Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Duty

  • fiduciary duty
  • heat duty
  • legal duty
  • moral duty
  • professional duty

  • Terms modified by Duty

  • duty cycle
  • duty hour
  • duty ratio

  • Selected Abstracts


    Some Reflections
    ABSTRACT The paper examines the ethical conception of the most well-known and much discussed Hindu text, the Bhagavad G,t,, in the context of the Western distinction between duty ethics and virtue ethics. Most of the materials published on the G,t, make much of its conception of duty; however, there is no systematic investigation of the notion of virtue in the G,t,. The paper begins with a discussion of the fundamental characteristics of virtue ethics, before undertaking a discussion of the conceptions of duty and virtue in the G,t,. The paper clearly demonstrates that (1) both duty and virtue coexist in the G,t,, and (2) the G,t, accords virtue an important place. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 8 2010
    ABSTRACT Where does the aspiration to retard human ageing fit in the ,big picture' of medical necessities and the requirements of just healthcare? Is there a duty to retard human ageing? And if so, how much should we invest in the basic science that studies the biology of ageing and could lead to interventions that modify the biological processes of human ageing? I consider two prominent accounts of equality and just healthcare , Norman Daniels's application of the principle of fair equality of opportunity and Ronald Dworkin's account of equality of resources , and conclude that, once suitably amended and revised, both actually support the conclusion that anti-ageing research is important and could lead to interventions that ought to be considered ,medical necessities'. [source]


    BIOETHICS, Issue 8 2010
    ABSTRACT This article addresses the question of whether the arguments for a duty to die given by John Hardwig, the most prominent philosophical advocate of such a duty, are sound. Hardwig believes that the duty to die is relatively widespread among those with burdensome illnesses, dependencies, or medical conditions. I argue that although there are rare circumstances in which individuals have a duty to die, the situations Hardwig describes are not among these. After reconstructing Hardwig's argument for such a duty, highlighting his central premise that ill, dependent, or aged individuals can impose unfair burdens upon others by continuing to live, I clarify precisely what Hardwig intends by his thesis that many of us have a duty to die. I then show that an important disanalogy exists between an uncontroversial example in which an individual has a duty to die and the situations in which Hardwig proposes individuals have a duty to die. More specifically, in situations where a duty to die exists, an individual's having a duty to die logically implies that those she burdens have a right to kill that individual in self-defense. I then suggest that the burdens that ill, dependent, or aged individuals impose on their families, loved ones, or caregivers do not constitute the kind of threat that warrants the latter killing the former in self-defense. Hence, the duty to die is much rarer than Hardwig supposes. [source]

    A Liberal Defence of (Some) Duties to Compatriots

    abstract This paper asks whether we can defend associative duties to our compatriots that are grounded solely in the relationship of liberal co-citizenship. The sort of duties that are especially salient to this relationship are duties of justice, duties to protect and improve the institutions that constitute that relationship, and a duty to favour the interests of compatriots over those of foreigners. Critics have argued that the liberal conception of citizenship is too insubstantial to sustain these duties , indeed, that it gives us little reason to treat compatriots any differently from how we treat foreigners, with all the practical consequences that this would entail. I suggest that on a specific conception of liberal citizenship we can, in fact, defend associative duties, but that these extend only to the duty to protect and improve the institutions that constitute that relationship. Duties of justice and favouritism, I maintain, cannot be particularised to one's compatriots. [source]

    Good Samaritans, Good Humanitarians

    abstract Duties of beneficence are not well understood. Peter Singer has argued that the scope of beneficence should not be restricted to those who are, in some sense, near us. According to Singer, refusing to contribute to humanitarian relief efforts is just as wrong as refusing to rescue a child drowning before you. Most people do not seem convinced by Singer's arguments, yet no one has offered a plausible justification for restricting the scope of beneficence that doesn't produce counterintuitive results elsewhere. I offer a defence of this restricted scope by introducing the notion of unique dependence, a notion that is both intuitively attractive and theoretically grounded. It explains why your reason to rescue the drowning child is more stringent than your reason to contribute to humanitarian relief, while blocking the conclusion that we have no reason at all to aid distant sufferers. [source]

    The Golden Rule and the Potentiality Principle: Future Persons and Contingent Interests

    Kai M. A. Chan
    abstract,Duties to future persons are central to numerous key ethical issues including contraception, abortion, genetic selection, treatment of the environment, and population control. Nevertheless, we still seem to be lacking Parfit's ,Theory X', a general theory of beneficence whose appropriateness extends to future generations. Starting from the Golden Rule (TGR), R. M. Hare purportedly derived counterintuitive duties to potential people and ,the potentiality principle'. However, I argue that Hare's derivation involves a hidden and unjustifiable extension from TGR, and show how the most plausible form of TGR is compatible with multiple contradictory principles for the treatment of future persons. I appeal to our own preferences to argue that one extension of TGR follows the spirit of TGR, while the other is deeply implausible. Using the plausible extension, I derive a Contingent Interests Principle (CIP) that offers much promise as Parfit's elusive Theory X. In contrast to Hare's interpretation of TGR, this application provides solid justification for rejecting the potentiality principle. [source]

    A Sufi-Jewish Dialogue: Philosophy and Mysticism in Baha Ibn Paq,da's Duties of the Heart , By Diana Lobel

    Norman Simms
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Freedom of Contract and Default Contractual Duties in Delaware Limited Partnerships and Limited Liability Companies

    Myron T. Steele
    First page of article [source]

    Fiduciary Duties in the LLC: Mandatory Core Duties to Protect the Interests of Others Beyond the Contracting Parties

    Sandra K. Miller
    First page of article [source]

    Corporate Officer Wrongdoing and the Fiduciary Duties of Corporate Officers under Delaware Law

    Aaron D. Jones
    First page of article [source]

    Incentives and the Natural Duties of Justice

    POLITICS, Issue 1 2000
    Colin Farrelly
    In this paper I explore a possible response to G.A. Cohen's critique of the Rawlsian defence of inequality-generating incentives. Much of the debate on this topic has neglected the importance Rawls places on the principles that apply to individuals. I explore two possible strategies. First, to argue that self-seeking high-fliers fail to fulfil the natural duty to uphold justice; secondly, to argue that such individuals fail to fulfil the natural duty of mutual respect. These two strategies allow Rawlsians to argue that justice as fairness does require an ethos that is violated by the market behaviour of self-seeking high-fliers. [source]

    VI,My Station and its Duties: Ideals and the Social Embeddedness of Virtue

    Julia Annas
    In the Stoics we find a combination of two perspectives which are commonly thought to conflict: the embedded perspective from within one's social context, and the universal perspective of the member of the moral community of rational beings. I argue that the Stoics do have a unified theory, one which avoids problems that trouble some modern theories which try to unite these perspectives. [source]

    Countervailing Duties, Foreign Export Subsidies and Import Tariffs

    Yu-Ter Wang
    Given that countervailing duties and import tariffs are set in different ways and for different purposes, I re-examine the relationship between countervailing duties, foreign export subsidies and import tariffs under imperfect competition. I find that (i) the optimal countervailing duty depends on the existing import tariff level; (ii) the optimal import tariff is so high that the optimal countervailing duty is zero and hence foreign export subsidization occurs; and (iii) it is more likely for countervailing duties to be imposed on a foreign firm whose government takes no action when other foreign countries reduce or eliminate their subsidies on exports. [source]

    Directors' Duties and Corporate Governance: Have We Gone Too Far?

    Jeff Coulton
    We review recent policy initiatives in Australia, such as corporate governance reporting requirements and innovations in defining directors' roles and responsibilities, and argue that such initiatives are often premised on overly simplistic models of the role played by directors. The role and effectiveness of directors vary according to the economic activity of the firm; hence, uniform guidelines for board composition, for example, are unlikely to be economically desirable. Likewise, statutory definitions of directors' duties are unlikely to be effective unless they allow for directors' roles to vary according to circumstance. Conversely, broad legal definitions will be problematic because of uncertainties in judicial interpretation. [source]

    Patients' Responsibilities in Medical Ethics

    BIOETHICS, Issue 4 2002
    Heather Draper
    Patients have not been entirely ignored in medical ethics. There has been a shift from the general presumption that ,doctor knows best' to a heightened respect for patient autonomy. Medical ethics remains one,sided, however. It tends (incorrectly) to interpret patient autonomy as mere participation in decisions, rather than a willingness to take the consequences. In this respect, medical ethics remains largely paternalistic, requiring doctors to protect patients from the consequences of their decisions. This is reflected in a one,sided account of duties in medical ethics. Duties fall mainly on doctors and only exceptionally on patients. Medical ethics may exempt patients from obligations because they are the weaker or more vulnerable party in the doctor,patient relationship. We argue that vulnerability does not exclude obligation. We also look at others ways in which patient responsibilities flow from general ethics: for instance, from responsibilities to others and to the self, from duties of citizens, and from the responsibilities of those who solicit advice. Finally, we argue that certain duties of patients counterbalance an otherwise unfair captivity of doctors as helpers. [source]

    Insurer's Duty to Settle: Friend or Foe?

    Edward P. Monico MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Mainstreaming the Duty of Clarity and Transparency as part of Good Administrative Practice in the EU

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 3 2004
    Miriam Aziz
    It is argued that an efficient language policy in the EU is one that reconciles respect for diversity with the need for effective communication. The use of specialist jargon in effect consolidates networks and power, of which there are two separate but related dimensions. The first is the external dimension of language, namely the lingua francaof deliberation, be it English, French, German, and so on. The second dimension refers to the use of élite codes, that is, language for ,insiders', which operates in spheres of politics, the law, economics, culture, medicine, and so on. It is the latter which the EU language rights régime has neglected. The absence of enabling provisions governing a duty of clear language renders democratic legitimacy intended by the former relatively meaningless. It is argued that the law can protect, facilitate, safeguard, and encourage clarity and transparency as part of good administrative practice. The duty to use language in a clear and comprehensible manner that has arisen in relation to producers in the EC law context of consumer rights is a useful case in point. [source]

    Tours of Duty, Cross-Identification and Introjection: The Colonial Administrative Mind in Wartime Indochina

    Others have linked policymaking to the use of colonial space as experimental laboratories of modernity; while others assert that the overseas was a terrain for finding solutions to some of the political, social and aesthetic problems which were affecting France at the time. In contrast, this paper traces how colonial policies can be explained at the level of individual colonial administrators. It does so not only by reference to the social backgrounds of officials, but also their inner "psychic processes." This study addresses the colonial tendency to imagine cross-identification between France and the colony. It presents three case studies of colonial officials in Indochina to investigate how administrators' perceptions of France became projected onto the colonies, and how one of them incorporated within himself some of the attributes of the colonized, an example of introjection. It is argued that these processes had an impact on policymaking. My theoretical goal with this piece was to apply a psychoanalytic approach to the study of the empire. [source]

    Duty and Justice at "Every Man's Door": The Grand Jury Charges of Chief Justice John Jay, 1790,1794

    "It is the Fortune of few to chuse their Situation,it is the Duty & Interest of all to accommodate themselves to the one which Providence chuses for them."1 So said John Jay, Chief Justice of the United States. Duty was paramount in the lives of Jay and many of his contemporaries of the founding generation. [source]

    Conscience in the Court, 1931,1946: Religion as Duty and Choice

    Jeffrey M. Anderson

    Teaching and Learning Guide for: Locutionary, Illocutionary, Perlocutionary

    Mikhail Kissine
    This guide accompanies the following article: Mikhail Kissine, ,Locutionary, Illocutionary, Perlocutionary', Language and Linguistics Compass 2/6 (2008) pp. 1189,1202. DOI: 10.1111/j.1749-818x.2008.00093.x. The terms locutionary act, illocutionary act and perlocutionary act originate from Austin's classical How to do with words. The corresponding notions, however, prove difficult to define. Yet, lack of careful delineating of each level can lead to important theoretical confusions. This Teaching and Learning Guide explains why proper understanding of Austin's trichotomy is crucial for semantics and pragmatics. Author's Introduction Most contemporary discussions in semantics and pragmatics employ , implicitly or explicitly , some or all of the concepts of locutionary,illocutionary or perlocutionary acts. These notions originate from Austin's posthumous and notoriously intricate book, How to do things with words. The point of interest for the linguist, however, is not so much the exegesis of Austin's ideas, as the precise delimitation of these levels of meaning. First, it is important to characterise the locutionary level , which falls short of any illocutionary force , to avoid contaminating analyses of utterance meanings with matters relative to the illocutionary level, viz. to the speech act performed. Second, the precise definition of illocutionary acts is an extremely difficult matter. However, the first, imperative step must be a clear demarcation between perlocutionary acts , relative to causal effects of the utterances , and the utterance's illocutionary force. Third, to assess theories of illocutionary forces, one must take into account the requirements for psychological and empirical plausibility. For instance, classical Gricean theories of illocutionary force attribution link it with the cognitive capacity to perform complex multi-layered mental state attributions, which is incompatible with the data available on the pragmatic and cognitive functioning of young children. In sum, gaining better understanding of the tripartite distinction between the locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary levels is not a taxonomical exercise, but a prerequisite for anyone willing to tackle semantic and/or pragmatic issues with the right tools. Suggested Reading Austin, J.L. (1975) How to do things with words, Second edition, Oxford, Oxford University Press. Lecture VIII. Difficult reading, but essential to understand Austin's intuitions and the origin of the debate. Strawson, P.F. (1964) "Intention and convention in speech acts", Philosophical Review, 73, 439,60. Classical criticism of Austin's claim abut the conventionality of illocutionary acts and first formulation of a Gricean theory of speech acts. Strawson, P.F. (1973) "Austin and ,Locutionary meaning'", in I. Berlin et al. (eds.) Essays on J.L. Austin, Oxford, Clarendon Press, 46,68. This equally classical paper sheds light onto the difficult notions of rhetic and locutionary acts; it paves the way for using these concepts interchangeably. Recanati, F. (1987) Meaning and Force. The pragmatics of performative utterances, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press. Chapter 9. This is a lucid discussion and elaboration of Strawson's conception of the locuitonary act as a potential for the illocutionary level. Wilson, D. and Sperber, D. (1988) "Mood and the analysis of non-declarative sentences", in J. Dancy et al. (eds.) Human Agency, Language, Duty and Value. Philosophical essayes in honour of J.O. Urmson, Stanford, Stanford University Press, 77,101. This paper gives important reasons for not confusing the analysis of mood , of the locutionary level , with the analysis of speech acts. Kissine, M. (2009) "Illocutionary forces and what is said", Mind and Language, 24, 122,38. Provides a definition of locutionary acts as linguistic representations of mental states, and lays grounds for a theory of speech acts as reasons to believe or to act. Bach, K. (1994) "Conversational impliciture", Mind and Language, 9, 124,62. An important defence of the distinction between illocutionary and locutionary acts. However, the reader should be warned that Bach conceives of locutionary acts as context-independent propositional radicals, which is not a self-evident position. Alston (2000) Illocutionary Acts and Sentence Meaning, Ithaca, Cornell University Press, Chapter 2. Contains a clear and lucid criticism of theories that confuse illocutionary and perlocutionary levels. Dominicy, M. (2008) "Epideictic rhetoric and the representation of human decision and choice", in K. Korta and J. Garmendia (eds.) Meaning, Intentions, and Argumentation, Stanford, CSLI, 179,207. This paper contains a useful test for distinguishing verbs that describe illocutionary acts form those that describe perlocutionary acts. It is also the first proposal to formulate the illocutionary/perlocutionary divide in Davidsonian terms. Focus Questions 1,What kind of philosophy of action is called for by the distinction between locutions, perlocutions and illocutions? 2,Should the locutionary level be always fully propositional? 3,Can illocutionary acts be characterised in terms of prototypical perlocutional effects? 4,Should illocutionary acts be divided in conventional (institutional) and non-conventional (non-insitutional) ones? 5,Are there good reasons for singling out a locutionary level? 6,,Does the attribution of illocutionary forces presuppose a complex mindreading process? Connexion with to Related Material in Lectures or Discussions 1,The distinction between the locutionary and illocutionary levels is crucial for any discussion about the semantics/pragmatics interface. Many scholars hastily characterise semantics as related to sentence-meaning and pragmatics as concerning the speech act performed. However, one should not take for granted that any level where the meaning is context-dependant is necessarily that of the illocutionary act performed. 2,This distinction can also be relevant for the discussions about the meaning of moods. For instance, the imperative mood is often analysed in terms of the directive illocutionary force. However, there are cases where utterances of imperative sentences do not correspond to a directive speech act. 3,The distinction between perlocutionary and illocutionary acts remains central for any attempt to classify or to define illocutionary forces. 4,Different conceptions of illocutionary acts are important for discussions about the ontogeny and phylogeny of the pragmatic dimension(s) of linguistic competence. [source]

    Duty in a Time of Disaster: A Concept Analysis

    NURSING FORUM, Issue 2 2007
    Christine Kane-Urrabazo MSN
    TOPIC.,The concept of "duty" is explored particularly as it applies to disaster nursing. PURPOSE.,To identify the contributing factors to a nurse's sense of duty and the resulting consequences of such. Nursing implications of duty in a time of disaster are also discussed. SOURCES OF INFORMATION.,Professional literature, electronic resources, and nursing textbooks were used. The analysis was done using Walker and Avant's (1995) process. CONCLUSION.,The concept of duty has always been prevalent in nursing. As long as nurses have a sense of duty to their communities, nurse administrators will also have a moral obligation to protect their staff, especially in a time of disaster when nurses are compelled by a heightened sense of duty. [source]

    The Story of Good Citizenship: Framing Public Policy in the Context of Duty-Based versus Engaged Citizenship

    POLITICS & POLICY, Issue 1 2010
    Recent studies have explored the dimensions of duty-based versus engaged citizenship. These studies assert that individuals differ on the question of "what is a good citizen" and somehow suggest that "engaged citizens" are more participatory, global, and committed to social justice than their duty-based counterparts. In this article, we examine, with an innovative survey methodology and merging of citizenship and framing literature, the potential effects of increased engaged citizenship on policy issues. Our questions explore the characteristics of citizenship and explore whether duty-based and engaged citizens are more likely to support a policy, in this case recycling efforts, if the issue is framed in the context of their respective preferred citizenship norm. We find that the engaged recycling frame was strongly supported by individuals with a more engaged view of citizenship who also supported some duty-based frames of recycling. Conversely, respondents with a more duty-based view of citizenship did not support engaged recycling frames. Estudios recientes han explorado las dimensiones de la noción de "ciudadanía basada en deberes"vis-à-vis aquella de "ciudadanía involucrada." Estos estudios afirman que los individuos difieren en sus respuestas a la pregunta de "¿qué es un buen ciudadano?" Así mismo, parecen sugerir que los "ciudadanos involucrados" son más participativos, globales, y entregados a la justicia social que sus homólogos basados en deberes. En este artículo examinamos los efectos potenciales del incremento de la ciudadanía involucrada en asuntos de política con una innovadora metodología de encuestas y combinando la literatura de ciudadanía y la teoría del enmarcamiento de asuntos. Nuestras preguntas exploran las características de la ciudadanía y si acaso los individuos cuyo comportamiento se aproxima al planteado en la noción de "ciudadanía basada en deberes" son más proclives a apoyar una política de reciclaje, que aquellos cuyo comportamiento se aproxima al planteado en la noción de "ciudadanía involucrada." De manera específica exploramos si acaso los ciudadanos responden de manera más decidida a propuestas de reciclaje dependiendo de si están enmarcadas en una noción de "ciudadanía basada en deberes" o en una de "ciudadanía involucrada." Encontramos que una política de reciclaje enmarcada en una de noción "ciudadanía involucrada" fue fuertemente apoyada por individuos cuyo comportamiento se aproxima al planteado en dicha noción pero que estos mismos individuos también apoyaron algunas propuestas de reciclaje enmarcadas en la noción de "ciudadanía basada en deberes." En cambio, individuos cuyo comportamiento se aproxima al planteado en la noción de "ciudadanía basada en deberes" no apoyaron ninguna propuesta de reciclaje enmarcada en la noción de "ciudadanía involucrada." [source]

    Academic Freedom and Academic Duty to Teach Social Justice: A Perspective and Pedagogy for Public Health Nursing Faculty

    Nancy L. Fahrenwald
    ABSTRACT Public health nursing practice is rooted in the core value of social justice. Nursing faculty whose expertise is in public health are often the content experts responsible for teaching this essential, yet potentially controversial, value. Contemporary threats to academic freedom remind us that the disciplinary autonomy and academic duty to teach social justice may be construed as politically ideological. These threats are of particular concern when faculty members guide students through a scientific exploration of sociopolitical factors that lead to health-related social injustices and encourage students to improve and transform injustices in their professional careers. This article (a) reviews recent challenges to academic freedom that influence social justice education, (b) explores academic freedom and duty to teach social justice within the discipline of nursing, and (c) proposes a praxis-based approach to social justice education, which is grounded in transformative pedagogy. [source]

    Tour of Duty: Samurai, Military Service in Edo, and the Culture of Early Modern Japan , By Constantine Nomikos Vaporis

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 3 2010
    Kenneth M. Swope
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Continuing Value of Relief for Directors' Breach of Duty

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 2 2003
    Rod Edmunds
    The nature and scope of relief for directors in breach of their duties did not figure prominently in the Steering Group's fundamental review of company law. Little is proposed beyond removing one of the two pre-conditions for relief laid down in section 727 of the Companies Act 1985; the requirement of reasonableness. This article seeks to subject the relieving discretion to a more radical re-appraisal. Drawing upon the views expressed by its architects together with the current judicial approach adopted towards the provision, it is argued that its underlying rationale would be better met if the test for relief was based solely upon the court's determination of fairness. It will be demonstrated that such a model would better serve to bolster the fundamental tenets of transparency, simplicity and accessibility that underpin the approach of the Government's White Paper towards company law reform while also reinforcing the continuing value of relief. [source]

    "The Ordinary Discharge of My Duty": Field Marshal Sir John Monash and the Ozanne Controversy

    Peter Ewer
    This article looks at one episode during the conscription debates of 1916-17, concerning the defeat of the Labor member for Corio, Alfred Ozanne, in the federal election of May, 1917. Prior to the election, Ozanne was a soldier serving in the Australian Imperial Force (AIF) in the United Kingdom, but was about to be medically discharged from the Army. Archival research suggests Ozanne was the victim of a smear campaign by Prime Minister Hughes, journalist Keith Murdoch and Australian Army leaders including John Monash, who colluded to falsely accuse him of desertion. [source]

    Profit from the Priceless: Heritage Sites, Property Rights and the Duty to Preserve

    ABSTRACT This article suggests that corporate responsibility should be interpreted to include concern about resources that cannot easily be treated as commodities. Heritage Sites are places of historical and cultural importance. Given the primacy of contingent valuation methods in creating policy, these sites are often at risk from development or tourism since there is pressure to treat them as revenue centers. The article moves to looking at the status of sites in terms of property rights, drawing on Locke's original formulation. The article concludes that there is a normative justification for treating these sites as collective property that may warrant maintenance, preservation and restricted access. [source]

    FS13.3 Development of risk reduction strategies for preventing dermatitis

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 3 2004
    Terry Brown
    Introduction:, A recent survey of the UK printing industry found a prevalence of 11% of occupational contact dermatitis (OCD), much higher than previously identified. Objective:, This pilot study aimed to evaluate risk reduction strategies derived from recommendations of a literature review of preventive intervention studies and a series of focus groups of printers and observations of printers undertaking their normal duties. Methods:, Four interventions were evaluated: (1) Provision of gloves of the correct size/type, plus use of an after-work skin cream; (2) Provision of information; (3) Provision of skin checks; (4) Development of best practice skin care policy. Each intervention was evaluated in two companies over a three-month period, at the end of which printers and managers were interviewed as to the effectiveness and acceptability of each intervention. Results:, Although this pilot study was short, all interventions were acceptable to some extent. The prevalence of frank dermatitis fell over the study period, particularly in intervention (3). Intervention (1) achieved an improvement of awareness in both management and workforce and an increase in the use of both gloves and cream. Intervention (2) highlighted problems of dissemination and the need for relevant information in an appropriate format. However. no single intervention was completely effective. Conclusions:, This qualitative research approach forms an essential first stage to improving understanding of ways in which OCD may be reduced among workers in the printing industry, and points towards the need for further testing of preventive strategies in larger-scale intervention trials, in printing and other industries. [source]

    Corporate,community relations in Nigeria's oil industry: challenges and imperatives

    Uwafiokun Idemudia
    Abstract The adoption of corporate social responsibility (CSR) policies and corporate,community relation (CCR) strategies by oil companies has failed to reduce the incidence of violent conflict between the host communities and oil companies in the Niger Delta, Nigeria. This paper argues that the failure to seek, understand and integrate community perceptions into CSR policies and practices, the over-emphasis of affirmative duties to the detriment of negative injunction duties and the absence of an enabling environment due to government failure are responsible for the observed problem. The paper concludes that unless these gaps are addressed, CSR by the Nigerian oil industry is likely to continue to fail to achieve its full potential. However, CCR in the Nigerian oil industry will be significantly improved if, and when, the needs and aspirations of the major stakeholders are addressed through a tri-sector partnership approach to development and conflict resolution. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]