Dry Matter (dry + matter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Dry Matter

  • g dry matter
  • kg dry matter
  • total dry matter

  • Terms modified by Dry Matter

  • dry matter accumulation
  • dry matter basis
  • dry matter content
  • dry matter digestibility
  • dry matter intake
  • dry matter production
  • dry matter yield

  • Selected Abstracts

    Performance of white clover varieties combined in blends and alone when grown with perennial ryegrass under sheep and cattle grazing

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
    T. A. Williams
    Abstract Two experiments were carried out to evaluate the performance of blends of three white clover (Trifolium repens L.) varieties in comparison with the component varieties and three other varieties sown individually in a mixture with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). The plots were grazed rotationally in Experiment 1 by cattle and sheep and in Experiment 2 by sheep alone. In both experiments, the blend was composed of three medium-leaved varieties (AberDai, AberVantage and AberHerald), but with different relative contributions of the three varieties in the two experiments. Dry matter (DM) yields of white clover and perennial ryegrass were assessed in replicate plots for two years (1999 and 2000) after the establishment year. In Experiment 1, there was no significant difference between the DM yields of white clover or perennial ryegrass in either year. The decline in DM yield of white clover between years that was observed for some varieties was not found for the blend. In Experiment 2, significant differences were found in DM yields of white clover in both years. In 1999, AberDai had the highest DM yield. In 2000, AberHerald and AberVantage had the highest DM yields, and AberDai showed a decline in DM yield that was mirrored by the mean for all the white clover varieties. In both experiments, the blend did not show significantly higher DM yield than one or more of its components; indeed, in Experiment 2, it was significantly lower yielding than AberDai in 1999. However, where one component of the blend declined in DM yield between years, this was compensated for by an increase in the yield of another component. These preliminary findings suggest that the yield stability of blends may give them a potential role in agricultural practice. [source]


    ABSTRACT In this study, effects of boiling and hot smoking on proximate composition and shelf life of mussels stored at 4 ± 1C were investigated. Dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and crude ash levels were determined as 13.94, 10.30, 1.14 and 0.95% in fresh mussels 20.75, 13.83, 2.11, 0.77% after boiling and 39.57, 22.22, 10.04%, 6.02% after hot smoking, respectively. Trimethylamine nitrogen values in fresh, boiled and hot smoked mussels were determined as 1.13, 1.01 and 1.07 mg/100 g, respectively, and increased to 24.35 mg/100 g at 18th day of the storage period. pH value in hot smoked mussels ranged between 4.85 and 4.51 during the chilled storage. According to the results, mussels smoked by hot smoking and stored at refrigerator temperature (4 ± 1C) for 12 days can be consumed. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS In many countries, smoking is used to obtain products that are popular for their texture and flavor. Mussels, scallops and oysters are some of the important mollusk species that are smoked and eaten in different parts of the world. In this research, the effects of hot smoking process (for 30 min at 82C) on proximate composition and shelf life of Mediterranean mussel stored at 4C was investigated. [source]

    Comparison of iron chelates and complexes supplied as foliar sprays and in nutrient solution to correct iron chlorosis of soybean

    Patricia Rodríguez-Lucena
    Abstract The application of synthetic chelates is the most efficient remedy for correcting iron (Fe) chlorosis. However, chelates are usually expensive and nondegradable products. Recently, new degradable chelates have been proposed for their use as Fe fertilizers. Also, Fe complexes cheaper than synthetic chelates and derived from natural products are also used to correct Fe deficiencies. Fifteen products, including five different synthetic chelates (Fe-EDDS, Fe-IDHA, and three Fe-EDTA formulations) and ten natural complexes (humates, lignosulfonates, amino acids, glycoproteins, polyamines, citrate, and gluconate), have been compared when applied at low concentration to soybean (Glycine max L.) chlorotic plants grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. In the first experiment, Fe compounds were applied to the nutrient solution, while in the second trial, Fe was foliar-supplied. Dry matter, Fe concentration in shoots and roots, and SPAD values were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Fe in the different products. In the nutrient-solution experiment, synthetic chelates provided better plant growth, Fe concentration, and SPAD values than complexes. Among the Fe complexes, transferrin generally provided good plant responses, similar to those obtained with synthetic chelates. After foliar application, the highest regreening was observed for plants treated with synthetic chelates and amino acid complexes, but the translocation to roots only occurred for Fe lignosulfonate. Fe-EDDS and Fe-EDTA performed in a similar way when applied in nutrient solution or as foliar sprays. [source]

    Contents of carotenoids, ascorbic acid, minerals and total glucosinolates in leafy brassica pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. chinensis) as affected by season and variety

    Peter Hanson
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Pakchoi (Brassica rapa L. chinensis) is economically and nutritionally important in East and Southeast Asia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of season and variety on its phytonutrient content (carotenoids, minerals, ascorbic acid and total glucosinolates). RESULTS: Thirty-five varieties were evaluated in one dry season and one wet season field trial at AVRDC,The World Vegetable Center, Taiwan. Mean carotenoid content was about 36% greater in the dry season than in the wet season trial. In contrast, ascorbic acid and total glucosinolate contents were 48 and 72% higher respectively in the wet season than in the dry season trial. Dry matter, calcium and iron contents were also 69, 69 and 21% greater respectively in the wet season than in the dry season trial. Significant differences among entries were found for most phytonutrients; the ranges of variety means were fourfold for total carotenoids, fivefold for iron and total glucosinolates and twofold for calcium. CONCLUSION: Season strongly influences the phytonutrient content of pakchoi grown in the tropics. Significant differences among entries were found for all phytonutrients, and there is potential to increase levels of individual phytonutrients through plant breeding. However, breeding would need to target varieties for either the dry or the wet season. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Microbial degradation of rice and barley straws in the sheep rumen and the donkey caecum

    Ahoefa Agbagla-Dohnani
    Abstract The chemical composition, intake, digestibility, ultrastructure and microbial degradation of rice straw from Camargue were compared with barley straw. These variables were observed in two different herbivore digestive ecosystems: the sheep rumen and the donkey caecum. The two straws differed essentially in their ash content, which was three times higher in rice, owing to its silica content. Other chemical components were comparable, except a higher phenolic acids-to-lignin ratio in rice. Rice straw was better ingested than barley straw. Organic matter and neutral detergent fibre digestibilities were the same in both straws. Dry matter and cell wall disappearances could be adjusted to the exponential modelling equation with lag time, and differed between animals but not between straws. The sheep rumen had a higher extent of degradation, but the donkey caecum had a higher degradation rate. Statistical analysis revealed that cell-wall components degradation was similar in the two straws except for ferulic acid, which was more degraded in rice straw. Scanning electron microscopy showed important differences in parenchyma degradation, which was much more effective in rice. Copyright © 2003 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    The effects of urea-treated potato pulp (PP) ensiled with beet pulp or wheat bran pellets to reduce moisture of PP and flake density of corn grain supplemented with the PP silage on digestibility and ruminal fermentation in beef steers

    Masahito SUGIMOTO
    ABSTRACT The effects of adding beet pulp or wheat bran to urea-treated potato pulp (PP) in order to reduce moisture of PP silage and flake density of corn grain on digestibility and ruminal fermentation in beef steers were studied in a split-plot design experiment. The whole-plot treatments were PP silage mixed with 0% added pellets (CON), 9% (as-fed basis) beet pulp pellets (BP) or 9% (as-fed basis) wheat bran pellets (WB) as water-absorbing materials. The subplot treatments consisted of supplements formulated to contain either high-density corn (HDC) or low-density corn (LDC). BP steers consumed more (BP vs WB, P = 0.011) concentrate than did WB steers, whereas hay intake did not differ between the treatments. Dry matter (BP vs WB, P = 0.023) and organic matter (BP vs WB, P = 0.029) digestibility were higher for BP steers than for WB steers. Starch digestibility was higher (P = 0.006) for LDC than for HDC. There were no differences in the concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen among the treatments. Molar proportions of ruminal acetate were higher for BP steers than for WB steers (BP vs WB, P = 0.030). Conversely, molar proportions of propionate were lower for BP steers than for WB steers (BP vs WB, P = 0.044). Flake density of corn did not affect ruminal characteristics. In conclusion, from the viewpoint of feed intake and digestibility, BP is superior to WB as a moisture control material for urea-treated PP silage, and flake density of corn supplemented with urea-treated PP silage does not alter ruminal fermentation. [source]

    Indigestibility of plant cell wall by the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera

    F.J. Clissold
    Abstract The plant cell wall may play an important role in defence against herbivores since it can be both a barrier to, and nutrient diluter of, the easily digested cell contents. The aim of this study was to investigate the digestibility of the cell wall of three grasses, Triticum aestivum L., Dactyloctenium radulans (R. Br.) Beauv., and Astrebla lappacea (Lindl.) Domin, by the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera Walker (Orthoptera: Acrididae, Acridinae) as determined by the Van Soest method [Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB & Lewis BA (1991) Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science 74: 3583,3597]. Determination of plant cell wall digestion by locusts required a precise methodological procedure to determine both the exact intake and the concentration of cell wall in the diet and the faeces. Plant cell wall determination is affected by the particle size distribution of the dried plant material. All three grasses differed in the percentage of cell wall per gram dry matter and the proportions of hemicellulose, cellulose, and acid-detergent sulphuric lignin within the cell wall. The locust was unable to digest the cell wall of any of the grasses. Thus, plant cell walls are a mechanical barrier hindering locusts assimilating nutrients. That is, access, rather than nutrient concentration per se, may be limiting nutrient factor. [source]

    Application of sewage sludge to arable land,soil concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins, dibenzofurans, and biphenyls, and their accumulation in earthworms

    Nadja Matscheko
    Abstract Soils from five agricultural sites, three research sites, and two privately owned farms were analyzed for polychlorinated dibenzo- p -dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and polybronimated diphenylethers (PBDEs). In soils that had not been treated with sludge (reference soils), the international toxic equivalents (I-TEQs) were 0.6 to 1.5 pg/g dry matter (DM) for the PCDD/Fs, which are low compared to generally reported background soil levels in Europe. The concentrations of sum of six penta- and hexa-PCBs were 450 to 1,400 pg/g DM. The PBDEs 47 and 99 dominated among the tri- to hepta-PBDEs analyzed (8,80 pg/g DM). The impact of adding 1 to 3 tonnes of sludge (DM) per hectare per year on the concentrations was studied at the three research sites by calculating ratios of the compounds in sludge-treated soil to reference soil (S/R ratio). The concentrations of I-TEQs did not increase in the sludge-treated soil, whereas the S/R ratios for PBDEs were greater than one. Also, although the PCB contents were higher in the sludge-treated soils, the background sources were more important for the concentrations of PCBs than of PBDEs. The largest increase in the S/R ratios was found at a private farm where large amounts of sludge had been used in the past. Accumulation of the compounds in earthworms from the sites also was investigated. The biota-soil accumulation factors (BSAFs) of the tested compounds declined in the following order: ortho -PCBs , PBDEs > non-ortho -PCBs > 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs. The average BSAF for ortho -PCBs was five (organic matter/lipids), and the lowest BSAFs (0.1,0.8) found were for octachlorodibenzo- p -dioxin. To our knowledge, accumulation of PBDEs in earthworms has not been published previously. [source]

    Extraction, purification and characterization of wax from flax (Linum usitatissimum) straw

    Yasantha Athukorala
    Abstract The chemical composition and selected physical parameters of wax extracted from flax straw with supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2) and hexane have been determined. From the GC/MS results, clear variations in composition and component distributions were observed between SC-CO2 - and hexane-extracted samples. The major components of the SC-CO2 and hexane extracts from three flax cultivars were: fatty acids (36,49%), fatty alcohols (20,26%), aldehydes (10,14%), wax esters (5,12%), sterols (7,9%) and alkanes (4,5%). Purification of SC-CO2 -extracted wax with silica gel chromatography yielded 0.4,0.5% (dry matter) and was composed primarily of wax esters (C44, C46 and C48) and alkanes (C27, C29 and C31). UV-Vis scans of the purified wax samples exhibited two main peaks indicating the presence of conjugated dienes and carotenoids or related compounds. Fourier transform infrared results showed prominent peaks at 2918 (-C-H), 2849 (-C-H), 1745 (-C=O), 1462 (-C-H), 1169 (-C-O) and 719,cm,1 (-(CH2)n -), with NorLin wax showing a slightly deviating pattern compared to the other samples. Thermal analysis by differential scanning calorimetry revealed a mean melting point of 55,56,°C and oxidation temperatures of 146,153,°C for purified wax from flax straw processed using different procedures. [source]

    Fatty acid ruminal metabolism and digestibility in cows fed perennial ryegrass

    Michel Doreau
    Abstract The ruminal metabolism and intestinal digestibility of fatty acids (FA) was studied in four mid-lactation dairy cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae. The cows received fresh perennial ryegrass as sole feed. Two grasses were compared, differing in the soluble carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio (SC+/N, and SC,/N+ ratios). This ratio was modified by the combination of three factors: age of regrowth, N,fertilisation and hour of cutting. The two grasses contained 12.5 and 20.7% of crude protein, and 24.6 and 13.7% of SC, respectively. The SC+/N, grass contained less FA [1.82 vs. 2.49% of dry matter (DM)] and a lower percentage of linolenic acid (60.9 vs. 65.6% of FA). As DM intake did not differ between treatments, FA intake was higher for the SC,/N+ treatment. The duodenal composition of FA revealed numerous isomers of 18:1 and conjugated and non-conjugated isomers of 18:2. SC,/N+ treatment resulted in a higher duodenal flow of stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acids and of several intermediates of linolenic acid hydrogenation. This was a consequence of differences in intake. Intestinal digestibility of FA from both grasses was high (around 90%). The proportions of FA in plasma did not reflect with accuracy the differences in duodenal FA resulting from differences in ruminal metabolism. [source]

    Balances of phosphorus and nitrogen in carp ponds

    R. Knösche
    The impact of carp pond effluents on natural waters was investigated in the German federal states of Brandenburg, Saxony and Bavaria, and in Hungary. Data from 38 ponds (size = 0.25,122 ha) were available for the calculation of inlet,outlet differences. An average difference of 0.51 kg phosphorus (P) ha,1 year,1 was obtained. This means that every hectare of pond surface releases 510 g P less than it receives from the incoming water. This result was independent of the amount of fish harvested (, 1500 ha,1 year,1). The average retention of P (P-balance) was 5.71 kg P ha,1 year,1. Phosphorus retention increased with increasing intensity of production. Nitrogen (N) retention increased with production intensity from 78.5 kg ha,1 year,1 in German standard ponds to >,290 kg N ha,1 year,1in pig-cum-fish ponds in Hungary. A predominantly mineralized sludge suspension is released during harvesting at loads below 1% of the retention capacity of the pond. Under usual pond management regimes, the sludge load during harvesting ranged from 50 to 200 L ha,1, equivalent to 0.3,9.3 g dry matter ha,1. The present study suggests that ponds are not a burden on the environment. By contrast, these water bodies improve water quality. Therefore, pressures to reduce the intensity of pond production cannot be justified on the basis of supposed impacts on water quality. However, even if loads during harvesting are low compared with the retention capacity of the pond, more effort should be carried out to reduce the pollution of streams by pond outlets downstream. This can be done by limiting pond drainage to periods when the suspended material has settled or by short-term sedimentation of the sludge in a settling pond downstream of the rearing facility. [source]

    On the measurement of growth with applications to the modelling and analysis of plant growth

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Roderick M. L.
    Abstract 1.,In this paper, a theoretical framework for the analysis of growth is described. Growth is equated with change in volume (V) and the growth rate is given by the equation; dV/dt = (dm/dt)(1/,) , (d,/dt)(m/,2) where m is the mass and , the density. The volume is inclusive of internal air spaces. 2.,The second term of the growth equation (see above) can be ignored if density is constant over time. Data for humans (and presumably other large animals) show that while composition changes over time, the density is approximately constant at about that of water. In that case, the growth rate can be estimated from measures of the rate of change of mass. However, the density of plants is variable (c. 0·4,1·2 g cm,3) and measures of mass and density are necessary to analyse plant growth. 3.,To use the theory as the basis of plant growth models, it is necessary to develop simple methods for estimating the surface area of roots, stems and leaves assuming that the mass and volume are known. A literature review found that the surface area to volume ratios of leaves and roots generally increase with the mass concentration of water. Theoretical arguments are used to predict that in woody stems, the situation should be reversed such that the surface area to volume ratio increases with the mass concentration of dry matter. Those relationships should be very useful in the development of plant growth models. 4.,Measures of plant dry mass and estimates of the rate of change in dry mass are shown to be very difficult to interpret because of differences in the mass concentration of dry matter between individuals and over time. 5.,It is concluded that measures of mass and density will be necessary before plant growth analysis can achieve its full potential. A framework for extending the theory to include the forces necessary for growth to occur is described. [source]

    An integrated biogeochemical and economic analysis of bioenergy crops in the Midwestern United States

    GCB BIOENERGY, Issue 5 2010
    Abstract This study integrates a biophysical model with a county-specific economic analysis of breakeven prices of bioenergy crop production to assess the biophysical and economic potential of biofuel production in the Midwestern United States. The bioenergy crops considered in this study include a genotype of Miscanthus, Miscanthus×giganteus, and the Cave-in-Rock breed of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum). The estimated average peak biomass yield for miscanthus in the Midwestern states ranges between 7 and 48 metric tons dry matter per hectare per year ( t DM ha,1 yr,1), while that for switchgrass is between 10 and 16 t DM ha,1 yr,1. With the exception of Minnesota and Wisconsin, where miscanthus yields are likely to be low due to cold soil temperatures, the yield of miscanthus is on average more than two times higher than yield of switchgrass. We find that the breakeven price, which includes the cost of producing the crop and the opportunity cost of land, of producing miscanthus ranges from $53 t,1 DM in Missouri to $153 t,1 DM in Minnesota in the low-cost scenario. Corresponding costs for switchgrass are $88 t,1 DM in Missouri to $144 t,1 DM in Minnesota. In the high-cost scenario, the lowest cost for miscanthus is $85 t,1 DM and for switchgrass is $118 t,1 DM, both in Missouri. These two scenarios differ in their assumptions about ease of establishing the perennial crops, nutrient requirements and harvesting costs and losses. The differences in the breakeven prices across states and across crops are mainly driven by bioenergy and row crop yields per hectare. Our results suggest that while high yields per unit of land of bioenergy crops are critical for the competitiveness of bioenergy feedstocks, the yields of the row crops they seek to displace are also an important consideration. Even high yielding crops, such as miscanthus, are likely to be economically attractive only in some locations in the Midwest given the high yields of corn and soybean in the region. [source]

    Accounting for residual effects of previously applied nitrogen fertilizer on intensively managed grasslands

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2010
    T. V. Vellinga
    Abstract Only 0·20,0·70 of the fertilizer-nitrogen (N) applied to grassland is taken up in herbage in the harvest directly following application. Residual effects at subsequent harvests can be large but are poorly quantified, and rarely taken into account in current management practices. An increased understanding of N-use efficiency per harvest can improve operational management. This study systematically assessed the residual effects of previously applied N fertilizer on N uptake, dry matter (DM) yield and soil mineral-N (SMN) during the whole of the growing season. It is based on field experiments conducted on peat and mineral soils in 1991,1994. Statistical models were derived for SMN, N uptake and DM yield as a function of previously and freshly applied N fertilizer. There were clear residual effects of previously applied N in later cuts. They were relatively greater at higher levels of N fertilizer. On peat soils, 0·15,0·25 of the N applied was recovered as SMN. On mineral soils the proportion was maximally 0·08. There was a clear relationship between SMN and N uptake in the subsequent cut on mineral soils but not on peat soils. The value of SMN as a tool to adjust fertilizer-N application rates was hence found to be limited. There were clear relationships between the amount of previously applied N and the N uptake in subsequent cuts, on both soil types and over the whole of the growing season. It was concluded that the total amount of previously applied N is a useful indicator for adjusting N-fertilizer application rates. [source]

    Influence of cutting regime and fertilizer application on the botanical composition, yield and nutritive value of herbage of wet grasslands in Central Europe

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 4 2009

    Abstract The changes in dry matter (DM) yield, botanical composition and nutritive value of herbage to ruminants of two wet grasslands, Arrhenatherum elatius grassland (Experiment 1) and a Molinia caerulea fen meadow (Experiment 2), in which a range of cutting and fertilizer treatments were imposed in 1999, were assessed after 4,7 years of treatment imposition. Both experiments had a split-plot design with four replicates. In Experiment 1 the three main-plot cutting treatments were two cuts with a delayed first cut, three cuts and four cuts during the growing season of each year. In Experiment 2 the cutting treatments were two cuts with a traditional harvest time, two cuts with a delayed first cut and three cuts. The four sub-plot fertilizer treatments were an unfertilized control, application of a phosphorus and potassium (PK) fertilizer, application of a nitrogen (N) and PK fertilizer to the first cut only (N1PK) and application of PK plus N applied to each of two, three or four cuts (NcPK). Application of fertilizer influenced yield and botanical composition of herbage more than the cutting treatments while the opposite occurred for nutritive value of the herbage. Application of fertilizer increased the proportion of tall grasses in Experiment 1 and forbs in Experiment 2. The proportion of Equisetum palustre, present only in Experiment 1, was reduced from 0·33 to less than 0·01 by increased cutting frequency together with the NPK fertilizer treatments. In Experiment 1 diversity of vascular plants was negatively affected only by the four-cuts treatment while on both wet grasslands other cutting and fertilizer application treatments had no effect. Changes in DM yield of herbage caused by the cutting and fertilizer application treatments were similar for both vegetation types with DM yield increased significantly by fertilizer application but only slightly or not reduced by increasing the cutting frequency. Nutritive value of herbage was positively correlated with cutting frequency and was most influenced at the first cut. [source]

    Yield and stability of yield of single- and multi-clover grass-clover swards in two contrasting temperate environments

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    B. E. Frankow-Lindberg
    Abstract Diversity of clovers in grass-clover swards may contribute to greater herbage yields and stability of yield. This possible effect was evaluated in an experiment carried out over three harvest years at two contrasting sites, differing in precipitation and soil composition, using mixed swards containing either one, two or three clover species sown together with timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis L.). The clover species were red clover (Trifolium pratense L.), white clover (Trifolium repens L.) and alsike clover (Trifolium hybridum L.) sown in various proportions in a total of ten treatments. All swards were fertilized with nitrogen with amounts that increased from year to year, and three harvests were taken in three consecutive years. There was a significant interaction between site and species mixture on total dry matter (DM) yields (range 27,32 tonnes ha,1) and DM yields of clovers (range 5,15 tonnes ha,1); red clover as a single species or in a mixture was superior at the dry site while multi-clover species mixtures were superior at the wet site. Alsike clover was the least productive species of clover. Stability of yield of clovers was generally higher by including white and red clover in the seed mixture but total DM yield was not. [source]

    Herbage mass and nutritive value of herbage of extensively managed temperate grasslands along a gradient of shrub encroachment

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2009
    S. Kesting
    Abstract Semi-natural grasslands often serve as important reserves of biodiversity. In Europe extensive grazing by livestock is considered an appropriate management to conserve biodiversity value and to limit shrub encroachment. However, little is known about the influence of shrubs on agronomic values. A gradient analysis of shrub-invaded temperate grasslands (from shrub-free to pioneer forest) in Germany was carried out to test the hypothesis that herbage mass and variables describing nutritive value of herbage decrease with increasing shrub encroachment. The herbage mass of dry matter (DM), variables describing the nutritive value of herbage, composition of the vegetation and mean of Ellenberg's indicator values were analysed with respect to the extent of shrubs. There was a reduction of herbage mass of DM from 3570 to 210 kg ha,1 with increasing shrub encroachment. Metabolizable energy concentration of herbage ranged from 8·9 to 10·2 MJ kg,1 DM and crude protein concentration from 72 to 171 g kg,1 DM, both measures being positively correlated with shrub occurrence. Increasing shrub occurrence was associated with a decrease in water-soluble carbohydrates concentration (from 151 to 31 g kg,1) and a reduction in the indicator ,forage value'. The results indicate a potentially large agronomic value for shrub-encroached temperate grasslands. [source]

    Agronomic performance and nutritive value of common and alternative grass and legume species in the Peruvian highlands

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    K. Bartl
    Abstract The agronomic performance and nutritive value of twelve annual and perennial grasses and legumes were analysed in order to define alternatives to local forages for dry-season feeding of ruminants in the Peruvian Andes. There were twelve species and two fertilizer treatments (no fertilizer and a N;P;K fertilizer mainly applied at sowing) in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates at each of two sites. Plant height, soil cover by forage and weed species, frost damage, dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value of herbage were evaluated in 2005 and 2006. Among the annual species, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. UNA 80 and ×Triticosecale Wittm. had the highest DM yields when fertilized (8226 and 6934 kg ha,1 respectively). Without fertilizer the alternative cultivars had similar DM yields to that of the local forages. Cultivars of Avena sativa L. had lower concentrations of neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) (557 g kg,1 DM) and higher concentrations of predicted net energy for lactation (5·86 MJ kg,1 DM) than the other annual grass species (625 g kg,1 DM and 5·01 MJ kg,1 DM respectively), while the legumes were superior in concentrations of crude protein (277 g kg,1 DM) and NDF (362 g kg,1 DM). Considering the low agronomic performance of the perennial forages, a mixture of fertilized annual grasses and legumes appears the most appropriate approach to meeting the demand for forage of high nutritive value in the Peruvian highlands. [source]

    Morphological development and nutritive value of herbage in five temperate grass species during primary growth: analysis of time dynamics

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009

    Abstract In a 2-year field experiment, morphological development and measures of the nutritive value of herbage for livestock during primary growth in Meadow foxtail, Tall oatgrass, Cocksfoot, Perennial ryegrass and Yorkshire fog were investigated. All measured variables were affected significantly by both species and sampling date, and their interaction (P < 0·001), in the period of primary growth. Changes with time in mean stage weight for Meadow foxtail and Cocksfoot were different from the other species due to their indeterminate growth habits. Mean stage weight of Tall oatgrass and Yorkshire fog increased more rapidly than that of Perennial ryegrass with time. Changes in mean stage weight with time were described by linear, parabolic and sigmoid relationships. Crude protein (CP) concentration of herbage was higher for Cocksfoot and Meadow foxtail than for Perennial ryegrass. A parabolic relationship of CP concentration with time was typical for all the species. Concentrations of neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and acid-detergent fibre (ADF) in herbage of the species differed most during the mid-period of primary growth. Their increases with time showed curvilinear (sigmoid and parabolic) relationships. Perennial ryegrass had lower concentrations of both NDF and ADF in herbage than the other species. Differences between the in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility among the grasses increased in mid- and late periods of primary growth. Perennial ryegrass had higher values for in vitro DM digestibility but the difference from other species was small in the early period of primary growth and from cocksfoot in the late period of primary growth. In vitro DM digestibility showed, in most cases, a sigmoid and, in others, a linear decrease with time. Principal component analysis showed that perennial ryegrass and meadow foxtail were the most distinctive of the species in characteristics relating to morphological development and the nutritive value of herbage to livestock. [source]

    Herbage growth rates on heterogeneous swards as influenced by sward-height classes

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2009
    ahin Demirba
    Abstract The contribution of four classes of sward height to daily herbage growth rates of a heterogeneous sward in eight periods throughout a grazing season was investigated in two continuous cattle-grazing systems differing in intensity (moderate stocking rate: MC; lenient stocking rate: LC). At the beginning and end of periods of 12 to 28 d, the compressed sward height (CSH) was measured in exclusion cages at eighteen fixed points per cage to derive daily growth rates for the four classes of sward height. Stratified calibrations were made to relate sward height to herbage mass for each treatment in each period. Quadratic regressions described the relationship between herbage growth rate and initial CSH for each treatment in each period. For scaling up to the scale of the plot, CSH was measured monthly at 100 points per plot. Daily herbage growth rates declined from more than 100 kg dry matter (DM) ha,1 d,1 on both treatments at the beginning of the grazing season to 20 kg DM ha,1 d,1 or less, especially on treatment LC. This was due to the larger area covered by tall herbage on treatment LC than on treatment MC. On treatment MC, daily herbage growth rate was predominantly derived from short sward areas of up to 12 cm in height while sward areas taller than 12 cm contributed most to daily growth rates on treatment LC in early summer. The method used is considered suitable for estimating daily herbage growth rates of different classes of sward height in extensively managed pastures and can easily be adapted to deal with more heterogeneous swards than used in this study. [source]

    Dry matter production, nutritive value and efficiency of nutrient utilization of a complementary forage rotation compared to a grass pasture system

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008
    S. C. Garcia
    Abstract In pasture-based dairy farming, new sustainable systems that involve the annual dry matter (DM) production of grazed and conserved forage beyond the potential of grazed pasture alone are being sought. The objective of this experiment conducted in Australia was to compare a complementary forage rotation (CFR) for conservation and grazing, comprising an annual sequence of three crops, namely maize (Zea mays L), forage rape (Brassica napus L) and a legume (Persian clover, Trifolium repesinatum L or maple pea, Pisum sativum L), with a pasture [kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum) over-sown with short-rotation ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L)] as a pasture control treatment. The experiment was a complete randomized block design with four replicates (,0·7 ha each). Annual dry-matter (DM) yield over the 3 years averaged >42 t ha,1 year,1 for the CFR treatment and >17 t ha,1 year,1 for the pasture treatment. The high DM yield of the CFR treatment resulted from >27 t ha,1 year,1 from maize harvested for silage and >15 t DM ha,1 year,1 utilized by grazing the forage rape and legumes. Total input of nitrogen (N) and water were similar for both treatments, resulting in higher N- and water-use efficiency for the CFR treatment, which was more than twice that for the pasture treatment. Overall, the nutritive value of the pasture treatment was slightly higher than the mean for that of the CFR treatment. The implications of these results are that a highly productive system based on the CFR treatment in conjunction with the use of pasture is achievable. Such a dairy production system in Australia could increase the total supply of feed resources grown on-farm and the efficiency of use of key resources such as N and water. [source]

    Effects of tractor wheeling on root morphology and yield of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.)

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2008

    Summary The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of soil compaction on the herbage yield and root growth of lucerne (Medicago sativa L.). A field experiment was conducted on a silty loam Mollic Fluvisols soil in 2003,2006. Herbage yield and root morphology, in terms of root length density, mean root diameter, specific root length and distribution of dry matter (DM) in roots, were measured. Four compaction treatments were applied three times annually by tractor using the following number of passes: control without experimental traffic, two passes, four passes and six passes. The tractor traffic changed the physical properties of the soil by increasing bulk density and penetration resistance. Soil compaction also improved its water retention properties. These changes were associated with changes in root morphology and distribution of the DM in roots. Soil compaction resulted in higher proportions of the DM in roots, especially in the upper, 0,10 cm, soil horizon. Decreases in the root length density were observed in a root diameter range of 0·1,1·0 mm. It was also found that roots in a more compacted soil were significantly thicker. An effect of the root system of lucerne on soil compaction was observed. The root system of lucerne decreased the effects of soil compaction that had been recorded in the first and the second year of the experiment. An increase in the number of passes resulted in a decrease in the DM yield of herbage in the second and third harvests each year. [source]

    Dietary cation,anion difference and cadmium concentration in grasses fertilized with chloride

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 4 2007
    S. Pelletier
    Abstract High dietary cation,anion difference (DCAD) of grass herbage increases the occurrence of hypocalcaemia of dairy cows. Application of chloride fertilizer reduces DCAD of herbage but it could increase cadmium concentration in herbage. This study includes an experiment conducted in Australia and in Canada. A glasshouse experiment in Australia evaluated the effect of four rates of chloride application (0,240 kg ha,1) on values of herbage DCAD and cadmium concentration of above-ground plant material of timothy (Phleum pratense L.) and phalaris (Phalaris aquatica L.), harvested 6 weeks after sowing and grown on two soils that had received cadmium either as a contaminant in superphosphate (soil + Super) or in sewage biosolids (soil + Bio) along with respective control soils (soil 0 Super and soil 0 Bio). Application of chloride fertilizer decreased values of herbage DCAD by 349 mmolc kg,1 dry matter (DM). Herbage DCAD values were highest on the 0 Bio soil (739 mmolc kg,1 DM) and were not different among the three other soils. Species did not differ in herbage DCAD values. Cadmium concentration in the above-ground plant material was highest on the +Bio soil treatment (1·67 mg kg,1 DM) and was lower for the three other soil treatments. Above-ground plant material of phalaris had a higher cadmium concentration than that of timothy. Application of chloride fertilizer did not affect cadmium concentration in above-ground plant material, despite the high cadmium content of the soil on the +Bio treatment. The field experiment in Canada evaluated the effect of four rates of chloride application (0,144 kg ha,1) on cadmium concentration of a timothy-based grass sward grown on four sites with soils of different potassium content. Application of chloride fertilizer increased cadmium concentration of herbage at two of the four sites but the maximum increase in cadmium concentration was only 0·025 mg kg,1 DM. Chloride fertilizer can be applied to decrease forage DCAD with minimal risk of increasing Cd in the food chain. [source]

    Genotypic variation in patterns of root distribution, nitrate interception and response to moisture stress of a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) mapping population

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
    J. R. Crush
    Abstract Genotypic variation in patterns of root distribution, nitrate interception and response to moisture stress were assessed in both parents and 198 progeny of a perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) full-sibling mapping population. This was carried out in metre-deep tubes of sand culture in a glasshouse experiment. The proportion of root dry matter (DM) weight in the top 10 cm of sand ranged from 0·33 to 0·75 and values of log10(1 , K), where K is the constant for an exponential model relating root DM weight and root depth, also showed wide variation among genotypes. The proportion of a pulse of 15N recovered in whole plants ranged from 0·124 to 0·431. There was a positive linear correlation between the proportion of 15N recovered and plant total DM weight, but no relationship between nitrate interception and patterns of distribution of DM weight of roots. Some genotypes responded to moisture stress by increasing root growth, and in others root growth was inhibited. It is concluded that this below-ground variability in root variables may be an evolutionary adaptation by plant populations to survive heterogeneity in soil biotic and edaphic factors. [source]

    Fungal alkaloids in populations of endophyte-infected Festuca rubra subsp. pruinosa

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
    B. R. Vázquez-de-Aldana
    Abstract Festuca rubra subsp. pruinosa is a grass that grows on coastal cliffs along the Atlantic coast of Europe. Asymptomatic plants of this species are systemically infected by the fungal endophyte Epichloë festucae. It is not known whether the alkaloids, ergovaline and peramine, are produced by the endophyte in F. rubra subsp. pruinosa. Plants from four populations were collected from the northern coast of Galicia (Spain) and examined for the presence of fungal endophytes. Ergovaline and peramine concentrations were analysed over two consecutive years, at two plant growth stages, and in different types of plant tissues. Infected plants of F. rubra subsp. pruinosa contained ergovaline but not peramine. Ergovaline was detected in 0·80 of the plants, with concentrations ranging from 0·05 to 1·9 ,g g,1 dry matter. The differences in ergovaline concentration between different types of plant tissues (vegetative and reproductive), plant populations and sampling dates were not statistically significant. [source]

    Seasonal changes in herbage mass and nutritive value of a range of grazed legume swards under Mediterranean and cool temperate conditions

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
    U. Sölter
    Summary Seasonal changes in herbage mass and herbage quality of legume-based swards under grazing by sheep or cattle were investigated at four locations in climatically different zones of Europe: Sardinia (Italy), southern France, northern Germany and south-west England (UK). At each location standard treatments were applied to legumes typical of species widely used in each locality: Medicago polymorpha in Italy, Medicago sativa in France, and Trifolium repens in Germany and in UK. At each site comparisons were made of two other legumes: Trifolium subterraneum and Hedysarum coronarium in Italy, Onobrychis sativa and Trifolium incarnatum in France, Trifolium pratense and Lotus corniculatus in Germany, and Trifolium ambiguum and L. corniculatus in UK. Legumes were sown in mixture with locally appropriate companion grasses, and measurements were made over two or three grazing periods. In Italy M. polymorpha swards gave the greatest herbage mass in grazing period 1 but H. coronarium was more persistent. At the French site all legumes established poorly with no significant herbage mass differences between treatments. At both the UK and German sites L. corniculatus maintained a high proportion of legume in the sward; T. repens showed poor persistence under continuous sheep grazing in UK but persisted under cattle grazing in Germany, while T. ambiguum was slow to establish in the UK, and T. pratense proved to be of comparable herbage mass to the standard T. repens -based sward in the last year of the experiment. The concentration of crude protein and in vitro digestibility of organic matter in the dry matter of herbage showed greater within-season variation than between treatments at each site. It is concluded that, in addition to currently used species, legume-based swards containing H. coronarium, O. sativa and L. corniculatus all have potential to contribute to forage production for low-input grazing and their use merits further consideration in systems of livestock production in Europe. [source]

    The influence of strain of Holstein-Friesian dairy cow and pasture-based feeding system on grazing behaviour, intake and milk production

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    S. McCarthy
    Abstract A comparative study of grazing behaviour, herbage intake and milk production of three strains of Holstein-Friesian dairy cow was conducted using three grass-based feeding systems over two years. The three strains of Holstein-Friesian cows were: high production North American (HP), high durability North American (HD) and New Zealand (NZ). The three grass-based feeding systems were: high grass allowance (MP), high concentrate (HC) and high stocking rate (HS). In each year seventy-two pluriparous cows, divided equally between strains of Holstein-Friesian and feeding systems were used. Strain of Holstein-Friesian cow and feeding system had significant effects on grazing behaviour, dry matter (DM) intake and milk production. The NZ strain had the longest grazing time while the HD strain had the shortest. The grazing time of cows in the HC system was shorter than those in both the HS and MP systems. There was a significant strain of Holstein-Friesian cow by feeding system interaction for DM intake of grass herbage and milk production. The NZ strain had the highest substitution rate with the HP strain having the lowest. Hence, response in milk production to concentrate was much greater with the HP than the NZ strain. Reduction in milk yield as a consequence of a higher stocking rate (MP vs. HS system) was, however, greater for the HP and HD strains compared with the NZ strain. The results suggest that differences in grazing behaviour are important in influencing DM intake and milk production. [source]

    Release of cell contents and comminution of particles of perennial ryegrass herbage during ingestion by dairy cows fed indoors or grazing

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2006
    A. Boudon
    Abstract The effect of feeding indoors fresh perennial ryegrass vs. grazing on ingestive behaviour, release of cell contents and comminution of particles during ingestion, as well as on gas production of ingested boli fermented in vitro, was studied. Indoor feeding and grazing were compared using four dairy cows according to a triple reversal design with six periods. Chemical and morphological composition of the ingested herbage was similar for both indoor feeding and grazing treatments. The intake rate was markedly higher indoors compared with grazing [52·1 vs. 22·9 g dry matter (DM) min,1] with heavier boli and less saliva added per gram of DM intake. The proportions of intracellular nitrogen and chlorophyll released during mastication after ingestion of herbage fed indoors were lower, and the median size of the particles in the boli was larger (5·97 vs. 4·44 mm) compared with grazing. As a result, the rate of gas production in vitro was also lower for herbage fed indoors compared with grazing (0·423 vs. 0·469 mL min,1 g,1 incubated DM). Indoor feeding or grazing may have limited consequences in vivo on the kinetics of availability of nutrients for micro-organisms in the rumen, because the consequences of the more extensive physical damage suffered by herbage ingested at grazing could be compensated by a lower intake rate. [source]

    Effects of atmospheric CO2 concentration and defoliation on the growth of Themeda triandra

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2004
    S. J. E. Wand
    Abstract The effects of elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration (700 ,mol mol,1) on defoliated (three clippings at 3-week intervals) and undefoliated plants were determined for the C4 grass Themeda triandra, Forsk. The elevated CO2 concentration significantly increased leaf regrowth following defoliation, and total leaf production was greatest in this treatment. Shoot biomass of undefoliated plants was also increased under the elevated CO2 concentration treatment. The primary effect of the elevated CO2 concentration in both defoliated and undefoliated plants was an increase in individual leaf length and mass of dry matter, linked to a higher leaf water content and increased photosynthetic rates at the canopy level. Photosynthetic down-regulation at the leaf level occurred, but this was compensated for by increased assimilation rates and greater canopy leaf area at the elevated CO2 concentration. Increases in leaf and sheath growth of defoliated plants in the elevated CO2 concentration treatment were lost following a final 3-week reversion to ambient CO2 concentration, but occurred in plants exposed to the elevated CO2 concentration for the final 3-week period only. In conclusion, elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration increases shoot growth via increased leaf extension, which is directly dependent on stimulation of concurrent photosynthesis. CO2 responsiveness is sustained following moderate defoliation but is reduced when plants experience reduced vigour as a result of maturation or high frequency of defoliation. [source]

    Impact of seeding rate on annual ryegrass performance

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2004
    B. C. Venuto
    Abstract Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is a primary forage resource for livestock producers throughout the south-eastern USA during the winter-growing season. It is important for livestock producers to begin grazing annual ryegrass as early as possible and any management practices maximizing early season production could be beneficial. To assess the impact of seeding rate on subsequent yield, yield distribution, quality, seedling density, and end-of-season plant and tiller density, a 2-year study was initiated at four locations in Louisiana. Three annual ryegrass cultivars, varying in seed size, were established at four seeding rates based on pure live seed (PLS) rates of 400, 800, 1200 and 1600 PLS m,2. There was no advantage in total yield from increasing seeding rates beyond 800 PLS m,2. However, first-harvest yields increased from 360 to 930 kg dry matter (DM) ha,1 as seeding rate increased from 400 to 1600 PLS m,2. Crude protein and neutral-detergent fibre concentrations, and in vitro DM digestibility, were not affected by seeding rate. Seedling density and end-of-season plant numbers increased as seeding rate increased. However, stems per plant decreased as seeding rate increased, indicating compensatory tillering for the reduced plant numbers observed at the lower seeding rates. These results indicate first-harvest yield can be increased by planting at higher seeding rates but total yields are not increased. [source]