Distribution by Scientific Domains

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  • Terms modified by Documents

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  • Selected Abstracts

    Guidelines for Sclerotherapy of Varicose Veins (ICD 10: I83.0, I83.1, I83.2, and I83.9)

    E. Rabe MD
    Background. Sclerotherapy is the targeted elimination of intracutaneous, subcutaneous, and/or transfascial varicose veins (perforating veins) as well as the sclerosation of subfascial varicose vessels in the case of venous malformation by the injection of a sclerosant. With duplex-guide sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy, modified methods came into use. Objective. The objective was to create a guideline, based on the available publications and on the European Consensus Document on foam sclerotherapy from April 2003. Methods. This guideline was drafted on behalf of the German Society of Phlebology (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Phlebologie) and adopted by the committee and scientific advisory board of the Deutsche Gesellschaft für Phlebologie on June 15, 2001, and amended on December 5, 2003. The guideline considers the present state of knowledge as reflected in the literature. Conclusions. This guideline represents the recent state of the art of sclerotherapy of varicose veins in Germany including foam sclerotherapy. [source]

    Intra- and interlaboratory calibration of the DR CALUX® bioassay for the analysis of dioxins and dioxin-like chemicals in sediments

    Harrie T. Besselink
    Abstract In the Fourth National Policy Document on Water Management in the Netherlands [1], it is defined that in 2003, in addition to the assessment of chemical substances, special guidelines for the assessment of dredged material should be recorded. The assessment of dredged material is based on integrated chemical and biological effect measurements. Among others, the DR CALUX® (dioxin responsive,chemically activated luciferase expression) bioassay has tentatively been recommended for inclusion in the dredged material assessment. To ensure the reliability of this bioassay, an intra- and interlaboratory validation study, or ring test, was performed, organized by the Dutch National Institute for Coastal and Marine Management (RIKZ) in cooperation with BioDetection Systems BV (BDS). The intralaboratory repeatability and reproducibility and the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) of the DR CALUX bioassay were determined by analyzing sediment extracts and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) blanks. The highest observed repeatability was found to be 24.1%, whereas the highest observed reproducibility was calculated to be 19.9%. Based on the obtained results, the LOD and LOQ to be applied for the bioassay are 0.3 and 1.0 pM, respectively. The interlaboratory calibration study was divided into three phases, starting with analyzing pure chemicals. During the second phase, sediment extracts were analyzed, whereas in the third phase, whole sediments had to be extracted, cleaned, and analyzed. The average interlaboratory repeatability increased from 14.6% for the analysis of pure compound to 26.1% for the analysis of whole matrix. A similar increase in reproducibility with increasing complexity of handlings was observed with the interlaboratory reproducibility of 6.5% for pure compound and 27.9% for whole matrix. The results of this study are intended as a starting point for implementing the integrated chemical,biological assessment strategy and for systematic monitoring of dredged materials and related materials in the coming years. [source]

    Approaches for derivation of environmental quality criteria for substances applied in risk assessment of discharges from offshore drilling operations

    Dag Altin
    Abstract In order to achieve the offshore petroleum industries "zero harm" goal to the environment, the environmental impact factor for drilling discharges was developed as a tool to identify and quantify the environmental risks associated with disposal of drilling discharges to the marine environment. As an initial step in this work the main categories of substances associated with drilling discharges and assumed to contribute to toxic or nontoxic stress were identified and evaluated for inclusion in the risk assessment. The selection were based on the known toxicological properties of the substances, or the total amount discharged together with their potential for accumulation in the water column or sediments to levels that could be expected to cause toxic or nontoxic stress to the biota. Based on these criteria 3 categories of chemicals were identified for risk assessment the water column and sediments: Natural organic substances, metals, and drilling fluid chemicals. Several approaches for deriving the environmentally safe threshold concentrations as predicted no effect concentrations were evaluated in the process. For the water column consensus were reached for using the species sensitivity distribution approach for metals and the assessment factor approach for natural organic substances and added drilling chemicals. For the sediments the equilibrium partitioning approach was selected for all three categories of chemicals. The theoretically derived sediment quality criteria were compared to field-derived threshold effect values based on statistical approaches applied on sediment monitoring data from the Norwegian Continental Shelf. The basis for derivation of predicted no effect concentration values for drilling discharges should be consistent with the principles of environmental risk assessment as described in the Technical Guidance Document on Risk Assessment issued by the European Union. [source]

    Mark as a Roman Document from the Year 69: Testing Martin Hengel's Thesis

    Ivan Head
    This paper explores Martin Hengel's thesis that the Gospel of Mark was written in Rome in the year 69. Hengel was convinced that more should be made of the Year of Four Emperors, a period of civic chaos and warfare that ensued on the death of Nero. The paper analyses the role of the emperor as a potent force in the religious, civic, political, and military unity that is Rome and her gods; the all-pervasive Jerusalem Temple; and Josephus's return to Rome in 71 and the publication of The Jewish War. The paper shows that these themes overlap with this Gospel and are at least consistently supportive of the claim that Rome is the place of composition. The paper refers positively to a recent publication by Brian Incigneri that stresses the critical role of the Triumph of Vespasian and Titus in 71 as the catalytic event for Mark. [source]

    Scientific Information Document: Checklist of infections that may be imported into the UK by the travelling pet

    Article first published online: 28 JUN 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Primary care health issues among men who have sex with men

    Royal Gee MSN
    Abstract Purpose: The purpose of the article is to examine "appropriate" health care for men who have sex with men (MSM), which is not to suggest "special" health care. As a group, MSM are at increased risk for sexually transmitted infections, anal cancer, and mental health disorders. Focus areas in this article will address health issues that the primary care nurse practitioner (NP) may encounter in clinical practice: anal carcinoma, sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), high-risk sexual practices, depression, and substance abuse were topics chosen for inclusion in this article. These topics were among those highlighted in the Healthy People 2010 Companion Document for LGBT Health, which served to examine the healthcare disparities and lack of access to needed services related to sexual orientation. Data source: Extensive literature review of research articles, journals, clinical practice guidelines, books, and public health department Internet Web sites. Conclusions: There are unique health disparities that exist for MSM related to social, emotional, and mental health factors, in addition to physical issues such as STDs. There is an increasing need for primary care providers to be aware of these disparities, as well as the factors that influence these disparities, in order to provide multidimensional care and health counseling that is unique to NP practice. Implications for practice: Both the primary care NP and the patient should be aware of the unique healthcare issues among MSM that should be incorporated into the patient's routine health maintenance program. As primary care providers, it is within the standards of practice for NPs to provide culturally competent care, along with health promotion and disease prevention for MSM. [source]

    Evidence-Based Strategies for Reading Instruction of Older Students with Learning Disabilities

    Greg Roberts
    Over a quarter of 8th-grade students and more than one-third of 4th graders do not read well enough to understand important concepts and acquire new knowledge from grade-level text. For students with learning disabilities, the numbers are more troubling. This article describes features of evidence-based instruction for students who continue to struggle with reading in late elementary, middle, and high school. Recommendations are organized into 5 areas that are critical to the reading improvement of older struggling readers: (1) word study, (2) fluency, (3) vocabulary, (4) comprehension, and (5) motivation. Much of the content in this article reflects our efforts with the Special Education and Reading Strands at the National Center on Instruction, funded by the Office of Special Education Programs and the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education. Two reports, both available at, have particular relevance,Interventions for Adolescent Struggling Readers: A Meta-Analysis with Implications for Practice and Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents: A Guidance Document from the Center on Instruction. [source]

    Document: Terms of Saudi Arabia's Accession to the WTO

    MIDDLE EAST POLICY, Issue 1 2006
    Article first published online: 3 MAR 200
    This material is a summary prepared by Loeffler Tuggey Pauerstein Rosenthal LLP on behalf of the Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. [source]

    Document: Arab Peace Initiative

    MIDDLE EAST POLICY, Issue 2 2002
    Article first published online: 17 DEC 200
    This inititative was drafted at the Arab League Summit in Beirut, Lebanon, on March 27-28, 2001. Source: The Royal Embassy of Saudi Arabia. [source]

    Revisiting DDGX/DDG-51 Concept Exploration

    This study revisits concept exploration for DDG-51 using reconstructed 1978,1979 DDX and 1979,1980 DDGX requirements and options, and 2005 tools. The goal of this study is to assess and highlight the benefits of current tools and processes for concept exploration by comparison with a well-known design that did not use these tools. This case study was completed in a summer and fall ship design project at Virginia Tech. In 1979, the acquisition and design process did not begin with a Mission Need Statement, Analysis of Alternatives or Integrated Capabilities Document as is required today. It began with studies, Tentative Operational Requirements, and Draft Top Level Requirements. In this study, we revisit the 1978,1980 DDG-51 (DDX/DDGX) concept exploration based on the guidance, goals, and constraints of the DDX and DDGX studies, using a notional mission statement, concept of operations, and list of required capabilities. The design space is defined to include many of the same design alternatives that were considered in the DDX and DDGX studies. A multiple-objective genetic optimization (MOGO) based on military effectiveness, cost, and risk is used to search the design space and perform trade-offs. A simple ship synthesis model is used to balance the designs, assess feasibility, and calculate cost, risk, and effectiveness. Alternative designs are ranked by cost, risk, and effectiveness, and presented in a series of non-dominated frontiers. Concepts for further study and development are chosen from this frontier and a comparison with DDG-51 is made based on these results. [source]

    Document: Qiao Shi on China's Long March to the Rule of Law

    As it prepares to host the 2008 Olympics, China's authoritarian development model, which has sustained high growth for two decades, is entering a fragile new stage. Tainted toys and other products have made the American consumers on whom China relies wary even as the debt-and-deficit ridden American economy relies on China's massive foreign reserves to keep going. In the meantime, China's aggressive search for raw materials in Africa is causing a backlash while its cyberspying probes into Western defense systems are reviving Cold War-like tensions. The US treasury secretary, a top China expert and former intelligence officials offer their views. [source]

    Remediation process optimization: A status report

    REMEDIATION, Issue 3 2007
    Sriram Madabhushi
    There are hundreds of contaminated sites with remediation systems that require evaluation and modification to accomplish cleanup goals. These systems are operating well past projected cleanup schedules, cost more than projected to operate, and may not be as protective of human health and the environment as planned. Remediation process optimization (RPO) is an effective method to assess the progress of a system toward achieving cleanup goals within desired time frames and to make the necessary changes in order to reach those goals. Eight main components to the RPO process are evaluated during a review and an implementation plan of recommended changes to the system is developed. Follow-up and tracking are essential to successful RPO programs. In this article, the authors present a summary of a recent Technical and Regulatory (TechReg) Guidance Document (Interstate Technology and Regulatory Council [ITRC], 2004) and related Technology Overview Series on Advanced Topics in RPO (ITRC, 2006) in a distilled form. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Integrating Web-Based Documents, Shared Knowledge Bases, and Information Retrieval for User Help

    Doug Skuce
    We describe a prototype system, IKARUS, with which we investigated the potential of integrating web-based documents, shared knowledge bases, and information retrieval for improving knowledge storage and retrieval. As an example, we discuss how to implement both a user manual and an online help system as one system. The following technologies are combined: a web-based design, a frame-based knowledge engine, use of an advanced full-text search engine, and simple techniques to control terminology. We have combined graphical browsing with several unusual forms of text retrieval,for example, to the sentence and paragraph level. [source]

    ,To prove this is the industry's best hope': big tobacco's support of research on the genetics of nicotine addiction

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2010
    Kenneth R. Gundle
    ABSTRACT Background New molecular techniques focus a genetic lens upon nicotine addiction. Given the medical and economic costs associated with smoking, innovative approaches to smoking cessation and prevention must be pursued; but can sound research be manipulated by the tobacco industry? Methodology The chronological narrative of this paper was created using iterative reviews of primary sources (the Legacy Tobacco Documents), supplemented with secondary literature to provide a broader context. The empirical data inform an ethics and policy analysis of tobacco industry-funded research. Findings The search for a genetic basis for smoking is consistent with industry's decades-long plan to deflect responsibility away from the tobacco companies and onto individuals' genetic constitutions. Internal documents reveal long-standing support for genetic research as a strategy to relieve the tobacco industry of its legal responsibility for tobacco-related disease. Conclusions Industry may turn the findings of genetics to its own ends, changing strategy from creating a ,safe' cigarette to defining a ,safe' smoker. [source]

    Goethe, His Duke and Infanticide: New Documents and Reflections on a Controversial Execution

    W. Daniel Wilson
    ABSTRACT It has been known since the 1930s that in 1783 Goethe cast his vote as a member of the governing Privy Council (,Geheimes Consilium') of Saxe-Weimar to retain the death penalty for infanticide. This decision, which followed a request by Duke Carl August for his councillors' advice on the matter, has moved to the centre of controversies over the political Goethe, since it meant that Johanna Höhn of Tannroda, who had been convicted of infanticide, was subsequently executed. The issue draws its special poignancy from Goethe's empathetic portrayal of the infanticide committed by Margarete in the earliest known version of Faust. The simultaneous publication in 2004 of two editions documenting the wider issue of infanticide and other crimes relating to sexual morality in Saxe-Weimar has re-ignited the controversy. The present article reexamines the issues, presenting new evidence that establishes the discourse on the question of the death penalty for infanticide in books that Duke Carl August and Goethe purchased, and presents the script of the public trial re-enactment (,Halsgericht') on the market square in Weimar directly preceding the execution. It concludes that this discourse ran heavily against the death penalty, and it counters attempts in recent scholarship to draw attention away from the Höhn execution. [source]

    End-user access to multiple sources: incorporating knowledge discovery into knowledge management

    Katharina Morik
    The End-User Access to Multiple Sources,Eams system,integrates given information sources into a knowledge management system. It relates the world of documents with the database world using an ontology. The focus of developing the Eams system is on the acquisition and maintenance of knowledge. Hence, in both worlds, machine learning is applied. In the document world, a learning search engine adapts to user behaviour by analysing the click-through-data. This eases the personalization of selecting appropriate documents for users and does not require further maintenance. In the database world, knowledge discovery in databases (KDD) bridges the gap between the ,ne granularity of relational databases and the actual information needs of users. KDD extracts knowledge from data and, therefore, allows the knowledge management system to make good use of already existing company data,without further acquisition or maintenance. A graphical user interface provides users with a uniform access to document collections on the Internet (Intranet) as well as to relational databases. Since the ontology generates the items in the user interface, a change in the ontology automatically changes the user interface without further efforts. The Eams system has been applied to customer relationship management in the insurance domain. Questions to be answered by the system concern customer acquisition (e.g. direct marketing), customer up- and cross-selling (e.g. which products sell well together), and customer retention (here, which customers are likely to leave the insurance company or ask for a return of a capital life insurance). Documents about other insurance companies and demographic data published on the Internet contribute to the answers, as do the results of data analysis of the company's contracts. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Disasters, Lessons Learned, and Fantasy Documents

    Thomas A. Birkland
    This article develops a general theory of why post-disaster ,lessons learned' documents are often ,fantasy documents'. The article describes the political and organizational barriers to effective learning from disasters, and builds on general theory building on learning from extreme events to explain this phenomenon. Fantasy documents are not generally about the ,real' causes and solutions to disasters; rather, they are generated to prove that some authoritative actor has ,done something' about a disaster. Because it is difficult to test whether learning happened after an extreme event, these post-disaster documents are generally ignored after they are published. [source]

    Possibility that certain hypnotics might cause cancer in skin

    Summary Fifteen epidemiologic studies have associated hypnotic drugs with excess mortality, especially excess cancer deaths. Until recently, insufficient controlled trials were available to demonstrate whether hypnotics actually cause any cancers. The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Approval History and Documents were accessed for zaleplon, eszopiclone and ramelteon. Since zolpidem was used as a comparison drug in zaleplon trials, some zolpidem data were also available. Incident cancers occurring during randomized hypnotics administration or placebo administration were tabulated. Combining controlled trials for the four drugs, there were 6190 participants given hypnotics and 2535 given placebo in parallel. There were eight mentions of incident non-melanoma skin cancers among participants receiving hypnotics but no comparable mentions of cancers among those receiving placebo (P = 0.064, one-tailed). There were also four mentions of incident tumors of uncertain malignancy among those receiving hypnotics but none among those receiving placebo, so combining uncertain and definite malignancies yielded a more significant contrast (P = 0.016). FDA files revealed that all four of the new hypnotics were associated with cancers in rodents. Three had been shown to be clastogenic. Together with the epidemiologic data and laboratory studies, the available evidence signals that new hypnotics may increase cancer risk. Due to limitations in available data, confirmatory research is needed. [source]

    Paper to Digital: Documents in the Information Age

    Christine Urquhart Dr.

    Mobile information retrieval with search results clustering: Prototypes and evaluations

    Claudio Carpineto
    Web searches from mobile devices such as PDAs and cell phones are becoming increasingly popular. However, the traditional list-based search interface paradigm does not scale well to mobile devices due to their inherent limitations. In this article, we investigate the application of search results clustering, used with some success for desktop computer searches, to the mobile scenario. Building on CREDO (Conceptual Reorganization of Documents), a Web clustering engine based on concept lattices, we present its mobile versions Credino and SmartCREDO, for PDAs and cell phones, respectively. Next, we evaluate the retrieval performance of the three prototype systems. We measure the effectiveness of their clustered results compared to a ranked list of results on a subtopic retrieval task, by means of the device-independent notion of subtopic reach time together with a reusable test collection built from Wikipedia ambiguous entries. Then, we make a cross-comparison of methods (i.e., clustering and ranked list) and devices (i.e., desktop, PDA, and cell phone), using an interactive information-finding task performed by external participants. The main finding is that clustering engines are a viable complementary approach to plain search engines both for desktop and mobile searches especially, but not only, for multitopic informational queries. [source]

    Documents and queries as random variables: History and implications

    David Bodoff
    The view of documents and/or queries as random variables is gaining importance in the theory of information retrieval. We argue that traditional probabilistic models consider documents and queries as random variables, but that newer models such as language modeling and our unified model take this one step further. The additional step is called error in predictors. Such models consider that we don't observe the document and query random variables that are modeled to predict relevance probabilistically. Rather, there are additional random variables, which are the observed documents and queries. We discuss some important implications of this idea for parameter estimation, relevance prediction, and even test-collection construction. By clarifying the positions of various probabilistic models on this question, and presenting in one place many of its implications, this article aims to deepen our common understanding of the theories behind traditional probabilistic models, and to strengthen the theoretical basis for further development of more recent approaches such as language modeling. [source]

    The Discovery of Guiana by Sir Walter Ralegh: With Related Documents , Edited by Benjamin Schmidt

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 3 2010
    David M. Head
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    U.S. Environmentalism since 1945: A Brief History with Documents , Edited by Steven Stoll

    THE HISTORIAN, Issue 2 2009
    R. Douglas Hurt
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Rethinking lifelong learning through online distance learning in Chinese educational policies, practices and research

    Min Yang
    This paper offers a critique of the Chinese philosophy of online distance learning as a means of building a lifelong learning society. Literature about lifelong learning and its implications for online distance learning is reviewed. Documents, reports and research papers are examined to explore the characteristics of the Chinese philosophy of online distance learning as reflected in the prevailing understanding and debates in the field. Phenomenological analysis, deconstructive discourse analysis and internal criticism are employed, guided by a phenomenological qualitative methodology. The critique reveals that the notion of lifelong learning is to some extent obscured in meaning in the prevailing understanding of and debates about Chinese online distance learning. Furthermore, it shows that the Chinese philosophy of online distance learning paradoxically combines a sense of overenthusiasm with a sense of underestimation associated with the potential of online distance learning in promoting lifelong learning. Also identified is the emerging development of Chinese online distance learning towards its ,in-depth development', based on an increasing awareness of the necessity to enhance the quality of online distance learning through integration of educational theories with information and communication technologies (ICT). The paper calls for a new vision on ICT for learning as a necessary condition for successful incorporation of Chinese online distance learning with and into lifelong learning. [source]

    Towards integrated paediatric services in the Netherlands: a survey of views and policies on collaboration in the care for children with cerebral palsy

    B. J. G. Nijhuis
    Abstract Aim, Worldwide, family-centred and co-ordinated care are seen as the two most desirable and effective methods of paediatric care delivery. This study outlines current views on how team collaboration comprising professionals in paediatric rehabilitation and special education and the parents of children with disabilities should be organized, and analyses the policies of five paediatric rehabilitation settings associated with the care of 44 children with cerebral palsy (CP) in the Netherlands. Methods, For an overview of current ideas on collaboration, written statements of professional associations in Dutch paediatric rehabilitation were examined. The policy statements of the five participating settings were derived from their institutional files. Documents detailing the collaborative arrangements involving the various professionals and parents were evaluated at the institutional level and at the child level. Involvement of the stakeholders was analysed based on team conferences. Results, Also in the Netherlands collaboration between rehabilitation and education professionals and parents is endorsed as the key principle in paediatric rehabilitation, with at its core the team conference in which the various priorities and goals are formulated and integrated into a personalized treatment plan. As to their collaborative approaches between rehabilitation centre and school, the five paediatric settings rarely differed, but at the child level approaches varied. Teams were large (averaging 10.5 members), and all three stakeholder groups were represented, but involvement differed per setting, as did the roles and contributions of the individual team members. Conclusion, Collaboration between rehabilitation and education professionals and parents is supported and encouraged nationwide. Views on collaboration have been formulated, and general guidelines on family-centred and co-ordinated care are available. Yet, collaborative practices in Dutch paediatric care are still developing. Protocols that carefully delineate the commitments to collaborate and that translate the policies into practical, detailed guidelines are needed, as they are a prerequisite for successful teamwork. [source]


    Manabu Tauchi
    When one tries to use the Web as a dictionary or encyclopedia, entering some single term into a search engine, the highly ranked pages in the result can include irrelevant or useless sites. The problem is that single-term queries, if taken literally, underspecify the type of page the user wants. For such problems automatic query expansion, also known as pseudo-feedback, is often effective. In this method the top n documents returned by an initial retrieval are used to provide terms for a second retrieval. This paper contributes, first, new normalization techniques for query expansion, and second, a new way of computing the similarity between an expanded query and a document, the "local relevance density" metric, which complements the standard vector product metric. Both of these techniques are shown to be useful for single-term queries, in Japanese, in experiments done over the World Wide Web in early 2001. [source]

    Augmenting LZ-77 with authentication and integrity assurance capabilities

    Mikhail J. Atallah
    Abstract The formidable dissemination capability allowed by the current network technology makes it increasingly important to devise new methods to ensure authenticity and integrity. Nowadays it is common practice to distribute documents in compressed form. In this paper, we propose a simple variation on the classic LZ-77 algorithm that allows one to hide, within the compressed document, enough information to warrant its authenticity and integrity. The design is based on the unpredictability of a certain class of pseudo-random number generators, in such a way that the hidden data cannot be retrieved in a reasonable amount of time by an attacker (unless the secret bit-string key is known). Since it can still be decompressed by the original LZ-77 algorithm, the embedding is completely ,transparent' and backward-compatible, making it possible to deploy it without disrupting service. Experiments show that the degradation in compression due to the embedding is almost negligible. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Disclosure of UK Boardroom Pay: the March 2001 DTI proposals

    Martin J. Conyon
    In March 2001 the government announced that new disclosure rules relating to UK boardroom pay would be introduced. This paper critically evaluates these proposals. The new proposals emerged from the government's Directors Remuneration consultative document issued in July 1999. The current paper makes the following contributions to the governance literature. First, the new disclosure proposals are reviewed. I suggest that they are incomplete both in their detail and scope. I also suggest that the government has conceded that more US style executive compensation disclosure is required. Second, I describe US executive compensation disclosure practices. If convergence in disclosure practice is potentially desirable then a more systematic comparison and analysis of current disclosure policies in the two economies is warranted. [source]

    Four- and five-color flow cytometry analysis of leukocyte differentiation pathways in normal bone marrow: A reference document based on a systematic approach by the GTLLF and GEIL,,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2010
    Christine Arnoulet
    Abstract Background: The development of multiparameter flow cytometry (FCM) and increasingly sophisticated analysis software has considerably improved the exploration of hematological disorders. These tools have been widely applied in leukaemias, lymphomas, and myelodysplasias, yet with very heterogeneous approaches. Consequently, there is no extensive reference document reporting on the characteristics of normal human bone marrow (BM) in multiparameter FCM. Here, we report a reference analysis procedure using relevant antibody combinations in normal human BM. Methods: A first panel of 23 antibodies, constructed after literature review, was tested in four-color combinations (including CD45 in each) on 30 samples of BM. After evaluation of the data, a second set of 22 antibodies was further applied to another 35 BM samples. All list-modes from the 65 bone marrow samples were reviewed collectively. A systematised protocol for data analysis was established including biparametric representations and color codes for the three major lineages and undifferentiated cells. Results: This strategy has allowed to obtain a reference atlas of relevant patterns of differentiation antigens expression in normal human BM that is available within the European LeukemiaNet. This manuscript describes how this atlas was constructed. Conclusions: Both the strategy and atlas could prove very useful as a reference of normality, for the determination of leukemia-associated immunophenotypic patterns, analysis of myelodysplasia and, ultimately, investigation of minimal residual disease in the BM. © 2009 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Neurodevelopmental outcomes of children with low-grade gliomas

    M. Douglas Ris
    Abstract As a group, children with low-grade gliomas (LGGs) enjoy a high rate of long-term survival and do not require the intensity of neurotoxic treatments used with higher risk pediatric brain tumors. Because they are generally considered to have favorable neurobehavioral outcomes, they have not been studied as thoroughly as higher-grade brain tumors by late-effects researchers. In this article, we review the literature on the neurobehavioral effects associated with low-grade gliomas and conclude that, (1) this is a large, understudied group of survivors of pediatric brain tumors; (2) recent small- and large-scale studies document increased risk in multiple cognitive-behavioral domains after treatment for LGGs compared with healthy peers; (3) such risk is not uniform but varies with tumor location and treatments; and (4) a life span development perspective is essential to a complete understanding of the risks faced by these children. More research on the most efficacious biopsychosocial treatment models for improving the outcomes of survivors of low-grade glioma is recommended, informed by a better understanding of theireducational needs. Investigations of genetic influences on outcome as well as prospective studies of these patients as they age are also recommended. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:196,202. [source]