Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Adolescence

  • early adolescence
  • late adolescence

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 1 2001
    The social development model seeks to explain human behavior through specification of predictive and mediating developmental relationships. It incorporates the effects of empirical predictors ("risk factors" and "protective factors") for antisocial behavior and seeks to synthesize the most strongly supported propositions of control theory, social learning theory, and differential association theory. This article examines the fit of the social development model using constructs measured at ages 10, 13, 14, and 16 to predict violent behavior at age 18. The sample of 808 is from the longitudinal panel of the Seattle Social Development Project, which in 1985 surveyed fifth-grade students from schools serving high crime neighborhoods in Seattle, Washington. Structural equation modeling techniques were used to examine the fit of the model to the data. The model fit the data (CFI ,.90, RMSEA ,.05). We conclude that the social development model adequately predicts violence at age 18 and mediates much of the effect of prior violence. Implications for theory and for prevention are discussed. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 2 2010
    Miriam Aroni Krinsky
    Every year close to 25,000 youth age out of our foster care system; without the anchor of a family, former foster youth disproportionately join the ranks of the homeless, incarcerated, and unemployed. While the average age of financial independence in America is twenty-six years of age, we presume that foster youth can somehow attain financial and emotional independence by age eighteen. Instead, these adolescents are woefully unprepared for independent adult life, and when they falter, too often no one is there to provide support or guidance. As a result, former foster youth are ten times more likely to be arrested than youth of the same age, race, and sex and one in four youth who age out of foster care will end up in jail within the first two years after leaving care. This article will discuss strategies for changing these disheartening outcomes for transitioning foster youth, including breaking down our silos and collectively taking charge of the lives of children in our care; keeping a watchful eye on data and outcomes and using that information to guide our actions; ensuring that the voices of youth are an ever-present part of decisions and processes that will chart their future; and educating ourselves about best practices and new approaches. This article also discusses new opportunities that now exist to support foster youth as they move into adulthood, including new federal legislation that,for the first time,will allow states to support foster youth beyond age eighteen. Finally, this article provides a backdrop for this Special Issue and summarizes the insightful articles and innovative thinking contained herein. [source]

    Type 2 Diabetes in Childhood and Adolescence: A Global Perspective

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2005
    H. Dean
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Benign Partial Epilepsies of Adolescence: A Report of 37 New Cases

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2001
    G. Capovilla
    Summary: ,Purpose: To delineate the electroclinical features of patients with partial seizures in adolescence with a benign outcome. Methods: Patients were recruited in five different Italian epilepsy centers. Patients were selected among those with partial seizures between ages 11 and 17 years. We excluded benign childhood epilepsies, those with neurologic or mental deficits, and those with neuroradiologically documented lesions. We also excluded patients with less than 3 years' follow-up or who were still receiving antiepileptic therapy. Results: There were 37 (22 male, 15 female) patients. Seizures started at the mean age of 14.5 years (range, 11,16.11). Two main electroclinical patterns emerged: 16 of 37 patients had somatomotor seizures frequently associated with focal theta discharges involving the centroparietal regions. Ten of 37 patients showed versive seizures and interictal spiking involving the posterior regions. A third group had clinical characteristics resembling the cases described by Loiseau. All had a favorable outcome. Conclusions: This relevant multicenter study further confirms the existence of benign partial epilepsies with onset during adolescence. [source]

    Epilepsy in Childhood and Adolescence

    K. A. Jellinger
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Family Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2003
    Maja Dekovi, Ph.D.
    The goal of the present study was to examine the combined and unique ability of different aspects of family functioning to predict involvement in antisocial behavior in a large nonclinical (community) sample of adolescents. Distinction was made between global (e.g., family socio-economic status), distal (dispositional characteristics of parents), contextual (family characteristics), and proximal (parent-child interaction) factors that operate within families. Results show that proximal factors were significant predictors of antisocial behavior, independent of their shared variance with other factors. Consistent with the hypothesized mediational model, the effects of distal and contextual factors appear to be mostly indirect: after their association with proximal factors was taken into account, these factors were no longer significantly related to antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for planning of developmentally appropriate interventions for ado-lesents and their families are discussed. [source]

    Processes of Sibling Influence in Adolescence: Individual and Family Correlates,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2008
    Shawn D. Whiteman
    Abstract: This study examined the nature and correlates of adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence. Participants included 2 siblings (firstborn age M= 17.34; second-born age M= 14.76 years) from 191 maritally intact families. Adolescents' perceptions of sibling influence were measured via coded responses to open-ended questions about whether their sibling had an influence on them. Analyses revealed that older and younger siblings reported different patterns of influence. Differentiation influence and being a role model were more prevalent for firstborns, whereas modeling and modeling plus differentiation were more prevalent for second-borns. First- and second-borns' reports of influence were linked differentially to their relational and personal qualities. Discussion focuses on the need to refine the measurement of sibling influence processes. [source]

    The role of puberty in the developing adolescent brain

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 6 2010
    Sarah-Jayne Blakemore
    Abstract Adolescence refers to the period of physical and psychological development between childhood and adulthood. The beginning of adolescence is loosely anchored to the onset of puberty, which brings dramatic alterations in hormone levels and a number of consequent physical changes. Puberty onset is also associated with profound changes in drives, motivations, psychology, and social life; these changes continue throughout adolescence. There is an increasing number of neuroimaging studies looking at the development of the brain, both structurally and functionally, during adolescence. Almost all of these studies have defined development by chronological age, which shows a strong,but not unitary,correlation with pubertal stage. Very few neuroimaging studies have associated brain development with pubertal stage, and yet there is tentative evidence to suggest that puberty might play an important role in some aspects of brain and cognitive development. In this paper we describe this research, and we suggest that, in the future, developmental neuroimaging studies of adolescence should consider the role of puberty. Hum Brain Mapp, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Carbonated Soft Drink Consumption and Bone Mineral Density in Adolescence: The Northern Ireland Young Hearts Project,

    C McGartland
    Abstract In an observational study of 1335 boys and girls aged 12 and 15 years, higher intakes of carbonated soft drinks (CSDs) were significantly associated with lower bone mineral density at the heel, but only in girls. Owing to the upward trend in CSD intake in adolescence, this finding may be of concern. Introduction: High consumption of carbonated soft drinks (CSD) during adolescence may reduce bone mineral accrual and increase fracture risk. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between CSD consumption and bone mineral density (BMD) in a representative sample of adolescents. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study in 36 postprimary schools in Northern Ireland. Participants included 591 boys and 744 girls either 12 or 15 years old. BMD was measured by DXA, and usual beverage consumption was assessed by the diet history method. Adjusted regression modeling was used to investigate the influence of CSD on BMD. Results: A significant inverse relationship between total CSD intake and BMD was observed in girls at the dominant heel (,, ,0.099; 95% CI, ,0.173 to ,0.025). Non-cola consumption was inversely associated with dominant heel BMD in girls (,, ,0.121; 95% CI, ,0.194 to ,0.048), and diet drinks were also inversely associated with heel BMD in girls (,, ,0.087; 95% CI, ,0.158 to ,0.016). However, no consistent relationships were observed between CSD intake and BMD in boys. Cola consumption and nondiet drinks were not significantly related to BMD in either sex. Conclusion: CSD consumption seems to be inversely related to BMD at the dominant heel in girls. It is possible that the apparent association results from the displacement of more nutritious beverages from the diet. Although the inverse association observed between CSD consumption and BMD is modest and confined to girls, this finding may have important public health implications given the widespread use and current upward trend in CSD consumption in Western populations. [source]

    Glucocorticoid Excess During Adolescence Leads to a Major Persistent Deficit in Bone Mass and an Increase in Central Body Fat

    Veronica Abad
    Abstract Endogenous Cushing's syndrome (CS) in children causes growth retardation, decreased bone mass, and increased total body fat. No prospective controlled studies have been performed in children to determine the long-term sequelae of CS on peak bone mass and body composition. A 15-year-old girl with Cushing disease (CD), and her healthy identical co-twin, were followed for 6 years after the CD was cured. At the 6-year follow-up both twins had areal bone mineral density (BMD) and body composition determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and three-dimensional quantitative computed tomography (3DQCT). Z scores for height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) were ,2.3, ,0.8 and 0.2, and 1.2, 0.2, and ,0.6, in the twin with CD and her co-twin, respectively. In the twin with CD, areal BMD and bone mineral apparent density (BMAD) at different sites varied from 0.7 to 3 SD below her co-twin. Volumetric lumbar spine bone density Z score was ,0.75 and 1.0, and total body, abdominal visceral, and subcutaneous fat (%) was 42, 10, and 41 versus 26, 4, and 17 in the twin with CD and her co-twin, respectively. The relationship between total body fat and L2-L4 BMAD was inverse in the twin with CD (p < 0.05), which by contrast in her co-twin was opposite and direct (p < 0.001). In the twin with CD, despite cure, there was a persistent deficit in bone mass and increase in total and visceral body fat. These observations suggest that hypercortisolism (exogenous or endogenous) during adolescence may have persistent adverse effects on bone and fat mass. [source]

    Changes in Bone Density During Childhood and Adolescence: An Approach Based on Bone's Biological Organization

    Frank Rauch
    Abstract Bone densitometry has great potential to improve our understanding of bone development. However, densitometric data in children rarely are interpreted in light of the biological processes they reflect. To strengthen the link between bone densitometry and the physiology of bone development, we review the literature on physiological mechanisms and structural changes determining bone mineral density (BMD). BMD (defined as mass of mineral per unit volume) is analyzed in three levels: in bone material (BMDmaterial), in a bone's trabecular and cortical tissue compartments (BMDcompartment), and in the entire bone (BMDtotal). BMDmaterial of the femoral midshaft cortex decreases after birth to a nadir in the first year of life and thereafter increases. In iliac trabecular bone, BMDmaterial also increases from infancy to adulthood, reflecting the decrease in bone turnover. BMDmaterial cannot be determined with current noninvasive techniques because of insufficient spatial resolution. BMDcompartment of the femoral midshaft cortex decreases in the first months after birth followed by a rapid increase during the next 2 years and slower changes thereafter, reflecting changes in both relative bone volume and BMDmaterial. Trabecular BMDcompartment increases in vertebral bodies but not at the distal radius. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) allows for the determination of both trabecular and cortical BMDcompartment, whereas projectional techniques such as dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) can be used only to assess cortical BMDcompartment of long bone diaphyses. BMDtotal of long bones decreases by about 30% in the first months after birth, reflecting a redistribution of bone tissue from the endocortical to the periosteal surface. In children of school age and in adolescents, changes in BMDtotal are site-specific. There is a marked rise in BMDtotal at locations where relative cortical area increases (metacarpal bones, phalanges, and forearm), but little change at the femoral neck and midshaft. BMDtotal can be measured by QCT at any site of the skeleton, regardless of bone shape. DXA allows the estimation of BMDtotal at skeletal sites, which have an approximately circular cross-section. The system presented here may help to interpret densitometric results in growing subjects on a physiological basis. [source]

    Parental Divorce and Offspring Depressive Symptoms: Dutch Developmental Trends During Early Adolescence

    Albertine J. Oldehinkel
    In this study, we investigated if the association between parental divorce and depressive symptoms changes during early adolescence and if developmental patterns are similar for boys and girls. Data were collected in a prospective population cohort of Dutch adolescents (N = 2,149), aged 10 , 15 years. Outcome variables were self-reported and parent-reported depressive symptoms. The effects of divorce were adjusted for parental depression. In both self-reported and parent-reported data, we found a three-way interaction of gender, age, and parental divorce, indicating that with increasing age, parental divorce became more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among girls, but not boys. These results suggest that girls with divorced parents are at particularly high risk to develop depressive symptoms during adolescence. [source]

    Early Family Transitions and Depressive Symptom Changes From Adolescence to Early Adulthood

    Alan Booth
    Some research and theory suggest that early cohabitation, parenthood, and marriage have negative long-term implications. Nevertheless, in the context of their resources and opportunities, early transitions may represent positive choices for some individuals. We studied the family and personal characteristics of young adults (N = 8,172) who did, versus those who did not, make early family transitions. We assessed changes in their depressive symptoms from adolescence to young adulthood. Individuals who made early family transitions were disadvantaged in many respects, but differed little from those who did not with respect to changes in depressive symptoms. That they stay "even" with those who do not make transitions suggests that some young adults make positive choices from among limited options. [source]

    Stable Postdivorce Family Structures During Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood

    Yongmin Sun
    Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large as those of staying in a stabilized postdivorce family environment through late adolescence. The study also finds that variations in parental resources during late adolescence partially explain the divorce effects on most attainment indicators. Further, parental divorce appears to affect the socioeconomic attainment of male and female offspring alike. Overall, the study underlines the importance of including postdivorce family dynamics in studying the effect of parental divorce. [source]

    Racial and Ethnic Differences in Experiencing Parents' Marital Disruption During Late Adolescence

    Yongmin Sun
    Using panel data from 9,252 adolescents in the National Education Longitudinal Study, this study finds that among children who experience parents' marital disruption during late adolescence, European, Asian, and African American adolescents exhibit wider and greater maladjustment both before and after the disruption than their Hispanic American counterparts. This finding lends general support to the hypothesis of prevalence of disadvantages, although it is less consistent with the hypothesis of prevalence of divorce. Moreover, whereas Asian American adolescents in predisrupted families are more vulnerable to a shortage of family social resources, their African American peers are affected more by a shortage of financial/human resources. Finally, postdisruption effects on non-Hispanic American adolescents are either completely or partially attributable to predisruption factors. [source]

    The Sociology of Adolescence and Youth in the 1990s: A Critical Commentary

    Frank F. Furstenberg
    The 1990s saw considerable advances in the state of research on adolescence and youth. This article provides a critical commentary on a subset of this research, focusing on the causes and consequences of the lengthened period in which the transition to adulthood occurs. It provides a brief history of adolescence research, identifying a select set of topics, themes, and research problems that will guide research on adolescence and youth over the next decade. These research foci, which include peer group relations, biological influences on adolescence, employment experiences, increased autonomy, and racial and gender differences, are described as representing either continuities or advances in adolescence research. The strengths and shortcomings of this research are detailed. The paper concludes by suggesting promising areas for future research and by providing guidelines for undertaking such research. [source]

    Timing of Parental Separation and Attachment to Parents in Adolescence: Results of a Prospective Study from Birth to Age 16

    Lianne Woodward
    Using prospective longitudinal data from the Christchurch Health and Development Study (CHDS), this paper examines the effects of parental separation on the quality of adolescents' attachment to parents and their perceptions of parental care and overprotection during childhood. Exposure to parental separation was significantly associated with lower attachment to parents in adolescence and more negative perceptions of maternal and paternal care and protection during childhood. When examined in relation to the developmental timing of first separation, a linear relationship between the age at first separation and later parental attachment and perceived parent,child relations was found. The younger the age of the child at the time of separation, the lower their subsequent parental attachment and the more likely they were to perceive both their mother and father as less caring and more overprotective. No gender differences were found in children's responses to parental separation. These findings persisted after control for the confounding effects of family social background, marital conflict, parenting, child behavior, and remarriage. Results supported the importance of the early childhood years for the development of a secure and enduring attachment relationship between children and their parents. [source]

    Risk-Taking Behaviors in Early Adolescent Minority Women: Implications for Research and Practice

    FAAN, Willa M. Doswell RN
    Adolescence is a time of biologic, intellectual, and psychosocial transition for young women. For an African American or Hispanic girl, the challenge of being female is compounded by the challenge of being a member of a minority group. In this article, the authors present the reproductive health challenges faced by African American and Hispanic girls and suggest research-based programs and nursing practice interventions to address these challenges. [source]

    Conduct Disorders in Childhood and Adolescence

    Article first published online: 27 FEB 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    A Self-Regulatory Model of Behavioral Disinhibition in Late Adolescence: Integrating Personality Traits, Externalizing Psychopathology, and Cognitive Capacity

    Tim Bogg
    ABSTRACT Two samples with heterogeneous prevalence of externalizing psychopathology were used to investigate the structure of self-regulatory models of behavioral disinhibition and cognitive capacity. Consistent with expectations, structural equation modeling in the first sample (N=541) showed a hierarchical model with 3 lower order factors of impulsive sensation seeking, antisociality/unconventionality, and lifetime externalizing problem counts, with a behavioral disinhibition superfactor best accounted for the pattern of covariation among 6 disinhibited personality trait indicators and 4 externalizing problem indicators. The structure was replicated in a second sample (N=463) and showed that the behavioral disinhibition superfactor, and not the lower order impulsive sensation seeking, antisociality/unconventionality, and externalizing problem factors, was associated with lower IQ, reduced short-term memory capacity, and reduced working memory capacity. The results provide a systemic and meaningful integration of major self-regulatory influences during a developmentally important stage of life. [source]

    Stability and Change in Personality Traits From Late Adolescence to Early Adulthood: A Longitudinal Twin Study

    Daniel M. Blonigen
    ABSTRACT We conducted a longitudinal-biometric study examining stability and change in personality from ages 17 to 24 in a community sample of male and female twins. Using Tellegen's (in press) Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (MPQ), facets of Negative Emotionality (NEM) declined substantially at the mean and individual levels, whereas facets of Constraint (CON) increased over time. Furthermore, individuals in late adolescence who were lowest on NEM and highest on CON remained the most stable over time, whereas those exhibiting the inverse profile (higher NEM, lower CON) changed the most in a direction towards growth and maturity. Analyses of gender differences yielded greater mean-level increases over time for women as compared to men on facets of CON and greater mean-level increases for men than women on facets of Agentic Positive Emotionality (PEM). Biometric analyses revealed rank-order stability in personality to be largely genetic, with rank-order change mediated by both the nonshared environment (and error) as well as genes. Findings correspond with prior evidence of a normative trend toward growth and maturity in personality during emerging adulthood. [source]

    Personality Development From Late Adolescence to Young Adulthood: Differential Stability, Normative Maturity, and Evidence for the Maturity-Stability Hypothesis

    M. Brent Donnellan
    ABSTRACT This investigation examined personality development during the transition from adolescence to adulthood using the brief form of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire (Patrick, Curtin, & Tellegen, 2002). Parent and self-reports of personality were obtained in 1994 (average age=17.60 years), and self-reports were obtained in 2003 (average age=27.24 years). There was evidence of both differential stability and normative changes in the direction of increased functional maturity during this transition. Moreover, adolescents with more mature personalities in 1994 tended to show fewer personality changes from 1994 to 2003. These maturity-stability effects held when parent reports were used to assess personality. All told, there was evidence of both stability and change in personality during the transition to adulthood. [source]

    Continuity and Change in Personality Traits From Adolescence to Midlife: A 25-Year Longitudinal Study Comparing Representative and Adjudicated Men

    Julien Morizot
    The second study examined structural, rank-order, and mean-level continuity. Partial structural continuity was demonstrated through confirmatory factor analysis. Regarding rank-order continuity, the correlations were stronger as age increased, particularly for the adjudicated men. For mean-level continuity, the adjudicated men displayed higher scores from adolescence to midlife for nearly every personality trait related to Disinhibition and Negative Emotionality. Significant decreases were observed in these traits for both samples, supporting the hypothesis of a normative psychological maturation. Although both samples showed this maturation, the adjudicated men displayed a lower rate of change during adolescence and early adulthood. The two samples did not differ in Extraversion and this trait remained more stable, particularly for adjudicated men. [source]

    Childhood Sleep Problems, Response Inhibition, and Alcohol and Drug Outcomes in Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2010
    Maria M. Wong
    Background:, To our knowledge, no prospective studies examine the relationships among childhood sleep problems, adolescent executive functioning, and substance outcomes (i.e., substance use and substance-related problems). In this study, we examined whether childhood sleep problems predicted adolescent sleep problems and response inhibition. We also tested whether adolescent sleep problems and poor response inhibition mediated the relationship between childhood sleep problems and substance (alcohol and drug) outcomes in young adulthood. Methods:, Study participants were 292 boys and 94 girls (M = 4.85, SD = 1.47) from a community sample of high-risk families and controls. Results:, When compared to their counterparts, those with trouble sleeping in childhood were twice as likely to have the same problem in adolescence. Childhood overtiredness predicted poor response inhibition in adolescence. Persistent trouble sleeping from childhood to adolescence and response inhibition in adolescence mediated the relationship between childhood sleep problems and drug outcomes in young adulthood, whereas overtiredness in childhood directly predicted alcohol use outcomes and alcohol-related problems in young adulthood. Conclusions:, This is the first study showing a long-term relationship between childhood sleep measures and subsequent alcohol and drug outcomes. The developmental and clinical implications of these findings were discussed. Prevention and intervention programs may want to consider the role of sleep problems and response inhibition on substance use and abuse. [source]

    Drinking Alcohol before Age 13 and Negative Outcomes in Late Adolescence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 11 2009
    Neta Peleg-Oren
    Background:, Research has shown that adolescents who begin drinking at an early stage in life are at greater risk of developing alcohol dependency, as well as a variety of negative outcomes, for instance, delinquent behavior. Most of these studies have focused on those who begin drinking in middle adolescence, but little attention has been paid to youth who initiate drinking under the age of 13. Twenty percent of adolescents have begun using alcohol by the age of 13. The purpose of the study is to examine whether initiating alcohol use before the age of 13 exacerbates negative outcomes in late adolescence. Methods:, Data for the study were derived from 2 school-based statewide surveys conducted in Florida: the 2005 YRBS and the 2006 FYSAS. The sample included 12,352 11th and 12th grade students divided into 3 groups: students who initiated alcohol use under the age of 13, students who initiated alcohol use at age 13 or later, and students who never used alcohol. Results:, Results showed that after adjusting for gender, ethnicity/race, and grade, adolescents who initiated alcohol use before age 13 were more likely to report problems with school performance and display delinquent behaviors (carrying a gun, carrying a weapon to school, and recent marijuana use). Conclusion:, Although no temporal relationships can be determined between drinking alcohol before age 13 and delinquent behavior outcomes, the results suggested that adolescents under the age of 13 need to be included in national epidemiological surveys on alcohol use and more efforts need to be directed toward the implementation of prevention programs early in elementary and middle schools. [source]

    Effects of Pregnanolone and Dehydroepiandrosterone on Ethanol Intake in Rats Administered Ethanol or Saline during Adolescence

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 7 2009
    Olga V. Gurkovskaya
    Background:, Adolescent alcohol use may contribute to long-term changes in the receptors and neuroactive steroids that may mediate its effects and to subsequent alcohol abuse and dependence as an adult. Therefore, in this study, ethanol preference and intake as an adult were examined after adolescent ethanol or saline administration. In addition, ethanol intake in the same groups was examined after administration of 2 neuroactive steroids with modulatory effects at GABAA receptors. Methods:, Two groups of male Long-Evans rats were administered 15 intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections of either ethanol (2 g/kg, 20% v/v) or saline between postnatal days 35 and 63. Starting on postnatal day 75, both groups were trained to consume 10% ethanol using a saccharin-fading procedure, and ethanol intake and preference were measured after a series of manipulations involving food deprivation, changes in the duration of access to ethanol, and changes in the concentrations of ethanol presented. Following these manipulations, pregnanolone (1 to 10 mg/kg) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, 1 to 100 mg/kg) were administered prior to preference sessions with an 18% ethanol solution. Results:, Adult ethanol preference and intake did not differ significantly in subjects treated with either saline or ethanol as adolescents during training, the substitution of other ethanol concentrations (3.2 to 32%), ad-lib feeding, or moderate food deprivation. Pregnanolone administration altered the intake of both adolescent-treated groups after the first injection of 3.2 mg/kg and after repeated injections with 10 mg/kg, a dose that produced sedation. In contrast, multiple doses of DHEA consistently decreased intake of an 18% ethanol concentration in both groups after repeated injections and 3 doses of DHEA (10, 32, and 56 mg/kg) administered with various ethanol concentrations dose-dependently shifted the ethanol-concentration curves for the volume and dosage of ethanol consumed downward. Conclusions:, These results indicate that chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) administration of 2 g/kg during adolescence did not alter preference or overall consumption of ethanol in outbred rats trained to drink ethanol as an adult under the conditions tested, and that DHEA may be more effective than pregnanolone at significantly decreasing ethanol consumption. [source]

    Pediatric Dentistry: Infancy Through Adolescence

    Christopher L. Maestrello DDS

    A Rasch Model Analysis of Alcohol Consumption and Problems Across Adolescence and Young Adulthood

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 4 2009
    Christopher W. Kahler
    Background:, Recent investigations using item response modeling have begun to conceptualize alcohol consumption, problems, and dependence as representing points along a single continuum of alcohol involvement. Such a conceptualization may be of particular benefit to measurement of alcohol involvement in adolescents, but investigations to date have been limited to adult samples and may not generalize to adolescents due to age-related developmental differences. Methods:, This study used Rasch model analyses to examine the properties of indices of alcohol consumption and problems among 6,353 adolescents, aged 12 to 18 years, in Wave 1 of the Add Health survey. A particular focus was on whether the functioning of items changed when these adolescents were re-interviewed in Wave 3 when they were 18 to 24 years of age. Results:, Rasch model analyses supported the unidimensionality and additive properties of the items in the Wave 1 data. Comparisons of Wave 1 and Wave 3 data indicated differential item functioning in most of the items such that items related to alcohol consumption were more severe during adolescence, whereas items related to alcohol problems were more severe in young adulthood. Conclusions:, A valid index of alcohol involvement in adolescents can be constructed combining indices of alcohol consumption and alcohol problems. Such an index covers a range of severity and functions similarly across sex and race/ethnicity. A similar index can be constructed in young adulthood. However, the interpretation of scores must be attentive to developmental differences. In particular, for adolescents, indices of alcohol consumption are relatively closer in severity to indices of alcohol problems than they are among young adults. Thus, alcohol problems are more likely among adolescents than young adults given a similar level of drinking. [source]

    Behavioral Consequences of Repeated Nicotine During Adolescence in Alcohol-Preferring AA and Alcohol-Avoiding ANA Rats

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 2 2009
    Heidi Kemppainen
    Background:, Epidemiological studies suggest that exposure to nicotine at adolescent age is associated with increased potential to use alcohol and that genetic predisposition may further increase the risk. The present study addressed adolescent vulnerability to repeated nicotine exposure and its influence on subsequent ethanol self-administration by investigating interactions between nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization and voluntary ethanol consumption in alcohol preferring AA (Alko Alcohol) and alcohol nonpreferring ANA (Alko Non-Alcohol) rat lines selected for differential ethanol intake. Methods:, Adolescent and adult rats received 10 injections of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg s.c.), given every second day from postnatal day (Pnd) 27 and 75, respectively. Nicotine-induced (0.5 mg/kg) locomotor activity was measured acutely after the first injection, and after the repeated treatment with nicotine on Pnds 52 and 86 in the adolescent groups and on Pnd 99 in the adult groups. After this, acquisition of voluntary ethanol (10% v/v) consumption as well as nicotine-induced (0.5 mg/kg) ethanol intake was measured in the AA rats. Results:, Adolescent AA rats were more sensitive than adolescent ANA rats to the locomotor effects of nicotine. They were also stimulated more than adult AA rats, but such a difference was not found among ANA rats. Adolescent and adult rats did not differ in their susceptibility to nicotine-induced behavioral sensitization. Genetic predisposition to ethanol self-administration did not interact with development of behavioral sensitization in either adolescents or adults. Acquisition of ethanol intake was enhanced in the adolescent groups relative to the adult groups in a manner that was independent of the nicotine treatment. An increase in ethanol intake was found after challenging animals with nicotine, and this effect was enhanced in the nicotine-treated adolescent group. Conclusions:, These findings provide no or little support for the views that adolescent animals are more sensitive to the neurobehavioral effects of repeated exposure to nicotine and that exposure to nicotine in adolescence may contribute to enhanced vulnerability to ethanol abuse. Furthermore, genetic predisposition to high or low ethanol self-administration does not seem to be a factor that influences individual vulnerability to the neurobehavioral effects of repeated administration of nicotine. [source]

    Longitudinal Associations Between Alcohol Problems and Depressive Symptoms: Early Adolescence Through Early Adulthood

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 1 2009
    Naomi R. Marmorstein
    Background:, Alcohol use-related problems and depressive symptoms are clearly associated with each other, but results regarding the nature of this association have been inconsistent. In addition, the possible moderating effects of age and gender have not been comprehensively examined. The goals of this study were to clarify: (i) how depressive symptoms affect the levels and trajectory of alcohol use-related problems, (ii) how alcohol use-related problems affect the levels and trajectory of depressive symptoms, and (iii) whether there are differences in these associations at different points in development or between males and females. Methods:, Participants for this study were drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (AddHealth) data set, a community-based sample of 20,728 adolescents followed from adolescence through early adulthood. Multilevel models were used to assess how each problem affected the level and rate of change in the other problem over time; gender was considered as a possible moderator of these associations. Results:, The results indicated that alcohol use-related problems and depressive symptoms had reciprocal, positive associations with each other during the period from early adolescence through early adulthood; however, these effects differed somewhat by gender and age. High levels of depressive symptoms were associated with higher initial levels of alcohol problems (particularly among females), as well as faster increases in alcohol problems over time among males. High levels of alcohol problems were associated with higher initial levels of depressive symptoms (particularly among females), as well as less curvature in the slope of depressive symptoms so that although there was a large difference between people with high and low depressive symptoms in early adolescence, by early adulthood the difference was smaller (particularly among females). Conclusions:, These results highlight the importance of examining gender and age in studies on the associations between affective disorders and substance use disorders. [source]