Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Distinction

  • class distinction
  • clear distinction
  • clear-cut distinction
  • conceptual distinction
  • crucial distinction
  • fundamental distinction
  • genetic distinction
  • important distinction
  • obvious distinction
  • sharp distinction
  • social distinction
  • taxonomic distinction
  • very distinction

  • Selected Abstracts


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 4 2007
    Daniel B. KleinArticle first published online: 6 DEC 200
    In economics, considerations of liberty are generally regarded as a secondary question of ,policy implications' and a matter of mere opinion. This essay rejects the relegation of liberty to such a status. It argues that the distinction between voluntary and coercive action, rooted in concepts of private ownership and consent, and forming the basis of liberty, should play a fundamental role in the way economic issues and arguments are formulated. [source]


    Simon Robertson
    ABSTRACT This paper responds to Susan Hurley's attempt to undermine the adequacy of the distinction at the heart of the internalism-externalism debate about reasons for action. The paper shows that Hurley's argument fails and then, more positively, indicates a neat way to characterize the distinction. [source]


    ARCHAEOMETRY, Issue 6 2009
    The metamorphic rocks outcropping in the Western Alps are characterized by a great variety of white marbles, which have been poorly studied in the archaeometric field even though they have been used since antiquity. Typical examples are the Arc of August of Roman times in Susa (Piedmont, Italy) and lots of monuments and historical buildings of Turin (Italy). A multi-analytical approach based on petrographic (optical and scanning electron microscopy), electron microprobe and stable isotope analysis of Piedmont white marbles has been performed in order to carry out a detailed description, summarizing their main microtextural, mineralogical and isotopic features. Eight historical Piedmont marbles have been sampled from well-known quarry sites belonging to different metamorphic geological units of the Western Alps (Ornavasso, Crevola, Pont Canavese, Foresto, Chianocco, Prali, Brossasco and Garessio marbles). Their different metamorphic conditions, ages and structural evolution allowed us to draw a discriminative flowchart based on microscopic and minero-chemical data. [source]

    DIFFICULT DISTINCTIONS: Refugee Law, Humanitarian Practice, and Political Identification in Gaza

    In this article, I explore the intersection of humanitarian practice and refugee law in shaping categories of "refugee" and "citizen" in Gaza in the first years after 1948. I examine how humanitarian practice produced enduring distinctions within the Gazan population and provided a space in which ideas about Palestinian citizenship began to take shape. A key argument is that humanitarianism, despite commitments to political neutrality, often has profound and enduring political effects. In this case, humanitarian distinctions contributed to making the "refugee" a central figure in the Palestinian political landscape. I also consider how humanitarianism in Palestine was guided by the larger, emerging postwar refugee regime, even as Palestinians were formally excluded from some of its mechanisms. [source]


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 3 2006
    Mark Considine
    In this essay, Mark Considine argues that the prospect of such changes requires us to reflect carefully upon the theoretical and normative underpinnings of universities and to delineate the structures and processes through which they might seek to negotiate their identities. Considine re-theorizes the university as a higher education system composed by distinctions and networks acting through an important class of boundary objects. He moves beyond an environmental analysis, asserting that systems are best theorized as cultural practices based upon actors making and protecting important kinds of distinctions. Thus, the university system must be investigated as a knowledge-based binary for dividing knowledge from other things. This approach, in turn, produces an identity-centering (cultural) model of the system that assumes universities must perform two different acts of distinction to exist: first, they must distinguish themselves from other systems (such as the economy, organized religion, and the labor market), and, second, they must operate successfully in a chosen resource environment. Ultimately, Considine argues that while environmental problems (such as cuts in government grants) may generate periodic crises, threats within identities produce emergencies generating a radical kind of problematic for actor networks. [source]


    ART HISTORY, Issue 4 2008
    The importation of foreign sculptors to Naples was a common phenomenon which both led to the amalgamation of divergent artistic forms of expression and also paved the way for innovative combinations which fulfilled the desire of the local nobility for hybrid, palimpsest-like tombs. This article examines the broader historical sensorium through which fifteenth- and sixteenth-century Neapolitans drew distinctions between local traditions and imported innovations when choosing artists, types and decorative styles for their funerary monuments. It demonstrates that the Neapolitan nobility was able to assimilate new and imported representational styles because it was accustomed to distinguishing between different styles and forms. A network of visually related monuments and surviving contracts testify to the typological rigour of the visual frameworks and to the recognized potentiality inherent in reinterpretations of earlier formulae. [source]

    Adaptive Units for Conservation: Population Distinction and Historic Extinctions in the Island Scrub-Jay

    Aphelocoma; diversidad genética especie; endémica; genética de conservación; Islas Channel Abstract:,The Island Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma insularis) is found on Santa Cruz Island, California, and is the only insular bird species in the continental United States. We typed seven microsatellite loci and sequenced a portion of the mitochondrial DNA control region of Island Scrub-Jays and their closest mainland relative, the Western Scrub-Jay (Aphelocoma californica), to assess levels of variability and effective population size and to examine the evolutionary relationship between the two species. The estimated female effective population size, Nef, of the Island Scrub-Jay was 1603 (90% confidence interval: 1481,1738) and was about 7.5% of the size of the mainland species. Island and Western Scrub-Jays have highly divergent control-region sequences, and the value of 3.14 ± 0.09% sequence divergence between the two species suggests a divergence time of approximately 151,000 years ago. Because the four northern Channel Islands were joined as one large island as recently as 11,000 years ago, extinctions must have occurred on the three other northern Channel islands, Santa Rosa, San Miguel, and Anacapa, highlighting the vulnerability of the remaining population. We assessed the evolutionary significance of four island endemics, including the Island Scrub-Jay, based on both genetic and adaptive divergence. Our results show that the Island Scrub-Jay is a distinct species of high conservation value whose history and adaptive potential is not well predicted by study of other island vertebrates. Resumen:, Aphelocoma insularis se encuentra en la Isla Santa Cruz, California, y es la única especie de ave insular en Estados Unidos continental. Clasificamos siete locus microsatelitales y secuenciamos una porción de la región control del ADN mitocondrial de A. insularis y su pariente continental más cercano A. californica para evaluar niveles de variabilidad y tamaño poblacional efectivo y examinar las relaciones evolutivas entre las dos especies. El tamaño poblacional efectivo de hembras, Neh, de A. insularis fue estimado en 1603 (90% CI: 1481-1738) y fue aproximadamente 7.5% del tamaño de la especie continental. Aphelocoma insularis y A. californica tienen secuencias muy divergentes en la región control, y el valor de divergencia secuencial de 3.14 ± 0.09% entre las dos especies sugiere un tiempo de divergencia de aproximadamente 151,000 años. Debido a que las cuatro Islas Channel estuvieron unidas en una sola isla tan recientemente como hace 11,000 años, deben haber ocurrido extinciones en las otras tres islas Channel, Santa Rosa, San Miguel y Anacapa, acentuando la vulnerabilidad de la población remanente. Evaluamos el significado evolutivo de cuatro especies insulares endémicas incluyendo A. insularis con base en la divergencia genética y adaptativa. Nuestros resultados muestran que A. insularis es una especie distinta de alto valor de conservación, cuya historia y potencial adaptativo no es pronosticado correctamente por el estudio de otros vertebrados insulares. [source]

    The Quest for Distinction: A Reappraisal of the Rural Labor Process in Kheda District (Gujarat), India,

    ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2000
    Vinay Gidwani
    Abstract: In this article I examine how the rural labor process is constitutive of social identity, particularly status, by harnessing empirical evidence from Kheda District, Gujarat, and other parts of India. Emphasis is on the labor practices of the dominant Lewa Patel caste, and only secondarily on the practices of other caste groups. My central claim is that the labor process is a primary arena in which the quest for social distinction occurs and that the primary source of distinction is the ability to withdraw family labor power from the commoditized labor circuit. In this paper I seek to deepen conventional understandings of the labor process within economic geography, agrarian studies, and mainstream economics. [source]

    Characterization of freezing of gait subtypes and the response of each to levodopa in Parkinson's disease

    J. D. Schaafsma
    To assess the effect of levodopa on distinct freezing of gait (FOG) subtypes in patients with ,off' FOG. Nineteen patients (12 men, mean age 62.0 ± 8.4 years) with Parkinson's disease and clinically significant FOG during ,off' states were videotaped whilst walking 130 m during ,off' and ,on' states. Three independent observers characterized the type, duration, and clinical manifestations and quantified FOG by analyzing the videotapes. Their combined mean scores were used for statistical analysis. The intra-class correlation coefficient assessed inter-observer reliability. Wilcoxon and Friedman tests evaluated differences in mean frequencies of FOG characteristics. During ,off' states, FOG was elicited by turns (63%), starts (23%), walking through narrow spaces (12%) and reaching destinations (9%). These respective values were only 14, 4, 2 and 1% during ,on' states (P < 0.011). Moving forward with very small steps and leg trembling in place were the most common manifestations of FOG; total akinesia was rare. Most FOG episodes took <10 s and tended to be shorter during ,on' states. Levodopa significantly decreased FOG frequency (P < 0.0001) and the number of episodes with akinesia (P < 0.001). Distinction amongst FOG subtypes enables evaluation of distinctive therapeutic response. Levodopa helps in reducing the frequency and duration of ,off'-related FOG. [source]

    Family Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2003
    Maja Dekovi, Ph.D.
    The goal of the present study was to examine the combined and unique ability of different aspects of family functioning to predict involvement in antisocial behavior in a large nonclinical (community) sample of adolescents. Distinction was made between global (e.g., family socio-economic status), distal (dispositional characteristics of parents), contextual (family characteristics), and proximal (parent-child interaction) factors that operate within families. Results show that proximal factors were significant predictors of antisocial behavior, independent of their shared variance with other factors. Consistent with the hypothesized mediational model, the effects of distal and contextual factors appear to be mostly indirect: after their association with proximal factors was taken into account, these factors were no longer significantly related to antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for planning of developmentally appropriate interventions for ado-lesents and their families are discussed. [source]

    Distinction between coeliac disease and refractory sprue: a simple immunohistochemical method

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2000
    N Patey-Mariaud de Serre
    Aims We recently showed that refractory sprue is distinct from coeliac disease, the former being characterized by abnormal intraepithelial T-lymphocytes expressing a cytoplasmic CD3 chain (CD3c), lacking CD3 and CD8 surface expression, and showing TCR, gene rearrangements. To take advantage of the abnormal phenotype of CD3c + CD8 , intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) in refractory sprue we developed a simple method to distinguish coeliac disease from refractory sprue. Methods and results Comparative immunohistochemical studies using anti-CD3 and anti-CD8 antibodies were applied on paraffin-embedded and frozen biopsy specimens in refractory sprue (n = 6), coeliac disease (n = 10), healthy controls (n = 5) and suspected refractory sprue (n = 6). Comparable results were obtained on fixed and frozen biopsy specimens. In four of the six patients with suspected refractory sprue, abnormal CD3c + CD8 , IEL and TCR, gene rearrangements were found, as in refractory sprue; the remaining two patients had normal (CD3 + CD8 +) IEL and no TCR, gene rearrangements. Both patients had coeliac disease, as one failed to comply with a gluten-free diet, while the other was a slow responder. Conclusion This simplified immunostaining method using anti-CD3 and anti-CD8 antibodies on paraffin sections can distinguish active coeliac disease from refractory sprue and should prove useful in clinical practice. [source]

    Transforming a College: The Story of a Little-Known College's Strategic Climb to National Distinction by George Keller


    Should We Discard the "Qualitative" versus "Quantitative" Distinction?

    Deepa Prakash
    First page of article [source]

    10-month-old infants' inference of invisible agent: Distinction in causality between object motion and human action1

    Daisuke Kosugi
    Abstract: Two habituation experiments investigated 10-month-old infants' interpretation of events where a stationary object began to move without any visible causes. During habituation, infants saw that an object partly hidden by an occluder began to move away from the occluder. Then, they were tested with three test events without the occluder: the ,rst event showed a hand pushing the object, the second event showed a hand failing to touch the object, and the last event had no agent. The objects were a ball in Experiment 1, and a person in Experiment 2. The test event that the infants looked at for the shortest duration in Experiment 1 was where the hand pushed the ball, whereas they looked at the three test events almost equal amounts of time in Experiment 2. These results indicate that 10-month-old infants responded to the events in terms of causality and could infer the presence of the agent behind the occluder only when they saw the habituation event featuring the ball. [source]

    JAGS Enters the New Millennium: Direction, Decision, Determination, Dedication, and Distinction

    Thomas T. Yoshikawa MD Editor

    On The Ethical Significance Of The Ti,Yong Distinction

    Antonio S. Cua

    Distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization

    Klaus J. Busam
    A conjunctival melanocytic nevus may on occasion be difficult to distinguish from melanoma both clinically and histopathologically. An unambiguous correct diagnosis is critical because of major differences in management and prognosis. We evaluated a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) assay, which has previously been shown to be of value for the diagnosis of melanocytic nevi and melanomas of the skin, using probes targeting 6p25 (RREB1), 6q23 (MYB), 11q13 (CCND1) and centromere 6 (CEP6), for its potential to assist in the distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas. Four melanocytic nevi and eight melanomas of the conjunctiva were analyzed. Two of the melanomas were diagnostically problematic because of suboptimal histopathology. None of the conjunctival melanocytic nevi showed a level of chromosomal aberrations that met FISH criteria for a diagnosis of melanoma. All eight conjunctival melanomas (six unequivocal and two suspicious lesions) met FISH criteria for melanoma. Thus, results from FISH assay targeting 6p25, 6q23, 11q13 and centromere 6 correlated well with the histopathologic diagnoses and supported the histopathologic suspicion in two problem cases. The findings encourage further exploration of this technique as an ancillary method for the work-up of conjunctival melanocytic proliferations. Busam KJ, Fang Y, Jhanwar SC, Pulitzer MP, Marr B, Abramson DH. Distinction of conjunctival melanocytic nevi from melanomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization. [source]

    Distinction between Mulloidichthys flavolineatus juveniles from Reunion Island and Mauritius Island (south-west Indian Ocean) based on otolith morphometrics

    K. Pothin
    Sagittal otoliths of the yellowstripe goatfish Mulloidichthys flavolineatus were analysed in order to compare Reunion Island fish stocks with those of Mauritius (south-west Indian Ocean). Conventional otolith morphometric variables (area, perimeter, length and width), shape indices (form factor, roundness, circularity, rectangularity, ellipticity and eccentricity) and Fourier shape analysis were compared between three sites; two in Reunion Island and one in Mauritius. Regional and site-specific differences were found for all the conventional otolith morphometric features. Regarding the shape indices, the differences between sites were best described by form factor, roundness, circularity and rectangularity. A classification by canonical discriminant analysis indicated significant differences between the three sampling sites. The combined use of morphometric variables (size and shape) and external outlines (shape analysis through Fourier series) showed the importance of otolith shape for intraspecific discrimination. [source]

    Crisis, Identity, and Social Distinction: Cultural Politics of Food, Taste, and Consumption in Late Colonial Bengal

    It analyzes how the Bengali middle class, the bhadralok, attempted to construct a "doxa" of gastronomy in order to subsume a dominant position for itself and to classify hierarchically other classes and social groups. The aspirations of this class as the future guardians of an incipient nation were in reality a politics of self-identity, which was based on ideas of a cultural exclusivity. This politics of self-identity for the Bengali middle class were inextricably inter-woven with issues of modernity, nationalism, and colonialism. Through my analysis, I stress the importance of the "historical" or the "collective", particularly in the context of formation of the bhadralok, as a dominant class. [source]

    Integration through Distinction: German-Jewish Immigrants, the Legal Profession and Patterns of Bourgeois Culture in British-ruled Jewish Palestine1

    It argues that their accepted image as cultural aliens, based on their allegedly incompatible European-like bourgeois life-style, was propagated by both parties in this encounter, causing their marginalization and at the same time serving them as an important socio-cultural resource. Focusing on the field of the legal profession, it analyses the 1930's and the already emerging and highly-accepted patterns of a local middle-class civic culture (despite its rejection by the political discourse), which facilitated the advancement of an elite group of German-born lawyers in this field. [source]

    Equity-Liabilities Distinction: The case for Co-operatives,

    Germán López-Espinosa
    Members' shares in co-operative entities are financial instruments with particular characteristics. In this paper we analyse the relation between firm leverage and systematic risk to provide empirical evidence on the economic substance of the member shares of members of cooperatives. We have studied the characteristics of members' shares in six European countries: France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Spain and United Kingdom. We have also conducted tests on co-operatives of these countries over the period 1993,2005. The study reports that in global terms the economic substance of the redeemable part of equity in co-operatives is not the same across countries. Therefore if accounting standards setters want to develop a global standard for co-operatives, a recommendation derived from this study would be to follow a probabilistic model to classify the redeemable part of co-operative financial instruments, where the entity does not have the unconditional right to refuse the redemption, or to report this part as an intermediate item with characteristics of debt and equity. [source]

    Characterization of the glycosidic linkage of underivatized disaccharides by interaction with Pb2+ ions

    Ahlam El Firdoussi
    Abstract Electrospray ionization in combination with tandem mass spectrometry and lead cationization is used to characterize the linkage position of underivatized disaccharides. Lead(II) ions react mainly with disaccharides by proton abstraction to generate [Pb(disaccharide)m, H]+ ions (m = 1,2). At low cone voltages, an intense series of doubly charged ions of general formula [Pb(disaccharide)n]2+ are also observed. Our study shows that MS/MS experiments have to be performed to differentiate Pb2+ -coordinated disaccharides. Upon collision, [Pb(disaccharide) , H]+ species mainly dissociate according to glycosidic bond cleavage and cross-ring cleavages, leading to the elimination of CnH2nOn neutrals (n = 2,4). The various fragmentation processes allow the position of the glycosidic bond to be unambiguously located. Distinction between glc-glc and glc-fru disaccharides also appears straightforward. Furthermore, for homodimers of D -glucose our data demonstrate that the anomericity of the glycosidic bond can be characterized for the 1 , n linkages (n = 2, 4, 6). Consequently, Pb2+ cationization combined with tandem mass spectrometry appears particularly useful to identify underivatized disaccharides. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma arising in a multilocular prostatic cystadenoma

    Thomas K. Lee
    Multilocular prostatic cystadenoma is a rare benign neoplasm located between the bladder and the rectum. These are prostatic tissue and have been shown to harbor high-grade intraepithelial neoplasia and likely susceptible to the same disease processes seen in the prostate gland. We report the first case of conventional prostatic adenocarcinoma involving a multilocular cystadenoma. Distinction from cystadenocarcinoma is also made. [source]

    Descartes's Theory of Distinction

    In the first part of this paper I explore the relations among distinctness, separability, number, and non-identity. I argue that Descartes believes plurality in things themselves arises from distinction, so that things distinct in any of the three ways are not identical. The only exception concerns universals which, considered in things themselves, are identical to particulars. I also argue that to be distinct is to be separable. Things distinct by reason are separable only in thought by means of ideas not clear and distinct. In the second part I argue that the notion of separability in Descartes's account of real distinction between mind and body is subject to five different interpretations. I claim that the heart of Cartesian dualism concerns the separability of the attributes thought and extension. It does not require that mind and body are separable in the sense that each can exist without the other existing. [source]

    Imperfection Sensitivity or Insensitivity of Zero-stiffness Postbuckling , that is the Question

    Xin Jia
    Zero-stiffness postbuckling of a structure is characterized by a secondary load-displacement path along which the load remains constant. In sensitivity analysis of the (initial) postbuckling path it is usually considered as a borderline case between imperfection sensitivity and imperfection insensitivity. However, it is unclear whether zero-stiffness postbuckling as such is imperfection sensitive or insensitive. In this paper, Koiter's initial postbuckling analysis is used as a tool for sensitivity analysis. Distinction between two kinds of imperfections is made on the basis of the behavior of the equilibrium path of the imperfect structure. New definitions of imperfection insensitivity of the postbuckling behavior are provided according to the classification of imperfections. A structure with two degrees of freedom with a zero-stiffness postbuckling path is studied, considering four different imperfections. The results from this example show that zero-stiffness postbuckling is a case of transition from imperfection sensitivity to imperfection insensitivity for imperfections of the first kind and that it is imperfection insensitive for imperfections of the second kind. (© 2009 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Union and Distinction in the Thought of ST Maximus the Confessor , By Melchisedec Törönen

    James K. Lee
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Prognostic factors in rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Yasuhiro KONDOH
    ABSTRACT Background and objective: The aim of the present study was to examine clinical and other features that might allow prognostic distinctions between histological patterns in presentations with rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonia (RPIP), and to assess prognostic factors for survival. Methods: Patients with RPIP among 425 consecutive patients with diffuse lung disease, who underwent surgical lung biopsy, were studied retrospectively. The discriminatory value of clinical and investigative features for identifying disease with a better outcome was evaluated. An a priori comparison was made between diffuse alveolar damage (DAD)/usual interstitial pneumonia with DAD pattern (Group A), and organizing pneumonia/non-specific interstitial pneumonia pattern (Group B). Results: Twenty-eight patients (6.6%) fulfilled the criteria for RPIP. The diagnosis was Group A disease in 15 (DAD in 10, usual interstitial pneumonia with DAD in 5), and Group B disease in 13 (organizing pneumonia in 8, non-specific interstitial pneumonia in 5). There were no significant differences in initial findings between the groups. Prognosis was significantly better for Group B patients than for Group A patients (P = 0.021). Neither BAL nor parenchymal high-resolution CT score was indicative of therapeutic responsiveness or outcome. Distinction between Group A and Group B on the basis of disease pattern was the only significant determinant of prognosis. Conclusions: RPIP included varied histological patterns with different outcomes, and in many cases these could not be predicted using baseline clinical data. Histology was the only significant predictor of ultimate prognosis. [source]

    Image Cytometry DNA-Analysis of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology to Aid Cytomorphology in the Distinction of Branchial Cleft Cyst from Cystic Metastasis of Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Prospective Study,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 11 2004
    Sushma Nordemar MD
    Abstract Objective: Frequently, the distinction between branchial cleft cyst and cystic metastases from squamous cell carcinoma is difficult by cytomorphology. In a prospective study, we investigated the need for, and the value of, image cytometry DNA-analysis as a complement to cytologic evaluation of cystic lesions in the neck. Study Design: Image cytometry DNA-analysis was performed on the fine needle aspiration cytology smears from 50 patients, referred to our department, with a solitary cystic lesion in the lateral region of the neck. Methods: Smears from aspirates were Giemsa stained and cytologically evaluated. Ahrens image analysis was used for DNA analysis on smears stained with Schiff reagent, and lymphocytes were used as control cells. Epithelial cells with DNA values exceeding 5c were regarded as aneuploid, indicating malignancy. Results: Nine lesions were diagnosed as squamous cell cancer metastases cytologically. DNA analysis showed aneuploidy in all of them except one. Three of these lesions had earlier been diagnosed as branchial cleft cyst at the referring hospital. Eight lesions were cytologically inconclusive and four of them were revealed as cystic metastasis at histopathologic analysis, and DNA analysis showed aneuploidy in all but one, which could not be analyzed. Two of these lesions were also diagnosed as branchial cleft cysts at the referring hospital. All benign lesions were diploid. Nine lesions were thyroid and salivary gland lesions. Conclusion: Image cytometry DNA-analysis was shown to help in the distinction between benign and malignant cystic lesions. Thus, when conventional cytomorphology does not suffice, DNA-analysis is clearly a valuable supplement. [source]

    Distinction between space groups having principal rotation and screw axes, which are combined with twofold rotation axes, using the coherent convergent-beam electron diffraction method

    Koh Saitoh
    23 sets of space groups remain indistinguishable by the convergent-beam electron diffraction (CBED) method. Recently, Tsuda, Saitoh, Terauchi, Tanaka & Goodman [Acta Cryst. (2000), A56, 359,369] demonstrated that the coherent CBED method can distinguish two space-group pairs (I23, I213) and (I222, I212121) by observing the relative arrangements of 2-fold-rotation and 21 -screw axes. The other ten space-group sets, which are composed of principal rotation and screw axes and other 2-fold-rotation axes such as P321 and P3121 (P3221), are shown to be distinguishable using the coherent CBED method. [source]

    The Diagnostic Utility of an Electronic Nose: Rhinologic Applications

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 9 2002
    Erica R. Thaler MD
    Abstract Objective/Hypothesis The thesis explores the applicability of electronic nose technology in medical decision-making. Specifically, the studies undertaken in the thesis were designed to test the ability of the electronic nose to assist in diagnostic questions encountered in the field of rhinology. Study Design Three separate studies were undertaken. All involved analysis of specimens by the electronic nose, obtained either in vitro or in vivo: known matched sets of cerebrospinal fluid and serum, bacterial samples from known plated specimens, and culture swabs taken from patients suspected of having rhinosinusitis who also had a matched standard bacterial culture taken from the same site. The goal of analysis was to determine whether the electronic nose was able to identify or categorize specimens or groups of specimens. Methods Each specimen was tested using the organic semiconductor-based Cyranose 320 electronic nose. Data from the 32-element sensor array were subjected to principal-component analysis to depict differences in odorant patterns. Distinction of specimens was identified by calculation of Mahalanobis distance. Results The electronic nose was able to distinguish serum from cerebrospinal fluid in pure isolates as well as in isolates collected on small cottonoid pledgets at amounts of 0.2 mL or greater. It was also able to distinguish between control swabs and bacterial samples as well as among bacterial samples collected in vitro. Preliminary work suggests that it may be able to distinguish between presence and absence of bacterial infection in specimens collected on nasal swabs. Conclusions The electronic nose is able to distinguish reliably between cerebrospinal fluid and serum sampled in small amounts, may be able to identify presence and type of bacterial pathogen in vitro, and is able to identify presence or absence of bacteria on nasal swabs. Because this information is available immediately, the electronic nose may be a powerful new technology for diagnostic use, not only for rhinologic purposes but in many other aspects of medicine as well. [source]