Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Draws

  • article draw
  • blood draw
  • i draw
  • paper draw
  • research draw
  • study draw

  • Terms modified by Draws

  • draw attention
  • draw comparison
  • draw conclusion
  • draw lesson
  • draw ratio

  • Selected Abstracts

    The Galloway roll (1300): its content, composition and value to military history*

    HISTORICAL RESEARCH, Issue 218 2009
    David Simpkin
    The Galloway roll is one of eighteen extant English rolls of arms dating from the reign of King Edward I. Drawn up at the height of that king's wars, it commemorates around 250 knights who served in south-west Scotland in 1300. It is the first armorial of its type to record the names of a large number of knights bachelor and to arrange them into the retinues in which they served. This article considers how this roll of arms came into being, what it adds to our knowledge of the English army in 1300, and how it highlights the gentry's service during this period of heavy campaigning. [source]

    Conversation with Les Drew

    ADDICTION, Issue 11 2001
    Article first published online: 15 SEP 200
    In this occasional series we record the views and personal experiences of people who have specially contributed to the evolution of ideas in the Journal's field of interest. Dr Drew is an Australian psychiatrist who has made substantial contributions to drug and alcohol policy development in his country . [source]

    The fruit fly fauna (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) of Bougainville, the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu

    Richard Ai Drew
    Abstract The Bougainville, Solomon Islands and Vanuatu dacine fauna is revised and 12 new species are described: Bactrocera atrabifasciata, B. fuscipennula, B. hamaceki, B. hollingsworthi, B. naucleae, B. neoxanthodes, B. obliquivenosa, B. pacificae, B. parafroggatti, B. peneobscura, B. unitaeniola, Dacus taui. Two new synonymies are established: Bactrocera honiarae Drew = Bactrocera confluens (Drew); Dacus varipes Malloch = Bactrocera quadrisetosa (Bezzi). Information is given on attractant records, geographical distributions and taxonomic relationships. A key to species is also provided. [source]

    Corporate Governance and Social Responsibility: a comparative analysis of the UK and the US,

    Ruth V. Aguilera
    This paper argues that key differences between the UK and the US in the importance ascribed to a company's social responsibilities (CSR) reflect differences in the corporate governance arrangements in these two countries. Specifically, we analyse the role of a salient type of owner in the UK and the US, institutional investors, in emphasising firm-level CSR actions. We explore differences between institutional investors in the UK and the US concerning CSR, and draw on a model of instrumental, relational and moral motives to explore why institutional investors in the UK are becoming concerned with firms' social and environmental actions. We conclude with some suggestions for future research in this area. [source]

    How Is Education Possible When There's a Body in the Middle of the Room?

    CURRICULUM INQUIRY, Issue 1 2004
    Freema Elbaz-Luwisch
    ABSTRACT This article explores the possibility of education for multiculturalism and diversity in a situation of violent conflict. It tells the story of my attempt to figure out what might be learned from the situation of living with violence, threats to personal safety, and death as part of the everyday. I draw on recent experiences of dialogue between Jewish and Arab/Palestinian Israelis in preservice and in-service settings at the University of Haifa to suggest that attention to feelings, to the expression of fear, vulnerability, and anger, and to the body that carries these feelings and experiences, are needed in order to make such dialogue possible. [source]

    Heart rate variability in response to pain stimulus in VLBW infants followed longitudinally during NICU stay

    Nikhil S. Padhye
    Abstract The objective of this longitudinal study, conducted in a neonatal intensive care unit, was to characterize the response to pain of high-risk very low birth weight infants (<1,500,g) from 23 to 38 weeks post-menstrual age (PMA) by measuring heart rate variability (HRV). Heart period data were recorded before, during, and after a heel lanced or wrist venipunctured blood draw for routine clinical evaluation. Pain response to the blood draw procedure and age-related changes of HRV in low-frequency and high-frequency bands were modeled with linear mixed-effects models. HRV in both bands decreased during pain, followed by a recovery to near-baseline levels. Venipuncture and mechanical ventilation were factors that attenuated the HRV response to pain. HRV at the baseline increased with post-menstrual age but the growth rate of high-frequency power was reduced in mechanically ventilated infants. There was some evidence that low-frequency HRV response to pain improved with advancing PMA. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 51: 638,649, 2009 [source]

    Drilling in the Cathedral

    DIALOG, Issue 3 2003
    Larry Rasmussen
    Abstract Utilitarianism, alienation, consumerism, and oppression are major forces endangering Earth's well-being. Over and against these morally and ecologically destructive forces are practices and ideas rooted and nourished in both ancient and modern religio-moral institutions and traditions. As powerful voices of faith calling the present to account, sacramentalism, mysticism, asceticism, and prophetic liberative practices offer Earth-honoring ways of life that draw from shared wells and deep-running waters. [source]

    Cultivating Beyond-Capitalist Economies

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 3 2010
    Sarah Wright
    abstract Conceptualizations of the economy as diverse and multiple have garnered increased attention in economic geography in recent years. Against the debilitating mantra of TINA (there is no alternative), these conceptualizations use an ontology of proliferation to insist that many viable and vital alternatives to capitalism do, in fact, exist. I aim to contribute to this project with a close reading of the diverse formal and informal economic practices associated with the village of Puno in the Philippines. In doing so, I respond to calls for work that begins in the majority world and that focuses on the broader political project associated with diverse economies. Research in this area has frequently been critiqued for not paying sufficient attention to the unstable yet persistent exclusions that may endure in, and may even be enhanced by, alternative economies. With this article, I aim to investigate the ways that power relations work through the diverse economies of Puno and the ways that residents act to transform these relations. In doing so, I draw on the experiences of three residents of Puno and their involvement in three social movement organizations. I find that the economy is usefully understood as a site of struggle in which residents work to redefine themselves and the economy. The diverse spaces of their economic lives are neither strictly alternative nor mainstream, inherently oppressive nor radical. Rather, the people of Puno are engaged in willfully cultivating spaces-beyond-capitalism through which they transform the very meaning of economic practice. [source]

    Planning for Path Dependence?

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2010
    The Case of a Network in the Berlin-Brandenburg Optics Cluster
    abstract Much research on regional business clusters refers to path dependence as a central feature in the evolution of cluster structures. In many cases, however, little is known about the agentic processes and mechanisms that underlie path dependence. In this article, we explore changes in a specific network in the optics cluster in the German region of Berlin-Brandenburg to show that development of clusters can be driven by elements of both emergence and planning. In particular, we argue that current actors actively and purposively draw upon rules and resources that were shaped not only in the long and discontinuous history of the cluster but also in the recent process of network development that involves careful planning and well-structured planning tools. Using central concepts from structuration theory, we show how agency is implicated in the coordination of the network and how agency turns coordination into a self-reinforcing mechanism. The findings suggest that purposive planning involves a fundamental ambivalence in the processes and outcomes of path dependence, at the level of both the cluster and its constituent networks. [source]

    A Poetics of Teaching

    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 2 2004
    David T. Hansen
    In this article, I elucidate the idea of a poetics of teaching and outline its value to scholars and teachers who seek a deeper understanding of the practice. A poetics of teaching draws together aesthetic, intellectual, and moral dimensions of the work that are often treated separately, if treated at all, in both research and in the classroom. In so doing, a poetics clarifies our picture of what the work offers to the men and women who take up the role. A poetics of teaching calls attention to how teaching can enrich the life of the teacher, even as he or she seeks to deepen and to broaden students' knowledge, understandings, and outlooks. I draw upon aspects of art, of inquiry, and of metaphor to help illuminate these educational values. [source]

    Solid Contact Micropipette Ion Selective Electrode II: Potassium Electrode for SECM and In Vivo Applications

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 17-18 2009
    Gergely Gyetvai
    Abstract Micropipette ion selective electrodes are very small, but fragile, short-life time sensors with very high resistance. Their high resistance is a draw back considering application in scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) and in life sciences. New, low resistance potassium micropipette electrodes were prepared, and applied. The electrode contains solid internal contact made of a carbon fiber lowered down all the way close to the orifice of the micropipette. The internal contact potential was kept constant by applying a doped, electrochemically prepared PEDOT coating on the fiber surface. The electrode performed well in in vivo experiments both in plant and animal tissue without capacitance neutralization and in SECM. [source]

    An Educator's Guide to Teaching Emergency Medicine to Medical Students

    Wendy C. Coates MD
    Abstract There is a need for every medical school graduate to handle emergencies as they arise in the daily practice of medicine. Emergency medicine (EM) educators are in a unique position to provide students with basic life support skills, guidance in assessing the undifferentiated patient, and exposure to the specialty of EM during all years of medical school. Emergency physicians can become involved in a variety of education experiences that can supplement the preclinical curriculum and provide access to our specialty at an early stage. A well-designed course in the senior year allows students to develop critical thinking and patient management skills that are necessary for any medical career path. It can ensure that all medical students are exposed to the skills essential for evaluating and stabilizing the acutely ill patient. To implement this type of course, learning objectives and evaluation methods must be set when the curriculum is developed. An effective course combines didactic and clinical components that draw on the strengths of the teaching institution and faculty of the department. A structured clerkship orientation session and system for feedback to students are essential in nurturing the development of student learners. This article provides an approach to assist the medical student clerkship director in planning and implementing EM education experiences for students at all levels of training, with an emphasis on the senior-year rotation. [source]

    Showing the Strategy where to go: possibilities for creative approaches to Key Stage 3 literacy teaching in initial teacher education

    ENGLISH IN EDUCATION, Issue 1 2005
    David Stevens
    Abstract This paper arises from a research project undertaken with six PGCE student teachers of English, based on observation and discussion of English lessons based on the National Strategy's Framework for Teaching English. I draw also on the student teachers' reflections and written commentaries. The central thrust of the research was to enquire whether and how classroom practice could demonstrate an imaginative, meaning-orientated form of English teaching which included the Framework: how exactly learning opportunities might arise in lively, engaging and effective ways. [source]

    "Into a thousand parts": Representing the Nation in Henry V

    Jonathan Baldo
    Shakespeare's history plays in general, and Henry V in particular, grant a good deal of attention to Parliament. The injunction by the opening Chorus of Henry V, "Into a thousand parts divide one man," echoes Speaker of the House Edward Coke's anecdote about the origins of a bicameral Parliament, in the course of which he recounted a knight's purported remark that "his Majestie and the lordes there every one being great persons represented but themselves, but his commons though they were inferiour men yet every one of them represented a thowsand men."Henry V, like Shakespeare's earlier histories, explores the relationship between theatrical and parliamentary forms of representation. Recognizing the ways in which the plays both draw upon and challenge Elizabethan ideas about parliamentary representation casts new light on the relations between nobles and commoners in Shakespeare's histories. [source]

    DNA damage and repair measurements from cryopreserved lymphocytes without cell culture,A reproducible assay for intervention studies

    Jyh-Lurn Chang
    Abstract Single-cell gel electrophoresis (the Comet assay) can be used to measure DNA damage and DNA repair capacity (DRC). However, to test DRC of cryopreserved lymphocytes, published methods include steps for cell culturing and phytohemagglutinin stimulation, which may limit use of this assay in intervention studies. We developed a modified Comet assay protocol that allows us to measure DRC from cryopreserved lymphocytes without these in vitro manipulations. Assay reproducibility was evaluated by performing the assay six times on different dates using six aliquots from one blood draw of one individual. The interindividual variation was assessed by performing the assay using one aliquot from six individuals. When ,-irradiation was used as the mutagen, intra-assay coefficients of variation (CVs.) for baseline DNA damage, damage after ,-irradiation exposure, and DRC,measured as tail moment,were 8, 31, and 10%, respectively. Interindividual CVs. were higher. When H2O2 was used as the mutagen, intra-assay CVs. for damage measurements were lower for a protocol modification that included damage and repair at 37°C (CVs. ranging from 8 to 35%) than for the more standard 4°C protocol. Analyzing moment arm,the average distance of DNA migration within the tail,yielded similar results. DNA repair was successfully detected in each experiment. Comparing freshly isolated lymphocytes to cryopreserved lymphocytes from the same individuals' blood draw indicated that DRC was highly correlated when determined using moment arm values. This modified protocol extends the use of the Comet assay to measuring DRC in intervention studies (e.g., dietary interventions) in that it assesses cellular response after cryopreservation without cell culture or other extensive manipulation. Environ. Mol. Mutagen., 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Portfolios: Possibilities for Addressing Emergency Medicine Resident Competencies

    Patricia O'Sullivan EdD
    Portfolios are an innovative approach to evaluate the competency of emergency medicine residents. Three key characteristics add to their attractiveness. First, portfolios draw from the resident's actual work. Second, they require self-reflection on the part of the resident. Third, they are inherently practice-based learning since residents must review and consider their practice in order to begin the portfolio. This paper illustrates five different applications of portfolios. First, portfolios are applied to evaluating specific competencies as part of the training of emergency physicians. While evaluating specific competencies, the portfolio captures aspects of the general competencies. Second, the article illustrates using portfolios as a way to address a specific residency review committee (RRC) requirement such as follow-ups. Third is a description of how portfolios can be used to evaluate resident conferences capturing the competency of practice-based learning and possibly other competencies such as medical knowledge and patient care. Fourth, the authors of the article designed a portfolio as a way to demonstrate clinical competence. Fifth, they elaborate as to how a continuous quality improvement project could be cast within the portfolio framework. They provide some guidance concerning issues to address when designing the portfolios. Portfolios are carefully structured and not haphazard collections of materials. Following criteria is important in maintaining the validity of the portfolio as well as contributing to reliability. The portfolios can enhance the relationship between faculty and residents since faculty will suggest cases, discuss anomalies, and interact with the residents around the portfolio. The authors believe that in general portfolios can cover many of the general competencies specified by the ACGME while still focusing on issues important to emergency medicine. The authors believe that portfolios provide an approach to evaluation commensurate with the self-evaluation skills they would like to develop in their residents. [source]

    What Does It Mean to Be Relational?

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2006
    A Framework for Assessment, Practice
    The authors begin with a question regarding how to better draw upon relational thinking in making case assessments and treatment plans. They first address issues regarding the cultural construction of self and relationships, integrating women's psychology, family systems, and collectivist culture literatures within a discussion of power. Then they present a heuristic framework for how individuals orient themselves within relationships that includes two dimensions,focus and power,and evolves out of the social context. From these two dimensions, a typology of four basic relational orientations is presented: position directed, rule directed, independence directed, and relationship directed. Case examples from couple's therapy and suggestions for practice are provided. [source]

    Occupational Cultures and the Embodiment of Masculinity: Hairdressing, Estate Agency and Firefighting

    Alex Hall
    Drawing on data from an Economic and Social Research Council-funded project, this article explores the implications of different occupational cultures for men's masculine identity. With a focus on embodiment and individual agency, it explores the argument that it is within ,scenes of constraint' that gendered identities are both ,done' and ,undone'. In this article we examine embodied experience in occupational cultures commonly stereotyped as ,masculine' or ,feminine' (hairdressing, estate agency and firefighting), showing how men conform to, draw upon and resist the gendered stereotypes associated with these occupations. What we argue is that gendered conceptions of ,the body' need to be differentiated from individual men's embodiment. Instead, processes of identification can be shown to emerge via embodied experiences of particular kinds of gendered body, and in the ways in which men negotiate the perception of these bodies in different occupational contexts. [source]

    Staying with People Who Slap Us Around: Gender, Juggling Responsibilities and Violence in Paid (and Unpaid) Care Work

    Donna BainesArticle first published online: 13 FEB 200
    Little is actually known about women's occupational health, let alone how men and women may experience similar jobs and health risks differently. Drawing on data from a larger study of social service workers, this article examines four areas where gender is pivotal to the new ways of organizing caring labour, including the expansion of unpaid work and the use of personal resources to subsidize agency resources; gender-neutral violence; gender-specific violence and the juggling of home and work responsibilities. Collective assumptions and expectations about how men and women should perform care work result in men's partial insulation from the more intense forms of exploitation, stress and violence. This article looks at health risks, not merely as compensable occupational health concerns, but as avoidable products of forms of work organization that draw on notions of the endlessly stretchable capacity of women to provide care work in any context, including a context of violence. Indeed, the logic of women's elastic caring appear crucial to the survival of some agencies and the gender order in these workplaces. [source]

    Urban Shadows: Materiality, the ,Southern City' and Urban Theory

    Colin McFarlane
    We may be witnessing a ,Southern turn' in urban studies, but the implications for urban theory are only beginning to be worked through. In this article, I argue the need for urbanists to engage with a variety of ,shadows' on the edges of urban theory. The article engages with literature that theorises the interactions between urban materiality and social change, from community development literature to more expansive sociomaterial theorisations of the urban fabric. I invoke an expansive conception of the relations between the urban fabric and social change, and draw on a variety of examples through which infrastructures come to matter politically in the creative destruction of capitalist redevelopment. The article ends with consideration of how comparison might be conceived as a strategy of indirect and uncertain learning that entails the possibility of transformation in a predominantly Euro-American-orientated urban theory. [source]

    So near yet so far: blocked networks, global links and multiple exclusion in the German,Polish borderlands

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 3 2006
    We rarely consider borders and border regions. However, state borders provide a crucial component of a globalizing society in transition. Exhibiting a structural ambivalence, borders can be seedbeds of cosmopolitanism, sites of cultural closure, or often both simultaneously. To understand cross-border interaction we have to engage with a complex configuration of global and sub-global dynamics. In this article I argue that borders are revealing analytical tools that must be included in any grounded theory of global change. I draw on fieldwork conducted in the German-Polish border region, mostly in the German-Polish twin city Guben/Gubin. Here we are confronted with the simultaneous processes of globalization, European integration and post-socialist transformation. [source]

    Stabilizing flows in the legal field: illusions of permanence, intellectual property rights and the transnationalization of law

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 1 2003
    Paul Street
    In this article I examine some of the problems that ,modern' legal theory poses for a consideration of the extended reach of social actors and institutions in time and space. While jurisprudence has begun to engage with the concept of globalization, it has done so in a relatively limited manner. Thus legal theory's encounters with highly visible transnational practices have, for the most part, resulted not in challenging the prevailing formal legal paradigm, but in a renewed if slightly modified search for a general jurisprudence that ultimately takes little account of the manner in which the work of law is carried out transnationally. In the first part of this article I examine how legal theory's concern to maintain its own integrity places limitations on its ability to examine the permeability of social boundaries. In the latter part I draw on critical human geography, post,structuralism and actor,network theory (ANT), to examine the manner in which transnational actors have been able to mobilize law, and in particular intellectual property rights (IPRs), as a necessary strategy for both maintaining the meanings of bio,technologies through time and space, and enrolling farmers into particular social networks. [source]

    PENTA 2009 guidelines for the use of antiretroviral therapy in paediatric HIV-1 infection

    HIV MEDICINE, Issue 10 2009
    PENTA Steering Committee
    PENTA Guidelines aim to provide practical recommendations for treating children with HIV infection in Europe. Changes to guidance since 2004 have been informed by new evidence and by expectations of better outcomes following the ongoing success of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Participation in PENTA trials of simplifying treatment is encouraged. The main changes are in the following sections: ,When to start ART': Treatment is recommended for all infants, and at higher CD4 cell counts and percentages in older children, in line with changes to adult guidelines. The number of age bands has been reduced to simplify and harmonize with other paediatric guidelines. Greater emphasis is placed on CD4 cell count in children over 5 years, and guidance is provided where CD4% and CD4 criteria differ. ,What to start with': A three-drug regimen of two nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) with either a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or a boosted protease inhibitor (PI) remains the first choice combination. Lamivudine and abacavir are the NRTI backbone of choice for most children, based on long-term follow-up in the PENTA 5 trial. Stavudine is no longer recommended. Whether to start with an NNRTI or PI remains unclear, but PENPACT 1 trial results in 2009 may help to inform this. All PIs should be ritonavir boosted. Recommendations on use of resistance testing, therapeutic drug monitoring and HLA testing draw from data in adults and from European paediatric cohort studies. Recently updated US and WHO paediatric guidelines provide more detailed review of the evidence base. Differences between guidelines are highlighted and explained. [source]

    Great Galway Goslings: Organizational Context of Managerial Accounting,

    Wagdy Abdallah
    ABSTRACT This case seeks to enhance student understanding of the relationship between accounting information and the order fulfllment and production activities of a manufacturing frm, Great Galway Goslings. Great Galway Goslings manufactures goose sculptures and has been suffering losses in recent years. Students draw on the skills they learned in financial accounting to analyze the company's order fulfllment activities, identify economic transactions, and prepare journal entries. The case provides a link to managerial accounting topics as students use segment financial statements to create contribution margin income statements, perform break-even analyses, and recommend whether Great Galway Goslings should keep its retail business segment. Students will become familiar with the key features of business process management (BPM) and the extensive, real-world activities that a manufacturing entity engages in to fll an order. Students will analyze the company's existing order fulfllment process and apply their knowledge of BPM to recommend process improvements for Great Galway. This case contributes to the accounting case literature by serving as a bridge from financial accounting to managerial accounting, intertwining many topics from managerial accounting into one cohesive case, and providing real-world business process knowledge. Student feedback indicates that, overall, the case met its stated learning objectives. Great Galway Goslings is appropriate for an undergraduate introductory managerial accounting course but can be adapted to the equivalent graduate-level course or an accounting information systems course. [source]

    (Re)presenting experience: a comparison of Australian Aboriginal children's sand play in two settings

    Ute Eickelkamp
    Abstract This paper examines how Australian Aboriginal children present and re-present experience in their symbolic play. Based on anthropological field research in one location and therapeutic work in another, it reports from a psychodynamic perspective how the Indigenous children create meaning on the personal and social level in two distinctive play forms. These are a traditional sand story game played by Anangu Pitjantjatjara girls in a remote Western Desert community in Central Australia, and the European sand play therapy that was introduced as part of an intervention program in a Tiwi Islands community off the northern coast. In phenomenological terms, both techniques draw on the symbolizing activity of the lived body (Schilder, 1950, 1951; Merleau-Ponty, 1961; Scheler, 1973) or, in the language of organismic-developmental theory, physiognomizing processes (Werner and Kaplan, 1984). These processes are seen to rest on the primary human capacity for imagination (Castoriadis, 1987). However, the schematizing activity that creates a meaningful relationship between symbol and referent (Werner and Kaplan, 1984) is specific to each play form. Set up retrospectively as a comparison, the discussion leads to the observation that the self-directed play in the natural social setting is of a higher symbolic order (re-presentational) than the externally induced play in the artificial social setting that indicates spontaneous linkages between symbol and referent (presentational). It is suggested that this raises certain questions about the potentially therapeutic effect of children's symbolic play. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Adipokine genes and prostate cancer risk

    Steven C. Moore
    Abstract Adiposity and adipocyte-derived cytokines have been implicated in prostate carcinogenesis. However, the relationship of adipokine gene variants with prostate cancer risk has not been thoroughly investigated. We therefore examined common variants of the IL6, LEP, LEPR, TNF and ADIPOQ genes in relation to prostate cancer in a case-control study nested within a large cohort of Finnish men. The study sample consisted of 1,053 cases of prostate cancer, diagnosed over an average 11 years of follow up, and 1,053 controls matched to the cases on age, intervention group and date of baseline blood draw. Logistic regression was used to model the relative odds of prostate cancer. We also examined genotypes in relation to serum insulin, IGF-1 and IGF-1:IGFBP-3 among 196 controls. Variant alleles at three loci (,14858A>G, ,13973A>C, ,13736C>A) in a potential regulatory region of the LEP gene conferred a statistically significant 20% reduced risk of prostate cancer. For example, at the ,14858A>G locus, heterozygotes and homozygotes for the A allele had an odds ratio (OR) of prostate cancer of 0.76 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.62, 0.93] and 0.79 (95% CI 0.60, 1.04), respectively. At 13288G>A, relative to the GG genotype, the AA genotype was associated with a suggestive increased risk of prostate cancer (OR = 1.29; 95% CI 0.99,1.67; ptrend = 0.05). Polymorphisms in the IL6, LEPR, TNF and ADIPOQ genes were not associated with prostate cancer. Allelic variants in the LEP gene are related to prostate cancer risk, supporting a role for leptin in prostate carcinogenesis. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Epicureanism and the poetics of consumption

    Dawn Wood
    Abstract Consumption, ,to use up, to destroy', is a dirty word. It conjures piles of rubbish; it suggests an extravagant attitude. We, each one of us hoping to be a unique, careful individual, can feel offended at being referred to as ,the consumer'. Yet, ,to consume' is not only a human activity, it is one of the fundamental processes of nature, a natural aspect of the creative process. In this paper, I will emphasize connections between the creative research process, poetics and consumerism. I suggest that research can be envisioned as a cycle of consumption and renewal. Our tools in such a natural philosophy are the contemplation of natural events, and the insights that a poetic understanding of language can give us. To this end, I draw on the ancient Epicurean philosophy, as demonstrated in De rerum natura, written by the Roman poet, Lucretius, in the first century BCE. Lucretius gave a scientific explanation of the universe, in poetry, to demonstrate that natural laws can be derived by reason, contemplation and by the use of the senses. Further, Lucretius' use of language, as a creative medium, modelled the actions of the universe. This insight provides a link between poetry, science and research, one which is still relevant to twenty-first-century scientific research generally. In this paper, I will suggest that it is also specifically relevant to the design and practice of consumer research. For instance, both research and creativity are aspects of that urge to move beyond subjectivity, towards knowledge that is whole and shared. In Epicureanism, subjective engagement provides access to that which is universal. We can conceive of consumerism, and of consumer research, in the same terms, as a striving for completion, and as a poetic, natural and reciprocal act, involving the transformation of the consumer, and that which is consumed. [source]

    International real interest rate differentials, purchasing power parity and the behaviour of real exchange rates: the resolution of a conundrum

    Mark P. Taylor
    Abstract According to one strand of the international finance literature, market efficiency implies that the real exchange rate follows a martingale process, in direct conflict with the long-run absolute purchasing power parity hypothesis, which requires a stationary real exchange rate process. This conflict between market efficiency and long-run PPP appears as something of a conundrum. We resolve this conundrum by relaxing the assumption of a constant real interest rate differential and analysing the vector equilibrium correction system linking prices and the exchange rate, and draw out the economic intuition of our result. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A qualitative exploration of communication within the community mental health team

    Jenny Donnison
    ABSTRACT:, This qualitative study sought to explore conceptual models employed by community mental health team (CMHT) staff in the care of their clients and how CMHT clinicians communicated with one another, particularly in relation to complex clinical work. The qualitative method of interpretive phenomenological analysis was used, and semistructured in-depth interviews with seven UK CMHT clinicians were conducted and analyzed. Four themes were evident in the data and showed that clinicians face complex and competing demands and draw on a range of therapeutic models in their work. It was also clear that much discussion centred primarily on pragmatic issues and lacked conceptual depth. The results underline the complex and challenging nature of CMHT work and suggest that a more systematic approach to interdisciplinary training within teams could be beneficial in increasing clinicians' knowledge, skills, and their understanding of the conceptual models used across different disciplines. [source]

    Association chain graphs: modelling etiological pathways

    Michael Höfler
    Abstract Multiple time-dynamic and interrelated risk factors are usually involved in the complex etiology of disorders. This paper presents a strategy to explore and display visually the relative importance of different association pathways for the onset of disorder over time. The approach is based on graphical chain models, a tool that is powerful but still under-utilized in most fields. Usually, the results of these models are displayed using directed acyclic graphs (DAGs). These draw an edge between a pair of variables whenever the assumption of conditional independence given variables on an earlier or equal temporal footing is violated to a statistically significant extent. In the present paper, the graphs are modified in that confidence intervals for the strengths of associations (statistical main effects) are visualized. These new graphs are called association chain graphs (ACGs). Statistical interactions cause ,edges' between the respective variables within the DAG framework (because the assumption of conditional independence is violated). In contrast they are represented as separate graphs within the subsample where the different association chains may work within the ACG framework. With this new type of graph, more specific information can be displayed whenever the data are essentially described only with statistical main- and two-way interaction effects. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]