Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Eating

  • binge eating
  • disordered eating
  • emotional eating
  • healthy eating
  • normal eating

  • Terms modified by Eating

  • eating attitude
  • eating attitude test
  • eating behavior
  • eating behaviour
  • eating behaviour questionnaire
  • eating difficulty
  • eating disabilities
  • eating disorder
  • eating disorder examination
  • eating disorder inventory
  • eating disorder patient
  • eating disorder psychopathology
  • eating disorder symptom
  • eating disorder symptomatology
  • eating disorders
  • eating disorders inventory
  • eating disorders service
  • eating disturbance
  • eating episode
  • eating frequency
  • eating habit
  • eating index
  • eating pathology
  • eating pattern
  • eating problem
  • eating quality
  • eating syndrome

  • Selected Abstracts

    Disease control, survival, and functional outcome after multimodal treatment for advanced-stage tongue base cancer

    James P. Malone MD
    Abstract Background. Surgical resection and postoperative radiation for advanced-stage malignancies of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx result in a dismal overall survival of 38%. Patients with carcinoma of the tongue base frequently have advanced disease at the time of presentation, and combined-modality therapy is usually required to achieve cure. Because of the poor survival rates with advanced malignancies with standard therapy, new and innovative approaches continue to be developed in an attempt to have a greater impact on disease control, patient survival, and functional outcome after therapy. This study examines functional outcome, survival, and disease control in patients receiving an intensified treatment regimen with concomitant chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and intraoperative radiotherapy for previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue base. Methods. Forty patients with previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were treated in one of three sequential phase II intensification regimens (IRs). Treatment consisted of perioperative, hyperfractionated radiotherapy (9.1 Gy) with concurrent cisplatin followed by surgical resection with intraoperative radiotherapy boost (7.5 Gy). Postoperative treatment involved concurrent chemoradiotherapy (40 Gy to the primary site and upper neck and 45 Gy to the supraclavicular areas) with cisplatin with or without paclitaxel. Locoregional and distant disease control, 2-year overall, and disease-specific survival rates were calculated. The Performance Status Scale (PSS) for Head and Neck Cancer Patients was administered to 25 of the surviving patients. The effects of the method of surgical reconstruction, surgery involving the mandible and/or larynx, and early versus advanced T stage on PSS score were evaluated with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results. Median follow-up in months for IR1, IR2, and IR3 were 83.6, 75.2, and 26.8. The locoregional control rate was 100%, and the rate of distant metastases was 7.5% for all patients. Two-year overall and disease-specific survival rates for the entire study population were 74.7% and 93.6%, respectively. Mean PSS scores by subscales Eating in Public, Understandability of Speech, and Normalcy of Diet were 55 (range, 0,100), 73 (range, 25,100), and 49 (range, 0,100), respectively. PSS scores were significantly higher in patients with primary closure of the surgical defect, no mandibular surgery, and early T-stage lesions. Conclusions. Although functional outcome may be decreased by certain surgical interventions and advanced T stage, the high rate of locoregional and distant disease control and excellent 2-year disease-specific survival supports an aggressive treatment regimen for advanced tongue base cancer. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 561,572, 2004 [source]

    Halitosis among racially diverse populations: an update

    S Rayman
    Abstract:, The aim of this paper is to highlight the cultural perceptions of halitosis to dental professionals. Halitosis (oral malodour or bad breath) is caused mainly by tongue coating and periodontal disease. Bacterial metabolism of amino acids leads to metabolites including many compounds, such as indole, skatole and volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), hydrogen sulphide, methyl mercaptan and dimethyl sulphide. They are claimed to be the main aetiological agents for halitosis. Gastrointestinal diseases are also generally believed to cause halitosis. In general, physicians and dentists are poorly informed about the causes and treatments for halitosis. The paper reviews the prevalence and distribution of halitosis, oral malodour, its aetiology, concepts of general and oral health and diseases and their perception among racially diverse population. Eating, smoking and drinking habits and understanding of halitosis as a social norm among different people has been highlighted. The treatment options have also been presented very briefly. A brief discussion about general importance within existing healthcare services has been highlighted. Oral malodour may rank only behind dental caries and periodontal disease as the cause of patient's visits to the dentist. It is a public social health problem. The perception of halitosis is different in culturally diverse populations. So the dental professionals should be aware of the cultural perceptions of halitosis among racially and culturally diverse populations. There is a need to integrate the cultural awareness and knowledge about halitosis among the dental professional for better understanding of halitosis to treat patients with the social dilemma of halitosis to improve the quality of life and well-being of individuals with the problem. It is concluded that dental professionals (especially dental hygienists) should be prepared to practice in a culturally diverse environment in a sensitive and appropriate manner, to deliver optimal oral health and hygiene care. [source]

    Eating problems, body image disturbances, and academic achievement: Preliminary evaluation of the eating and body image disturbances academic interference scale

    Tovah Yanover MA
    Abstract Objective: To examine the relationships between a new scale, the Eating and Body Image Disturbances Academic Interference Scale (EBIDAIS), and measures of eating disturbance, body image, and academic achievement. Method: One thousand five hundred eighty-four college undergraduates completed the measures in an online survey and were awarded class credit for their participation. Measures included the Eating Disorder Inventory Bulimia, Drive for Thinness, Body Dissatisfaction, and Perfectionism subscales. Grade point average (GPA) was also reported. Results: Academic interference and GPA were significantly correlated, indicating that higher interference scores were related to lower GPA. EBIDAIS was also significantly correlated with drive for thinness, bulimia, and body dissatisfaction, but was not significantly associated with perfectionism. The correlation between interference and GPA was substantially higher for a subsample of individuals who scored in the elevated range on eating and body dissatisfaction. Conclusion: Academic interference may be a relatively unexamined, but potentially important, outcome for individuals who experience eating problems and body image disturbance. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

    Barriers to Caregiver Compliance with Eating and Drinking Recommendations for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities and Dysphagia

    Darren D. Chadwick
    Background, There is scant research on the subject of dysphagia and people with intellectual disabilities. This study explores the barriers which caregivers believe make following Speech and Language Therapists' (SLTs) dysphagia management strategies more difficult. Method, Semi-structured open-ended interviews were conducted with 46 caregivers who supported 40 intellectually disabled adults with dysphagia. Results, Caregivers perceived particular difficulties in modifying food and drinks to safe consistencies, achieving the agreed positioning during mealtimes, and in using support and prompting strategies. Problematic support and prompting strategies included difficulties with pacing correctly; facilitating people to adequately relax and concentrate; observing and prompting people to pace suitably and take safe amounts of food and drink in each mouthful. Additional barriers identified included time pressures, staff turnover and insufficient reviewing of SLT management strategies by caregivers. Conclusions, Findings suggest that additional training and monitoring is required to ensure caregivers are aware of their role and responsibility in promoting safe oral intake for adults with dysphagia and intellectual disabilities. Ongoing support is suggested for people with intellectual disabilities and dysphagia to help them understand the reasoning behind management strategies. [source]

    Parent , Adolescent Relationships and Girls' Unhealthy Eating: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Andrea Bastiani Archibald
    This longitudinal study tested the direction of associations between parent ,adolescent relationships and adolescent girls' unhealthy eating. Girls (N= 184) were seen at Time 1 (M age = 14.30 years), and then again 2 years later (Time 2; M age = 16.04 years). At both assessment periods, they completed measures that assessed their eating attitudes and behaviors, relationships with their parents, height, weight, and age of menarche. Whereas unhealthy family relationships have been hypothesized as a precursor to unhealthy eating attitudes and behaviors, it is also possible that increases in these behaviors contribute to more negative relationships within the family. Structural equation modeling was employed to simultaneously investigate the longitudinal influence of parent , adolescent relationships on girls' unhealthy eating, and girls' unhealthy eating on parent , adolescent relationships. The model was tested with the following controls: body mass (kg/m2), pubertal timing and age. A longitudinal direct effect was found for unhealthy eating on parent, adolescent relationships; however, no direct effect was found for parent, adolescent relationships on unhealthy eating over time. For middle, and late,adolescent girls, it appears that unhealthy eating behaviors and attitudes are predictive of less positive parent , adolescent relationships over time. [source]

    Physical Activity and Healthy Eating in the After-School Environment

    Karen J. Coleman PhD
    ABSTRACT BACKGROUND:, No research to date has extensively described moderate and vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and healthful eating (HE) opportunities in the after-school environment. The current study described the quality of the after-school environment for its impact on children's MVPA and HE. METHODS:, An alliance of 7 elementary schools and Boys and Girls Clubs who worked with the Cooperative Extension Service in Lawrence, KS, was selected to participate in a larger intervention study. After-school settings were observed for information regarding session type, session context, leader behavior, physical activity, and snack quality using validated instruments such as the System for Observing Fitness Instruction Time. Data presented are baseline measures for all sites. RESULTS:, Participating children (n = 144) were primarily non-Hispanic white (60%) and in fourth grade (69%). After-school sites offered 4 different sessions per day (active recreation, academic time, nonactive recreation, and enrichment activities). Children were provided with a daily snack. On 36% of the days observed, this snack included fruit, fruit juice, or vegetables. There was significantly more time spent in MVPA during free play sessions (69%) compared to organized adult-led sessions (51%). There was also significantly more discouragement of physical activity during organized adult-led sessions (29%) as compared to the free play sessions (6%). CONCLUSIONS:, The quality of after-school programs can be improved by providing fruits and vegetables as snacks; offering more free play activities; training the after-school staff in simple, structured games for use in a variety of indoor and outdoor settings; and training after-school staff to promote and model MVPA and HE in and out of the after-school setting. [source]

    The Theology of Food: Eating and the Eucharist , By Angel F. Méndez Montoya

    MODERN THEOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Orion Edgar
    First page of article [source]

    Eating between the Lines: Mississippian Migration and Stable Carbon Isotope Variation in Fort Ancient Populations

    Robert A. Cook
    ABSTRACT Appreciating variation along the edges of traditional archaeological Culture Historical boundaries requires close consideration of social contexts associated with culture contact. We focus on dietary variation as a function of these concerns through a case study of Fort Ancient populations who, on average, consumed lower quantities of maize than their Mississippian neighbors as determined by stable carbon isotope ratios of bone collagen. However, this dichotomy is not as rigid as initially thought, with some Fort Ancient burials producing stable carbon isotope ratios similar to Mississippian cases. Detailed investigation of internal variation of carbon isotopes for human burials at the SunWatch site provides evidence that contact included small-scale Mississippian migrations to Fort Ancient sites. The main conclusion is that variation in diet and archaeological context can be a useful approach for examining prehistoric migration. [source]

    Eating among teens: Do family mealtimes make a difference for adolescents' nutrition?

    Dianne Neumark-Sztainer
    Adolescents are at risk for poor dietary intake and unhealthy weight control behaviors. Family meals appear to play an important role in helping adolescents make healthier food choices and avoid engaging in unhealthy weight control and binge eating behaviors. [source]

    Food, Morals and Meaning: The Pleasure and Anxiety of Eating.

    NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 2 2007
    Second edition

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and Binge Eating

    NUTRITION REVIEWS, Issue 9 2007
    Samuele Cortese MD
    Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a persistent and pervasive pattern of inattention and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity. Emerging data suggest higher than expected rates of binge eating occur in subjects with ADHD. Several hypotheses may explain this newly described comorbidity: 1) inattention and/or impulsivity foster binge eating, 2) ADHD and binge eating share common neurobiolog-ical bases, 3) binge eating contributes to ADHD, or 4) psychopathological factors common to both binge eating and ADHD mediate the association. In patients with ADHD and binge eating, both conditions might benefit from common therapeutic strategies. Further research is needed to gain insight into the association between ADHD and binge eating in order to facilitate more appropriate clinical management and, ultimately, a better quality of life for patients with both conditions. [source]

    Food for Thought: Essays on Eating and Culture

    Michael J. Goebel
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Revolution in Eating: How the Quest for Food Shaped America

    Carol-Ann Farkas
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Revolution in Eating: How the Quest for Food Shaped America

    Megan Elias
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The 21st Century Paradox: Body Image, Obesity, and Disordered Eating in Youths

    Christine Bachman
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Eating and rumination behaviour in Brahman grade cattle and crossbred water buffalo fed on high roughage diet

    Renato S. A. VEGA
    ABSTRACT The purpose of this study is to compare feeding and other behavior and nutrient digestibility of tropical grade Brahman (body weight (BW) = 231 kg ± 12.4; n = 3) and crossbred water buffalo (BW = 300 kg ± 13.9; n = 3). This experiment on digestibility and measures of muscles of mastication utilized one-way, and animal behavior two-way, analysis of variance, respectively. Two video camcorders were installed in each pair of buffalo and Brahman for 24 h period programmed on the 107th, 109th and 111th days of the digestion trials. Frequency and duration of feeding, meal intake, rumination, bolus, chews, drinking, defecating, standing and lying were recorded daily. Muscle diameter of Digastricus, Masseter and Pterygoid and different regions of the tongue were sampled and measured under light microscope using a standard micrometer. Buffalo obtained significantly higher intake of dry matter, roughage, crude protein, total digestible nutrient and metabolized energy than Brahman. This was supported by longer meal duration (P , 0.05), and shorter meal breaks (P , 0.05) of buffalo than Brahman. The diameter of the muscles for mastication was bigger (P , 0.05) in buffalo than in Brahman, which is indicative of stronger chewing ability. Briefly, lesser and slower chewing action; higher intake of roughage and crude protein; and longer resting behavior of crossbred water buffalo than Brahman are all indicative of better digestive and metabolic performance of the buffalo under high roughage feeding conditions. [source]

    Modeling Data with Excess Zeros and Measurement Error: Application to Evaluating Relationships between Episodically Consumed Foods and Health Outcomes

    BIOMETRICS, Issue 4 2009
    Victor Kipnis
    Summary Dietary assessment of episodically consumed foods gives rise to nonnegative data that have excess zeros and measurement error. Tooze et al. (2006,,Journal of the American Dietetic Association,106, 1575,1587) describe a general statistical approach (National Cancer Institute method) for modeling such food intakes reported on two or more 24-hour recalls (24HRs) and demonstrate its use to estimate the distribution of the food's usual intake in the general population. In this article, we propose an extension of this method to predict individual usual intake of such foods and to evaluate the relationships of usual intakes with health outcomes. Following the regression calibration approach for measurement error correction, individual usual intake is generally predicted as the conditional mean intake given 24HR-reported intake and other covariates in the health model. One feature of the proposed method is that additional covariates potentially related to usual intake may be used to increase the precision of estimates of usual intake and of diet-health outcome associations. Applying the method to data from the Eating at America's Table Study, we quantify the increased precision obtained from including reported frequency of intake on a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) as a covariate in the calibration model. We then demonstrate the method in evaluating the linear relationship between log blood mercury levels and fish intake in women by using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, and show increased precision when including the FFQ information. Finally, we present simulation results evaluating the performance of the proposed method in this context. [source]

    Subjective daytime sleepiness and its predictors in Finnish adolescents in an interview study

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2001
    O Saarenpää-Heikkilä
    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictors of subjective daytime sleepiness (SDS) and its chronicity in adolescents. Two groups of adolescents (107 with SDS and 107 without SDS) from our first questionnaire study were invited to an interview after 3 y. A follow-up questionnaire had been sent to them one year earlier. The interview included questions about sleep, daytime sleepiness, living habits, physical and mental health, and progress at school. The adolescents were also examined clinically. Interviews were conducted with 66 out of 107 subjects with SDS and 64 out of 107 without SDS (age range 12 to 19 y). In this interview 42 out of the 130 adolescents had SDS. A total of 20 adolescents reported SDS in both questionnaire studies and in the interview (chronic SDS). In a multivariate analysis (logistic regression) sleep disorders, frequent medication and depressive emotions were significantly associated with SDS. Chronic SDS was connected in a bivariate analysis (Pearson's chi-square) with excessive night waking, difficulty in falling asleep, dreaming, frequent medication, frequent alcohol drinking, and irregular breakfast eating, and in our previous studies also with delayed sleep rhythm. Conclusion: Sleep disorders and health problems were more common causes of SDS than undesirable living habits. However, alcohol drinking and delayed sleep rhythm were associated with chronic SDS in addition to sleep disorders and medication. [source]

    Effects of preoccupation on interpersonal recall: a pilot study

    Annukka Lehtonen Ph.D.
    Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether priming preoccupation (rumination) in healthy participants adversely affects the processing of interpersonal information. Methods: Sixty female undergraduates with moderate or marked preoccupation proneness (selected on the basis of their high preoccupation on eating, shape, and weight issues) were randomized to receive either a general preoccupation prime, a standardized preoccupation prime, or a control prime. Following the prime, participants watched an 8-min videotape of a family interaction and then were asked free recall questions about the tape. Results: Participants who received the general preoccupation prime scored lower than the other two groups in response to free recall questions regarding emotion-related topics. Conclusions: These findings suggest that when primed by everyday worries and concerns, individuals prone to preoccupation may have their capacity to recall emotion-related interpersonal information compromised. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Eating problems at age 6 years in a whole population sample of extremely preterm children

    Aim, The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of eating problems and their association with neurological and behavioural disabilities and growth among children born extremely preterm (EPC) at age 6 years. Method, A standard questionnaire about eating was completed by parents of 223 children (125 males [56.1%], 98 females [43.9%]) aged 6 years who were born at 25 weeks' gestation or earlier (mean 24.5wks, SD 0.7wks; mean birthweight 749.1g, SD 116.8g), and parents of 148 classmates born at term (66 males [44.6%], 82 females [55.4%]). All children underwent neurological, cognitive, and anthropometric assessment, and parents and teachers completed a behaviour scale. Results, Eating problems were more common among the EPC than the comparison group (odds ratio [OR] 3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.1,6.3), including oral motor (OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.8,9.9), hypersensitivity (OR 3.0, 95% CI 1.6,5.6), and behavioural (OR 3.8, 95% CI 1.9,7.6) problems. Group differences were reduced after adjustment for cognitive impairment, neuromotor disability, and other behaviour problems. EPC with eating problems were shorter, lighter, and had lower mid-arm circumference and lower body mass index (BMI) even after adjusting for disabilities, gestational age, birthweight, and feeding problems at 30 months. Interpretation, Eating problems are still frequent in EPC at school age. They are only partly related to other disabilities but make an additional contribution to continued growth failure and may require early recognition and intervention. [source]

    Self-help treatments for disorders of recurrent binge eating: a systematic review

    S. C. Stefano
    Objective:, To evaluate self-help interventions for patients with binge eating disorder (BED) and bulimia nervosa (BN), tested in randomized controlled trials, and compared with waiting list or any other type of control group. Methods:, A systematic review including quality appraisal was conducted of randomized controlled trials, using self-help techniques in patients with BED and/or BN. Six databases were searched during the period between January 1994 and June 2004. Results:, A total of 2686 articles were identified, 1701 abstracts were evaluated in detail and, nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. All studies indicated that patients treated with active interventions had a reduced number of binge eating episodes at end of treatment. Conclusion:, The results support self-help interventions but shall be interpreted with caution. Because of the small number of studies using self-help techniques for BED and BN, further larger randomized, multi-center controlled studies that apply standardized inclusion criteria, evaluation instruments and self-help materials, are needed. [source]

    Training in flexible, intensive insulin management to enable dietary freedom in people with Type 1 diabetes: dose adjustment for normal eating (DAFNE) randomized controlled trial

    DAFNE Study Group
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Sensitivity to sulphonylureas in patients with hepatocyte nuclear factor-1, gene mutations: evidence for pharmacogenetics in diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2000
    E. R. Pearson
    SUMMARY Introduction Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is characterized by autosomal dominantly inherited, early-onset, non-insulin-dependent diabetes. Mutations in the hepatocyte nuclear factor (HNF)-1, gene are the commonest cause of MODY. Individual patients with HNF-1, mutations have been reported as being unusually sensitive to the hypoglycaemic effects of sulphonylurea therapy. We report three patients, attending a single clinic, with HNF-1, mutations that show marked hypersensitivity to sulphonylureas. Case reports In cases 1 and 2 there were marked changes in HbA1c on cessation (4.4% and 5.8%, respectively) and reintroduction (5.0% and 2.6%) of sulphonylureas. Case 3 had severe hypoglycaemic symptoms on the introduction of sulphonylureas despite poor glycaemic control and was shown with a test dose of 2.5 mg glibenclamide to have symptomatic hypoglycaemia (blood glucose 2 mmol/l) after 4 h despite eating. Conclusions HNF-1, MODY diabetic subjects are more sensitive to sulphonylureas than Type 2 diabetic subjects and this is seen in different families, with different mutations and may continue up to 13 years from diagnosis. This is an example of pharmacogenetics, with the underlying aetiological genetic defect altering the pharmacological response to treatment. The present cases suggest that in HNF-1, MODY patients: (i) sulphonylureas can dramatically improve glycaemic control and should be considered as initial treatment for patients with poor glycaemic control on an appropriate diet; (ii) hypoglycaemia may complicate the introduction of sulphonylureas and therefore very low doses of short acting sulphonylureas should be used initially; and (iii) cessation of sulphonylureas should be undertaken cautiously as there may be marked deterioration in glycaemic control. Keywords, genetics, HNF-1,, MODY, pharmacogenetics, sulphonylurea sensitivity [source]

    Long-term survey of laryngoplasty and ventriculocordectomy in an older, mixed-breed population of 200 horses.

    Part 1: Maintenance of surgical arytenoid abduction, complications of surgery
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Laryngoplasty (LP) is currently the most common surgical treatment for equine laryngeal paralysis, however, there have been no reports quantifying the degree of retention of arytenoid abduction following L P. ADitionally, the complications of LP have been poorly documented. Objectives: To record the degree of arytenoid abduction retention following LP and to accurately document all complications of surgery. Methods: A study (1986,1998) of 200 horses of mixed breed and workload, median age 6 years (prospective 136 cases and retrospective 64 cases) undergoing LP (using 2 stainless steel wires) and combined ventriculocordectomy was undertaken; 198 owners completed questionnaires, a median of 19 months following surgery. The degree of arytenoid abduction achieved was endoscopically, semi-quantitatively evaluated using a 5-grade system, at 1 day, 7 days, and 6 weeks after surgery. Results: On the day following LP, 62% of horses had good (median grade 2) arytenoid abduction, 10% had excessive (grade 1), and 5% had minimal (grade 4) abduction (overall - median grade 2). Due to progressive loss of abduction, moderate (median grade 3, range 1,5) abduction was present overall at 1 and 6 weeks after LP. Further surgery was required to re-tighten prostheses in 10% of cases with excessive loss of abduction, or to loosen prostheses in 7% of horses which had continuing high levels of LP abduction and significant post operative dysphagia. LP wound problems (mainly seromas and suture abscesses) were reported to last <2 weeks in 9% of cases, <4 weeks in 4% and >4 weeks in 4%. The (partially sutured) laryngotomy wounds discharged post operatively for <2 weeks in 22% of cases, <4 weeks in 7% and for >4 weeks in 2%. Coughing occurred at some stage post operatively in 43% of cases and its presence correlated significantly with the degree of surgical arytenoid abduction. This coughing occurred during eating in 24% of cases and was not associated with eating (or dysphagia) in the other 19% of cases. Chronic (>6 months duration) coughing occurred in 14% of cases, but appeared to be due to intercurrent pulmonary disease in half of these horses. Conclusions: Suturing the cricotracheal membrane allows most laryngotomy wounds to heal quickly. Laryngoplasty wound problems were of little long-term consequence when stainless steel wire prostheses were used. Potential relevance: A significant loss of LP abduction occurs in most horses in the 6 weeks following surgery and efforts should be made to find ways to prevent such loss. However, excessive LP abduction is associated with post operative dysphagia and coughing. [source]

    Proximate Determinants of Reproductive Skew in Polygyne Colonies of the Ant Formica fusca

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 11 2002
    Minttumaaria Hannonen
    Understanding the determinants of reproductive skew (the partitioning of reproduction among co-breeding individuals) is one of the major questions in social evolution. In ants, multiple-queen nests are common and reproductive skew among queens has been shown to vary tremendously both within and between species. Proximate determinants of skew may be related to both queen and worker behaviour. Queens may attempt to change their reproductive share through dominance interactions, egg eating and by changing individual fecundity. Conversely, workers are in a position to regulate the reproductive output of queens when rearing the brood. This paper investigates queen behaviour at the onset of egg laying and the effect of queen fecundity and worker behaviour on brood development and reproductive shares of multiple queens in the ant Formica fusca. The study was conducted in two-queen laboratory colonies where the queens produced only worker offspring. The results show that in this species reproductive apportionment among queens is not based on dominance behaviour and aggression, but rather on differences in queen fecundity. We also show that, although the queen fecundity at the onset of brood rearing is a good indicator of her final reproductive output, changes in brood composition occur during brood development. Our results highlight the importance of queen fecundity as a major determinant of her reproductive success. They furthermore suggest that in highly derived polygyne species, such as the Formica ants, direct interactions as a means for gaining reproductive dominance have lost their importance. [source]

    The diagnosis of eating disorders in adults with learning disabilities: Conceptualisation and implications for clinical practice

    Ceri J. Jones
    Abstract Objective The literature suggests that less attention has been afforded to eating disorders (EDs) in adults with learning disabilities (LDs) than in adults of normal intellect. This review aimed to examine the methods, prevalence and implications of an ED diagnosis in adults with LDs. Method Key texts, journals and online databases were searched for literature examining disordered eating in adults with LDs. Results A review of the extant literature revealed that a range of dysfunctional eating behaviours have been classified as ,eating disorders' and highlighted a lack of clarity about the distinction between feeding and EDs. A small body of research suggests that some individuals with LDs show the emotional and cognitive characteristics of typical EDs. Discussion The lack of consensus about conceptualisation, assessment, diagnosis and treatment of EDs in individuals with LDs needs to be addressed in order to aid awareness and enhance clinical approaches for this population. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Change processes in residential cognitive therapy for bulimia nervosa

    Asle Hoffart
    Abstract The purpose of the study was to examine the relationships of process variables derived from the cognitive model of bulimia nervosa (BN) and weekly outcome. The participants were 39 patients with BN or subthreshold bulimia consecutively admitted to an inpatient treatment program for bulimia. Theory-derived process and outcome variables were measured repeatedly during the course of therapy with a gap of a week between each measurement. The data were analysed with time series methods (ARIMA). Weekly variations in the process variables: self-efficacy about resisting binge eating, dysfunctional beliefs, negative affect and positive affect influenced variations in subsequent outcome, whereas weekly outcome did not influence subsequent process. These results are consistent with the cognitive model of BN and suggest that self-efficacy, dysfunctional beliefs, negative affect and positive affect are potential targets for treatment that need further investigation. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Are two informants better than one?

    Parent, child agreement on the eating styles of children who are overweight
    Abstract Aim It is currently unknown to what extent the view of a child with overweight on its' own eating behaviour converges with parental perception regarding this behaviour and how parent,child agreement is influenced by overweight status and age. Method Youngsters (N,=,498; range 7,15 years; 37% boys) referred for weight treatment to an outpatient University centre filled in the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire,child version (DEBQ-child version; Van Strien & Braet, unpublished work), prior to treatment, while their parents reported on their child's eating behaviour by completing the DEBQ-parent version (Braet & Van Strien, 1997). Results Parents scored significantly higher when reporting on the emotional eating and external eating behaviour of their child, while they scored lower for restrained eating (all p,<,0.001). Comparisons between the subscales of the DEBQ-parent version and the DEBQ-child version revealed significant positive correlations of r,=,0.45 for emotional eating, r,=,0.35 for external eating and r,=,0.36 for restrained eating (all p,<,0.01); convergence is lowest for the age group younger than 10 (p,<,0.05). Both versions of the DEBQ displayed low correlations with the degree of overweight of the child. Discussion Parents and children displayed moderate to good agreement with regard to emotional eating, external eating and restrained eating. However when only one perspective can be assessed, possible biases must be taken into account. In that case, the use of appropriate age-specific norms is indicated. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Empirically evaluated treatments for body image disturbance: a review

    Clare Farrell
    Abstract Body image disturbance is both a risk factor for the development of disturbed eating and a central feature of clinical eating disorders. This review examines empirically tested interventions for people with high levels of body image disturbance. The most commonly used therapies with the most empirical support are cognitive-behavioural. The specificity of the body image interventions and the importance of individual components have not yet been established. Prevention programmes to address body image disturbance appear promising, although further research evidence is required. It is concluded that treatments for addressing body image disturbance are hindered by the lack of a clearly specified theoretical model of the maintenance of body image disturbance and that such an analysis is needed to increase the effectiveness of current interventions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Effect of self-monitoring on binge eating: treatment response or ,binge drift'?

    Tom Hildebrandt
    Abstract The current study aimed to determine if subjective bulimic episodes (SBEs) and objective bulimic episodes (OBEs) have different reactive effects to self-monitoring. Fourteen women with bulimia nervosa (57%) or binge eating disorder (43%) were diagnosed using the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE; version 12.0). During the 7-days post-interview, participants filled out daily self-monitoring records indicating the food consumed and any episodes of loss of control over eating. These records were reviewed and coded for OBEs and SBEs using the EDE coding scheme. Paired samples t -tests indicated that participants' average number of daily OBEs significantly decreased from baseline to the period of self-monitoring (t,=,2.41, p,<,0.05, Cohen's d,=,0.90), whereas there was a significant increase from baseline to self-monitoring in their average number of SBEs (t,=,,2.41, p,<,0.05, Cohen's d,=,0.86). Of the 12 participants who showed a decrease in OBEs, 75% showed a concurrent increase in SBEs. The data suggest that the reactivity of OBEs to minimal or brief interventions may in part be due to binge drift, or the reduction of OBEs at the expense of increasing SBEs. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]