significantly associated with binge eating before pregnancy [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.1; 95% CI 2.2,4.3], current anxiety symptoms (PR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3,2.4), and prepregnancy BMI < 19.8 kg/m2 (PR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1,2.5). The prevalence of eating disorders was 0.6% (95% CI 0.01,1.11). Discussion: Eating disorder symptoms should be routinely assessed and treated during prenatal care, along with other comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2009 [source]

Geographical clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students,,

Valerie L. Forman-Hoffman PhD
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if eating disorder behaviors geographically clustered among U.S high school students. Method: Our sample consisted of 15,349 high school students who responded to the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Study (YRBS). Weight control and eating disordered behaviors under investigation included dieting, exercising, fasting, using diet pills, and purging to control weight in the last 30 days. We calculated pairwise odds ratios (PWORs) to determine the degree of within-county clustering. Results: Among all participants, adjusted analyses revealed that having any weight control or eating disorder symptom, severe restricting, dieting, exercising, and diet pill use each showed significant clustering (p < .05). Purging did not significantly cluster by county. The magnitude of clustering was stronger for female students than male students. Conclusion: The significant clustering of weight control and eating disorder behavior in U.S. high school students confirms evidence of a social contagion effect of eating disorders. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

A case series investigating acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for previously treated, unremitted patients with anorexia nervosa

M. I. Berman
Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) using a case series methodology among participants with a history of prior treatment for AN. Three participants enrolled; all completed the study. All participants had a history of 1,20 years of intensive eating disorder treatment prior to enrollment. Participants were seen for 17,19 twice-weekly sessions of manualized ACT. Symptoms were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 1-year follow-up. All participants experienced clinically significant improvement on at least some measures; no participants worsened or lost weight even at 1-year follow-up. Simulation modelling analysis (SMA) revealed for some participants an increase in weight gain and a decrease in eating disorder symptoms during the treatment phase as compared to a baseline assessment phase. These data, although preliminary, suggest that ACT could be a promising treatment for subthreshold or clinical cases of AN, even with chronic participants or those with medical complications. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Collaborative care between professionals and non-professionals in the management of eating disorders: a description of workshops focussed on interpersonal maintaining factors

J. Treasure
Abstract The aim of this paper is to describe the content and processes involved in a series of workshops for carers of people with an eating disorder. These workshops were designed to equip carers with the skills and knowledge needed to be a ,coach' and help the person with an eating disorder break free from the traps that block recovery. The first hurdle is to overcome the unhelpful patterns of interpersonal processes between the person with an eating disorder and their carers. In both naturalistic studies and randomised controlled trials (RCT), family factors have been implicated either as moderators or mediators of outcome. High levels of expressed emotion (EE), misattributions about the illness or unhelpful methods of engaging with the eating disorder symptoms contribute to this effect. These workshops aim to reduce EE such as over protection. Carers are introduced to the transtheoretical model of change and the principles of motivational interviewing so that they can help rather than hinder change. They learn how to use reflective listening to reduce confrontation and how to sidestep resistance. Carers learn what is needed to help their daughter change by reflecting on the processes involved in changing their own behaviours in relationship with the person with eating disorders. Once they recognise that they may need to change then they can use their skills, information and insight to help change eating disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Adults with chronic eating disorders.

Two-year follow-up after inpatient treatment
Abstract Objective The aims of this prospective study were (1) to report on the 2-year outcome of chronically ill adult eating disorder patients, (2) to investigate whether a specialized inpatient treatment might influence the course of the illness, and (3) to search for prognostic factors. Method Seventy-two patients were treated in a 4,5-month specialized group treatment programme for chronically ill adults with eating disorders. Sixty-five (90%) with mean age of 30 years were available for the follow-up assessment. Results Forty-six (71%) patients had improved at the 2-year follow-up and 17 (26%) did not meet diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder. The symptom reductions per time were statistically significantly larger during the inpatient period compared to the waiting-list and follow-up periods. No significant predictors of treatment outcome were found. Patients with avoidant personality disorder had a higher level of distress at all times, but improved at the same rate as the others. Conclusion At the 2-year follow-up, there were substantial reductions in eating disorder symptoms and general psychiatric symptoms. Most of the improvement occurred during inpatient treatment, which might be an option for chronic eating disorders. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Clinician stance in the treatment of chronic eating disorders

Josie Geller
Abstract Long-term outcome studies of anorexia nervosa have shown that a significant number of individuals do not fully recover from their eating disorder symptoms. Individuals who develop chronic eating disorders may express either strong ambivalence about symptom reduction or a complete lack of interest in change. As a result, clinicians can find this group particularly challenging. This report expands upon a treatment stance based on principles of Motivational Interviewing that addresses difficulties typically encountered in working with this population. The stance outlines a mission statement and specific clinician behaviours that promote engagement and alliance with this group, including the communication of beliefs that foster client self-acceptance, not making assumptions, being curious, active, and on the same side, and maximizing client responsibility for change. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

The history of eating disorders in Norway

Finn Skårderud
Abstract The history of eating disorders in Norway is described in four phases: (1) early case histories of eating disorder symptoms in the late 19th century Norwegian medical literature, (2) the pioneers of the post-World War 2 decades, (3) the 1980s when eating disorders became visible to the public and a focus of interest among professionals, and (4) the consolidation of professional networks and the emergence of a national policy for treatment. In contrast to many other countries, the official Norwegian policy is to improve clinical competence and knowledge about eating disorders at all levels of health care rather than establishing special clinics. Beside arguing for such a policy, we suggest that discussing the balance between general and specialist services is an important future issue. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Nutritional Risk among Elderly Rural Midwestern Women

Leslee K. Pollina
Nutritional risk in relation to depression and eating disorder symptoms was assessed among a sample of rural, elderly Midwestern women. Thirty-seven community-dwelling women (M age = 72.37, SD = 16.66) were recruited from senior center nutrition sites and other venues. Body mass index (BMI) was derived from bioelectric impedance measurements, and participants completed several questionnaires including the Level I Nutrition Screen, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Results indicated that 72% of participants had BMI scores outside the healthy range for older adults, but they were more likely to be overweight than underweight. Other areas of nutritional concern were identified. Several nutritional risk items were associated with eating disorder symptoms and with higher depression scores. However, in an elderly population, EAT items may reflect health-related as well as eating disorder symptoms. The need for comprehensive nutritional evaluations involving psychosocial and environmental factors is discussed. [source]

Gender difference in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms,,

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore PhD
Abstract Objective: This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method: A random sample of members (ages 18,35 years) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating, whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observed, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes ("Number Needed to Treat") were small to moderate. Discussion: Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

Self-criticism is a key predictor of eating disorder dimensions among inpatient adolescent females

Silvana Fennig MD
Abstract Objective: Although the unipolar depression-eating disorder comorbidity is adequately documented, examination of the role of depressive personality styles in eating disorders is relatively scarce. Method: Associations between depressive symptoms, depressive risk and resilience (i.e., dependency, self-criticism, and sense of efficacy), and eating disorder symptoms (as measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-2) were examinedin inpatient adolescent females (N = 81). Results: Self-criticism emerged as independent, robust, and strong predictor of eating disorder symptoms. Conclusion: Patients self-criticism should be targeted in psychotherapy and might serve as an obstacle for successful inpatient treatment. The role of self-derogation in eating disorders should be examined further. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

Changes in psychopathology and symptom severity in bulimia nervosa between 1993 and 2003

Amanda S. Vaught BA
Abstract Objective: This study investigated changes in symptom severity and the psychopathology of patients with bulimia nervosa between 1993 and 2003. Method: Pretreatment data of patients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, collected between 1993 and 1997 from two multisite studies (N = 263), and from 2001 to 2003 from a third multisite study (N = 233) were compared for differences in psychopathology, eating disorder symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Results: There was a significant increase in baseline age between the cohorts (1993M = 28.7 ± 7.9, 2001M = 30.3 ± 8.7, p = 0.036) together with a decrease in personality disorders and in several aspects of eating disorder psychopathology. After controlling for age however, significant pretreatment differences were found only in the restraint subscale on the EDE. Conclusion: Results suggest that the presentation of individuals with bulimia nervosa has changed between 1993 and 2003, in that participants were older and demonstrated less dietary restraint. Hence, comparisons between samples and treatment trials over time must be made with caution. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in Latinos in the United States

Margarita Alegria PhD
Abstract Objective: To present national estimates and correlates of lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV eating disorders for Latinos. Method: Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a national epidemiological household survey of Latinos in the United States. Results: Latinos have elevated rates of any binge eating and binge eating disorder but low prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The US born and those living a greater percentage of their lifetime in the US evidenced higher risk for certain eating disorders while severe obesity and low levels of education were significant correlates. Rates of treatment utilization were exceedingly low. Conclusion: Standard eating disorder criteria may not be appropriate for understanding psychological morbidity of eating disorders for Latinos, particularly less acculturated Latinos, due to cultural differences in the presentation of eating disorder symptoms. Criteria for disturbed eating patterns that are more reflective of the illness experience of Latinos should be developed. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

A survey of herbal and alternative medication use among participants with eating disorder symptoms

Kristine J. Steffen PharmD
Abstract Objective: The purpose of this survey was to collect data on herbal use in participants with eating disorder symptoms. Method: A survey was administered to 100 participants who had either sought treatment at the Eating Disorder Institute (EDI) or had been enrolled in previous research as the result of eating disorder symptoms. Results: Of the 100 participants, 64% used an herbal product for weight loss. The mean monthly expenditure on herbs over the past year was $33.88 ± $41.10, with a range of $2,$200. Dexatrim (Chattem, Chattanooga, TN; N = 27) and St. John's Wort (N = 19) had the highest reported use. Magazines were the most common source of product information (38.3%), with health care professionals being reported less frequently as the source of information. Knowledge of ephedra-related adverse effects was variable, and depended on a previous history of use. The majority (62.3%) of herb users reported an adverse effect. Conclusion: Herbal use is frequent among those with eating disorder symptoms, often resulting in substantial financial cost. Health professionals are rarely the source of herbal information. Therefore, there is ample room for educational interventions, which may result in the safer use of herbal products. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006; 39:741,746 [source]

Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire as a measure of change in patients with bulimia nervosa

Robyn Sysko MS
Abstract Objective The current study evaluated the agreement between the Eating Disorder Examination and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire in assessing eating disorder pathology in a sample of women with bulimia nervosa. Method Patients with broadly defined bulimia nervosa were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment study of fluoxetine, with and without guided self-help. The current study presents information from 50 patients with data from both the EDE and EDE-Q at study entry and treatment termination. Results The EDE and EDE-Q produced more similar scores for compensatory behaviors (vomiting/laxative use) than complex eating-disordered features (binge eating/importance of shape and weight) at the pretreatment and posttreatment assessments, and for change during the study. Discussion The EDE and EDE-Q are highly correlated for many of the behavioral and attitudinal features of bulimia nervosa. There is substantial variability in agreement for individual patients, but on average, the EDE and EDE-Q will yield similar assessments of eating disorder symptoms and change in symptoms over time. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Olanzapine treatment of anorexia nervosa: A retrospective study

Amanda Malina
Abstract Background Recent reports raise the possibility that olanzapine, which commonly causes weight gain in non,eating-disordered subjects, assisted weight gain and mood during refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Methods Eighteen AN subjects who engaged in open treatment with olanzapine were retrospectively questioned about their response. Results Subjects reported a significant reduction in anxiety, difficulty eating, and core eating disorder symptoms after taking olanzapine. Discussion These data lend support to the possibility that olanzapine may be useful in AN patients. Conclusion A controlled trial is necessary to prove that olanzapine is efficacious. © 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 234,237, 2003. [source]

A novel approach to treating eating disorders in a day-hospital treatment program

Mellisa ASHLEY
Abstract Aim:, The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of an adult day-hospital program that uses a novel approach to delivering nutritional interventions. Methods:, Fifty-six adult eating disorder patients of the Sydney West Area Eating Disorders Day Treatment Program participated in the study. Participants completed standardised self-reported questionnaires designed to measure eating disorder symptoms, at the commencement of treatment and after 12 weeks. Results:, Participation in day-hospital treatment was associated with increases in weight, reductions in number of binge-eating and purging episodes, and frequency of exercise sessions. Participants also experienced improvements in their eating attitudes, drive for thinness, bulimia, depression and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion:, These findings add to the growing body of literature supporting the use of day-hospital programs in the treatment of eating disorders. A number of strategies are suggested for the effective delivery of nutritional interventions in day-hospital programs, such as methods that assist with integrating new information, having an experiential focus and the use of collaborative education processes. [source]

Disgust and eating disorder symptomatology in a non-clinical population: The role of trait anxiety and anxiety sensitivity

Graham C. L. Davey
Abstract The present paper reports the results of a study investigating the relationship between a domains-independent measure of disgust (the Disgust Propensity and Sensitivity Scale-Revised) and measures of eating disorder symptomatology in a non-clinical population. Significant correlations between disgust sensitivity and disgust propensity and selected eating disorder symptomatology measures suggested that disgust is significantly correlated with measures of eating disorder symptomatology and is appraised more negatively. However, both measures of disgust propensity and sensitivity failed to predict any significant residual variance in scores on eating symptomatology measures when either trait anxiety or anxiety sensitivity was controlled for. This suggests that while the experience of disgust may be heightened in individuals with eating disorders, it may be linked to other relevant emotions such as anxiety and anxiety sensitivity rather than being an independent risk factor for symptoms.,Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: The experience of disgust may be heightened in individuals with eating disorder symptomatology. Disgust levels may not be an independent predictor of eating disorder symptoms. In those with eating disorder symotomatology disgust may be linked to other emotions such as anxiety and anxiety sensitivity. [source]

A qualitative exploration of the perception of emotions in anorexia nervosa: A basic emotion and developmental perspective

John R. E. Fox
Abstract Difficulties in emotional processing have long been regarded as a core difficulty within anorexia nervosa. Recent research and theory have started to highlight how eating disorder symptoms are often used to regulate painful emotions. However, there has been a lack of theoretical sophistication in how emotions have been considered within the eating disorders. This study was designed to use qualitative methodologies to address these inadequacies and provide a richer, more thorough account of emotions within anorexia nervosa. It used a grounded theory methodology to gather and analyse interview data from 11 participants who had a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa, being seen at a regional eating disorder service (both inpatient and day patient). The results highlighted two main overarching themes regarding the perception and management of emotions within anorexia nervosa: (1) development of poor meta-emotional skills; and (2) perception and management of emotion in anorexia nervosa. These two categories comprised of a significant number of components from the qualitative analysis, including difficulties with anger, meta-emotional skills and poverty of emotional environments while growing up. Once the data had been collected and analysed, links were made between the findings of this research and the current literature base.,Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message: Practitoners needs to consider the importance of poor meta-emotional skills within anorexia nervosa. These meta skills appears to be more complicated than the simplistic notion of alexithymia. The routes to these difficulties in emotion appear to be drawn from a complicated developmental picture. The role of anger needs to be considered more fully in the psychotherapeutic work with people with anorexia nervosa. This study's findings suggest that increasing levels of anger may play a role in increased eating disorder symptomatology, especially vomitting. [source]