Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Displacement

  • angular displacement
  • anterior disc displacement
  • apical displacement
  • atomic displacement
  • atrioventricular plane displacement
  • character displacement
  • competitive displacement
  • crack opening displacement
  • disc displacement
  • dorsal displacement
  • ecological character displacement
  • electric displacement
  • fault displacement
  • head displacement
  • horizontal displacement
  • internal displacement
  • large displacement
  • lateral displacement
  • linear displacement
  • maximum displacement
  • miscible displacement
  • nodal displacement
  • nucleophilic displacement
  • opening displacement
  • partial displacement
  • plane displacement
  • population displacement
  • posterior displacement
  • relative displacement
  • reproductive character displacement
  • shear displacement
  • significant displacement
  • small displacement
  • solid displacement
  • southward displacement
  • surface displacement
  • vertical displacement

  • Terms modified by Displacement

  • displacement amplification
  • displacement amplitude
  • displacement curve
  • displacement data
  • displacement discontinuity
  • displacement discontinuity method
  • displacement ellipsoid
  • displacement experiment
  • displacement field
  • displacement function
  • displacement measurement
  • displacement method
  • displacement model
  • displacement parameter
  • displacement rate
  • displacement reaction
  • displacement relationships
  • displacement response
  • displacement sensor
  • displacement transducer

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Does the death penalty save lives? In recent years, a new round of research has been using annual time-series panel data from the 50 U.S. states for 25 or so years from the 1970s to the late 1990s that claims to find many lives saved through reductions in subsequent homicide rates after executions. This research, in turn, has produced a round of critiques, which concludes that these findings are not robust enough to model even small changes in specifications that yield dramatically different results. A principal reason for this sensitivity of the findings is that few state-years exist (about 1 percent of all state-years) in which six or more executions have occurred. To provide a different perspective, we focus on Texas, a state that has used the death penalty with sufficient frequency to make possible relatively stable estimates of the homicide response to executions. In addition, we narrow the observation intervals for recording executions and homicides from the annual calendar year to monthly intervals. Based on time-series analyses and independent-validation tests, our best-fitting model shows that, from January 1994 through December 2005, evidence exists of modest, short-term reductions in homicides in Texas in the first and fourth months that follow an execution,about 2.5 fewer homicides total. Another model suggests, however, that in addition to homicide reductions, some displacement of homicides may be possible from one month to another in the months after an execution, which reduces the total reduction in homicides after an execution to about .5 during a 12-month period. Implications for additional research and the need for future analysis and replication are discussed. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2010
    David W. Pfennig
    Character displacement occurs when two species compete, and those individuals most dissimilar from the average resource-use phenotypes of the other species are selectively favored. Few studies have explored the sequence of events by which such divergence comes about. We addressed this issue by studying two species of spadefoot toads that have undergone ecological character displacement with each other. Previous research revealed that phenotypic shifts between sympatric and allopatric populations of one species, Spea multiplicata, reflect a condition-dependent maternal effect. Here, we show that analogous shifts in the other species, S. bombifrons, cannot similarly be explained by such a maternal effect, and that these shifts instead appear to be underlain by allelic differences. We hypothesize that these two species have evolved different mechanisms of character displacement because they differ in duration in sympatry. Specifically, because they occur at the edge of a range expansion, populations of S. bombifrons have been exposed to S. multiplicata for a longer period. Consequently, S. bombifrons have likely had more time to accumulate genetic changes that promote character displacement. Generally, character displacement may often progress through an initial phase in which trait differences are environmentally induced to one in which they are constitutively expressed. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 10 2005
    Karin S. Pfennig
    Abstract Character displacement has long been considered a major cause of adaptive diversification. When species compete for resources or mates, character displacement minimizes competition by promoting divergence in phenotypes associated with resource use (ecological character displacement) or mate attraction (reproductive character displacement). In this study, we investigated whether character displacement can also have pleiotropic effects that lead to fitness trade-offs between the benefits of avoiding competition and costs accrued in other fitness components. We show that both reproductive and ecological character displacement have caused spadefoot toads to evolve smaller body size in the presence of a heterospecific competitor. Although this shift in size likely arose as a by-product of character displacement acting to promote divergence between species in mating behavior and larval development, it concomitantly reduces offspring survival, female fecundity, and sexual selection on males. Thus, character displacement may represent the "best of a bad situation" in that it lessens competition, but at a cost. Individuals in sympatry with the displaced phenotype will have higher fitness than those without the displaced trait because they experience reduced competition, but they may have reduced fitness relative to individuals in allopatry. Such a fitness trade-off can limit the conditions under which character displacement evolves and may even increase the risk of "Darwinian extinction" in sympatric populations. Consequently, character displacement may not always promote diversification in the manner that is often expected. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2000
    David W. Pfennig
    Abstract Biologists have long known that closely related species are often phenotypically different where they occur together, but are indistinguishable where they occur alone. The causes of such character displacement are controversial, however. We used polyphenic spadefoot toad tadpoles (Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata) to test the hypothesis that character displacement evolves to minimize competition for food. We also sought to evaluate the role of phenotypic plasticity in the mediation of competitive interactions between these species. Depending on their diet, individuals of both species develop into either a small-headed omnivore morph, which feeds mostly on detritus, or a large-headed carnivore morph, which specializes on shrimp. Laboratory experiments and surveys of natural ponds revealed that the two species were more dissimilar in their tendency to produce carnivores when they occurred together than when they occurred alone. This divergence in carnivore production was expressed as both character displacement (where S. multiplicata's propensity to produce carnivores was lower in sympatry than in allopatry) and as phenotypic plasticity (where S. multiplicata facultatively enhanced carnivore production in S. bombifrons, and S. bombifrons facultatively suppressed carnivore production in S. multiplicata). In separate experiments, we established that S. bombifrons (the species for which carnivore production was enhanced) was the superior competitor for shrimp. Conversely, S. multiplicata (the species for which carnivore production was suppressed and omnivore production enhanced) was the superior competitor for detritus. These results therefore demonstrate that selection to minimize competition for food can cause character displacement. They also suggest that both character displacement and phenotypic plasticity may mediate competitive interactions between species. [source]


    T. Schmidt
    First page of article [source]


    Changhui KANG
    J71; O53; C25 Probing into the incidence of job displacements during the 1997,99 recession period, this study offers theoretically grounded micro-causal explanations for regional ties and regional discrimination in South Korea. Our statistical analysis reveals the significant impact of a worker's birth region (the basis of regional ties and discrimination) on the layoff process. Native Kyongsang workers are found to have faced higher rates of layoff in Seoul-Kyongki regional firms than native Jolla workers during the recession period. The Kyongsang,Jolla layoff rate gap is mainly due to differential treatment rather than a difference in observable characteristics. The findings suggest that the problem of regional ties and regional discrimination is more deep-rooted and widespread in South Korea than previously reported. [source]

    Conflict-induced Displacement and Involuntary Resettlement in Colombia: Putting Cernea's IRLR Model to the Test

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2000
    H.C.R. Muggah
    This paper tests Cernea's (1997) impoverishment risks and livelihood reconstruction (IRLR) model in cases of conflict-induced displacement (CID). In applying the model to a situation involving internal conflict, the article illustrates the particular problems encountered by internally displaced people (IDPs) and policymakers charged to respond to them. The article searches for local interpretations of CID and resettlement through a comparative profile of two IDP settlements in Colombia: one urban, the other rural. It concludes that the IRLR model, when contextualised, provides a useful tool to identify and categorise risks of impoverishment and resettlement priorities. At the same time, however, the article demonstrates that the model insufficiently captures the root causes or causality of CID. [source]

    Internal Displacement in Burma

    DISASTERS, Issue 3 2000
    Steven Lanjouw
    The internal displacement of populations in Burma is not a new phenomenon. Displacement is caused by numerous factors. Not all of it is due to outright violence, but much is a consequence of misguided social and economic development initiatives. Efforts to consolidate the state by assimilating populations in government-controlled areas by military authorities on the one hand, while brokering cease-fires with non-state actors on the other, has uprooted civilian populations throughout the country. Very few areas in which internally displaced persons (IDPs) are found are not facing social turmoil within a climate of impunity. Humanitarian access to IDP populations remains extremely problematic. While relatively little information has been collected, assistance has been focused on targeting accessible groups. International concern within Burma has couched the problems of displacement within general development modalities, while international attention along its borders has sought to contain displacement. With the exception of several recent initiatives, few approaches have gone beyond assistance and engaged in the prevention or protection of the displaced. [source]

    Displacement-based seismic design of structures, M. J. N. Priestley, G. M. Calvi, and M. J. Kowalsky, IUSS Press, Pavia, Italy.

    721 pp, ISBN: 978-88-6198-000
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Assessment of Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Induced by Right Coronary Artery Occlusion Using Echocardiographic Atrioventricular Plane Displacement

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2000
    Alpesh R. Shah M.D.
    Right ventricular (RV) systolic function analysis by echocardiography has traditionally required RV endocardial border definition with subsequent tracing and is often inaccurate or impossible in technically poor studies. The atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) method attempts to use the descent of the tricuspid annular ring, a reflection of the longitudinal shortening of the right ventricle, as a surrogate marker for RV systolic function. We hypothesized that RV ischemia induced during right coronary artery occlusion proximal to the major right ventricular branches would result in severe right ventricular systolic dysfunction detectable by the AVPD method. During this pilot study, seven patients undergoing elective proximal RCA angioplasty had echocardiographic measurement of RV AVPD performed at baseline (i.e., immediately prior to RCA balloon inflation), during the last 30 seconds of first RCA balloon inflation, and at 1 minute after balloon deflation (recovery). Lateral and medial RV AVPD were significantly reduced from baseline values during intracoronary balloon inflation. (Lateral: 2.45 cm ± 0.22 vs 1.77 cm ± 0.13, P < 0.001; medial: 1.46 cm ± 0.37 vs 1.28 cm ± 0.32, P < 0.05). Additionally, lateral and medial RV AVPD significantly returned towards baseline values during recovery. (Lateral: 2.39 cm ± 0.20, P < 0.001; medial: 1.58 cm ± 0.27, P = 0.01). At baseline, all lateral RV AVPD values were > 2.0 cm, whereas during balloon inflation all were < 2.0 cm. No such clear distinction was found in medial RV AVPD values. Proximal RCA angioplasty is associated with a significant reduction in lateral and medial RV AVPD. Thus RV AVPD may serve as a marker for RV systolic dysfunction. [source]

    Displacement of a flying-fox camp using sound

    Article first published online: 31 OCT 200
    First page of article [source]

    Synthesis and Reactivity of Ru(NHC)(dppp)(CO)H2 and Ru(NHC)(dppp)(CO)HF Complexes: C,H and C,F Activation

    Steven P. Reade
    Abstract The hydrido fluorido ruthenium(II) complex [Ru(PPh3)(dppp)(CO)HF] [1, dppp = 1,4-bis(diphenylphosphanyl)propane], which forms upon reaction of [Ru(PPh3)3(CO)HF] with dppp, reacts with IMes [1,3-bis(2,4,6-trimethylphenyl)imidazol-2-ylidene] to give the expected carbene-containing hydrido fluorido complex [Ru(IMes)(dppp)(CO)HF] (2), as well as the C,H activated species [Ru(IMes),(dppp)(CO)H] (3). The formation of the latter product results from the reaction of 2 with a base (IMes or Et3N). Displacement of PPh3 from [Ru(PPh3)(dppp)(CO)H2] by ICy (1,3-dicyclohexylimidazol-2-ylidene) yields [Ru(ICy)(dppp)(CO)H2] (7), which upon reaction with Et3N·3HF, gives [Ru(ICy)(dppp)(CO)HF] (8). Thermolysis of 7 with C6F6 at elevated temperature generates 8 and [Ru(ICy)(dppp)(CO)(C6F5)H] (9). The related fluoroaryl complexes [Ru(ICy)(dppp)(CO)(C6F4CF3)H] (10) and [Ru(ICy)(dppp)(CO)(C5F4N)H] (11) are formed upon the room temperature C,F activation of C6F5CF3 and C5F5N by 7, but also by C,H activation of the partially fluorinated substrates p -C6F4HCF3 and p -C5F4HN.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2009) [source]

    Cyanometalate Cages with Exchangeable Terminal Ligands

    Julie L. Boyer
    Abstract The coordination chemistry of the unusual metallo-ligand Cs,[CpCo(CN)3]4[Cp*Ru]3 (Cs,Co4Ru3) is described with attention to the behavior of the ligand itself, its binding to Lewis-acidic metal cations, and its ability to stabilize catalytically relevant Ru,PPh3 fragments. A series of tests demonstrate that the "rim" [CpCo(CN)3], groups in Cs,Co4Ru3 are exchangeable. Upon treatment with [(MeC5H4)Co(CN)3], (Co,) Cs,Co4Ru3 undergoes vertex exchange to give Cs,Co4,xCo,xRu3. Similarly the cage is degraded by CO. Most convincing, Cs,Co4Ru3 reacts with PhNH3OTf to precipitate the polymer PhNH3CpCo(CN)3 and form the molecular box [Cs,Co4Ru4]+. Treatment of Cs,Co4Ru3 with [M(NCMe)x]PF6 (M = Cu, Ag) gave the Lewis acidic cages {Cs,[CpCo(CN)3]4[Cp*Ru]3M(NCMe)}PF6, which reacted with tertiary phosphane ligands to give adducts [Cs,Co4Ru3M(PPh3)]PF6. Lewis acidic octahedral vertices were installed using Fe, Ni, and Ru reagents. The boxes [Cs,Co4Ru3M(NCMe)3]2+ (M = Ni, Fe) formed readily from the reaction Cs,Co4Ru3 with [Ni(NCMe)6](BF4)2 and [Fe(NCMe)6](PF6)2. Displacement of the MeCN ligands gives [Cs,Co4Ru3Ni(9-ane-S3)](BF4)2. A series of boxes were prepared by the reaction of Cs,Co4Ru3 and RuCl2(PPh3)3, RuHCl(PPh3)3, and [(C6H6)Ru(NCMe)3](PF6)2. The derivative of the hydride, [Cs,Co4Ru3Ru(NCMe)(PPh3)2](PF6)2, was characterized crystallographically.(© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2007) [source]

    Synthesis and Reaction of MnII Iodides Bearing the ,-Diketiminate Ligand: the First Divalent Manganese N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complexes [{HC(CMeNAr)2}MnI{C[N(iPr)CMe]2}] and [{HC(CMeNAr)2}MnNHAr{C[N(iPr)CMe]2}] (Ar = 2,6- iPr2C6H3)

    Jianfang Chai
    Abstract The manganese mono-iodide [HC(CMeNAr)2]MnI(THF) (Ar = 2,6- iPr2C6H3) (3) was prepared in good yield from the reaction of [HC(CMeNAr)2]K with MnI2 in THF. Treatment of 3 under reflux in toluene and removing all the volatiles in vacuo afforded the dimeric compound [{HC(CMeNAr)2}Mn]2(,-I)2 (4). Displacement of the coordinated THF in 3 by a strong Lewis base C[N(iPr)CMe]2 or by adding C[N(iPr)CMe]2 to the toluene solution of 4 readily gave the N-heterocyclic carbene adduct [{HC(CMeNAr)2}]MnI{C[N(iPr)CMe]2} (5). Reduction of 5 with sodium/potassium alloy at room temperature unexpectedly resulted in the formation of the monomeric compound [{HC(CMeNAr)2}]MnNHAr{C[N(iPr)CMe]2} (6). Alternatively 6 was obtained by the salt elimination reaction of 5 with LiNHAr. Compounds 5 and 6 are the first examples of divalent manganese N-heterocyclic carbene adducts and the first manganese non-carbonyl carbene complexes. The single crystal X-ray structural analyses reveal that compounds 3 and 6 are monomeric and compound 4 is dimeric in the solid state. The manganese centers in these compounds exhibit a distorted tetrahedral geometry. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2003) [source]

    SN2 Displacement by Bromide Ions in Dichloromethane , The Role of Reverse Micelles

    Lucia Brinchi
    Abstract Reverse micellar systems are of interest as reaction media because they are powerful models for biological compartmentalization, enzymatic catalysis and separation of biomolecules. Solutions of ionic surfactants in apolar solvents may contain reverse micelles, but they may also contain ion pairs, or small clusters, with waters of hydration. We studied the bimolecular reaction in CH2Cl2 solutions of cationic tetraalkylammonium bromide salts (onium salts), such as cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTABr), cetyltripropylammonium bromide (CTPABr) and tetra- n -butylammonium bromide (TBABr). Methylnaphthalene-2-sulfonate (,-MeONs), its 6-sulfonate derivative (,-MeONsS,) as the 2,6-lutidinium salt and methyl-5- N,N,N,trimethylammonium naphthalene-1-sulfonate (,-MeONsNT+) as the trifluoromethanesulfonate salt react with Br, in CH2Cl2. First-order rate constants, kobs, increase linearly and similarly for the three substrates with increasing concentrations of the onium salts. Reactions are faster with TBABr than they are with CTPABr and CTABr, and the reactivity of the three substrates is in the order: ,-MeONsNT+ >> ,-MeONsS, > ,-MeONs. The reactions are inhibited by the addition of H2O, but CTABr tolerates H2O in large excess. At [H2O]/[CTABr] = w0 , 6, "water-pool" reverse micelles form, and kobs for all three substrates is then independent of w0. (© Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 69451 Weinheim, Germany, 2006) [source]

    Study of Fatigue Damage Micromechanisms in a Duplex Stainless Steel by Complementary Analysis Techniques

    Ahmed El Bartali
    The low-cycle fatigue (LCF) damage micromechanisms are studied in a duplex stainless steel at room temperature using complementary analysis techniques. Surface damage is observed in real-time with an in-situ microscopic device during a low-cycle fatigue test. Slip systems activated in each grain in each phase are identified from SEM photographs and EBSD measurements. The surface relief appeared at the end of the test is measured with an interferometric profilometer. Displacement and strain fields on the microstructural scale are calculated using DIC technique from surface images taken during cycling. Observations were combined to analyse damage mechanisms from slip marking appearance to strain localisation and crack initiation. [source]

    Fatigue damage analysis in a duplex stainless steel by digital image correlation technique

    ABSTRACT Strain field measurements by digital image correlation today offer new possibilities for analysing the mechanical behaviour of materials in situ during mechanical tests. The originality of the present study is to use this technique on the micro-structural scale, in order to understand and to obtain quantitative values of the fatigue surface damage in a two-phased alloy. In this paper, low-cycle fatigue damage micromechanisms in an austenitic-ferritic stainless steel are studied. Surface damage is observed in real time, with an in situ microscopic device, during a low-cycle fatigue test performed at room temperature. Surface displacement and strain fields are calculated using digital image correlation from images taken during cycling. A detailed analysis of optical images and strain fields measured enables us to follow precisely the evolution of surface strain fields and the damage micromechanisms. Firstly, strain heterogeneities are observed in austenitic grains. Initially, the austenitic phase accommodates the cyclic plastic strain and is then followed by the ferritic phase. Microcrack initiation takes place at the ferrite/ferrite grain boundaries. Microcracks propagate to the neighbouring austenitic grains following the slip markings. Displacement and strain gradients indicate probable microcrack initiation sites. [source]

    Tuvalu and Climate Change: Constructions of Environmental Displacement in The Sydney Morning Herald

    Carol Farbotko
    Abstract Tuvalu, a place whose image in the ,West' is as a small island state, insignificant and remote on the world stage, is becoming remarkably prominent in connection with the contemporary issue of climate change-related sea-level rise. My aim in this paper is to advance understanding of the linkages between climate change and island places, by exploring the discursive negotiation of the identity of geographically distant islands and island peoples in the Australian news media. Specifically, I use discourse analytic methods to critically explore how, and to what effects, various representations of the Tuvaluan islands and people in an Australian broadsheet, the Sydney Morning Herald, emphasize difference between Australia and Tuvalu. My hypothesis is that implicating climate change in the identity of people and place can constitute Tuvaluans as .tragic victims. of environmental displacement, marginalizing discourses of adaptation for Tuvaluans and other inhabitants of low-lying islands, and silencing alternative constructions of Tuvaluan identity that could emphasize resilience and resourcefulness. By drawing attention to the problematic ways that island identities are constituted in climate change discourse in the news media, I advocate a more critical approach to the production and consumption of representations of climate change. [source]

    Displacement and stress distributions under a uniform inclined rectangular load on a cross-anisotropic geomaterial

    Cheng-Der Wang
    Abstract In practical engineering, an applied rectangular area load is not often horizontally or vertically distributed but is frequently inclined at a certain angle with respect to the horizontal and vertical axes. Thus, the solutions of displacements and stresses due to such a load are essential to the design of foundations. This article yields the analytical solutions of displacements and stresses subjected to a uniform rectangular load that inclines with respect to the horizontal and vertical axes, resting on the surface of a cross-anisotropic geomaterial. The planes of cross-anisotropy are assumed to be parallel to the horizontal ground surface. The procedures to derive the solutions can be integrated the modified point load solutions, which are represented by several displacement and stresses elementary functions. Then, upon integrations, the displacement and stress integral functions resulting from a uniform inclined rectangular load for (1) the displacements at any depth, (2) the surface displacements, (3) the average displacements in a given layer, (4) the stresses at any depth, and (5) the average stresses in a given layer are yielded. The proposed solutions are clear and concise, and they can be employed to construct a series of calculation charts. In addition, the present solutions clarify the load inclinations, the dimensions of a loaded rectangle, and the analyzed depths, and the type and degree of geomaterial anisotropy profoundly affect the displacements and stresses in a cross-anisotropic medium. Parametric results show that the load inclination factor should be considered when an inclined rectangular load uniformly distributed on the cross-anisotropic material. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Lagrangian finite element treatment of transient vibration/acoustics of biosolids immersed in fluids

    P. Krysl
    Abstract Superposition principle is used to separate the incident acoustic wave from the scattered and radiated waves in a displacement-based finite element model. An absorbing boundary condition is applied to the perturbation part of the displacement. Linear constitutive equation allows for inhomogeneous, anisotropic materials, both fluids and solids. Displacement-based finite elements are used for all materials in the computational volume. Robust performance for materials with limited compressibility is achieved using assumed-strain nodally integrated simplex elements or incompatible-mode brick elements. A centered-difference time-stepping algorithm is formulated to handle general damping accurately and efficiently. Verification problems (response of empty steel cylinder immersed in water to a step plane wave, and scattering of harmonic plane waves from an elastic sphere) are discussed for assumed-strain simplex and for voxel-based brick finite element models. A voxel-based modeling scheme for complex biological geometries is described, and two illustrative results are presented from the bioacoustics application domain: reception of sound by the human ear and simulation of biosonar in beaked whales. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Forced Displacement in Darfur, Sudan: Dilemmas of Classifying the Crimes

    Klejda Mulaj
    ABSTRACT The ongoing forced displacement in Darfur has occasioned renewed interest in the phenomena of genocide and ethnic cleansing. Whereas the international response to the conflict has been considered promptly and elaborately by various analysts, few have paid sufficient attention, in the first instance, to the controversy surrounding the debate about the definition of the situation and the classification of crimes involved. Following an overview of the current conflict, the unfolding analysis seeks to show that the terminological debate reveals discrepancies in legal definitions and interpretations that may suggest that existing law may be inadequate to fully capture the nature of the crimes committed in Darfur. Confusion with the terminology has contributed to making the conflict more intractable. In addition, disagreement on a common definition of the situation has tended to justify inaction or limited involvement on the part of the international community. This article suggests that it is therefore necessary to resolve the terminological debate in order to ensure that no energy is wasted in arguing about the indeterminacy of the terms in the future and effective responses to mass violations of human rights are crafted in a timely fashion. [source]

    Migration, Displacement, and Violence: Prosecuting Romanian Street Children at the Paris Palace of Justice

    Susan J. Terrio
    This paper examines the displacement and vulnerability associated with the migration of unaccompanied illegal Romanian minors who came as economic migrants to Western Europe, found no legal opportunities for work or education, and were forced into criminal activity on the streets of French cities such as Paris, Lyon, and Nice. Beginning in 1997 growing numbers of unaccompanied Romanians, mostly boys, some as young as age ten, many younger than age 15, were subject to systematic prosecution rather than protection in Paris, the site of the largest and most influential juvenile court in the nation. They were arrested, detained, indicted, released pending trial, judged, and sentenced in absentia, multiple times with different identities. The Romanian minors were caught without legal papers or visas, claimed to be squatters living in abandoned buildings, trailers, or camps outside Paris, and gave little reliable information about their families or lives. Initially arrested for the destruction of city property and the theft of the proceeds from city parking meters, they gradually turned to begging, shoplifting, and prostitution when the city switched from coin to card payment. Deeply concerned by the penalization of a vulnerable population, the president of the Paris juvenile court created a special court to deal more humanely with unaccompanied minors in general, and Romanian children in particular, by establishing their identities and reconnecting them with their families. This article explores the contradictions that emerged between the representation of Romanian children in the media, the legal establishment, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs), and the Government, on the one hand, and their treatment in the juvenile justice system, on the other. It examines the discourse and the context of judging as well as the interactions between court personnel and Romanian minors from in-take interviews in jail and indictment hearings in chambers to judgment in absentia in the formal court. It compares and contrasts cases heard before and after the creation of the special court and centres on the gaps between official rhetoric, legal norms, and judicial practice. It concludes that the creation of the special court may be having the unintended effect of reinforcing and institutionalizing the very judicial practice it was designed to prevent, namely the penalization of marginality. [source]

    A Tale of Two Solitudes: Comparing Conflict and Development-induced Internal Displacement and Involuntary Resettlement

    Robert Muggah
    Development projects and war regularly lead to the internal displacement and involuntary resettlement of tens of millions of people each year. Though most "internally displaced people" settle spontaneously, a significant proportion is involuntarily resettled into planned "camps" and "settlements". This article is primarily concerned with a relatively understudied category of forced migration studies: resettlement. It contends that until very recently, the theory, policy, and practice of resettlement for people internally displaced by development and war have been treated as intellectually and practically exclusive. Decision makers and scholars working on the subject are frequently beholden to narrow disciplinary and bureaucratic interests and are unable or unwilling to look across institutional boundaries. As a result, policies and programmes intended to resettle populations have been clustered into two discrete (and disparate) narratives. Each of these draw from distinct normative moorings, government and non-governmental interpretations of "success" and "failure" and a division of labour closely tailored to the disciplines and expertise of those in the development and humanitarian communities. Though arising from separate traditions and conceived exclusively by donors, policy makers, and scholars, this article contends that they actually share many common features. Drawing on a vast and rapidly growing literature, this article seeks to frame the key debates on development and war-induced internal displacement and resettlement. It begins with an overview of definitional issues , including "internal displacement" and "resettlement", two concepts that are regularly contested and misunderstood. The article observes that the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement have, to some extent, clarified the rights of development and conflict-induced internally displaced people, as well as the responsibilities of states. It notes that in practice, however, resettlement of both types of populations is treated separately. The article then turns to a number of seminal theoretical contributions to the study of development and conflict-induced internal displacement and involuntary resettlement (DIDR and CIDR, respectively). The article highlights their separate evolution in theory and practice over time. It closes with a brief treatment of some of the common features of DIDR and CIDR, including their political economy, their institutional and bureaucratic logic, and similar patterns of impoverishment risks. [source]

    Displacement, development, and modernity in the Colombian Pacific*

    Arturo Escobar
    First page of article [source]

    Deviation of Fiber Tracts in the Vicinity of Brain Lesions: Evaluation by Diffusion Tensor Imaging

    Yaniv Assaf
    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) is used to characterize the diffusion properties of deviated white matter caused by brain tumors. DTI was recently shown to be very helpful in delineating white matter both within brain lesions and surrounding them. Displacement of white matter fibers may be one of the consequences of tumor growth adjacent to white matter. The combination of white matter mapping with DTI and gray matter mapping using functional MRI, in some cases, facilitated assessment of the relation between the shifted cortical areas and the corresponding white matter tracts. We found that the fractional anisotropy extracted from DTI is increased by 38% in areas of non-edematous shifted white matter fibers. By contrast, trace apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in those areas were found to be similar to contralateral side and normal control values. Analysis of the three diffusion tensor eigenvalues revealed that the increase in the fractional anisotropy is a result of two processes. The first is the increase in the diffusion parallel to the fibers,,1 (by 18%), and the second is the decrease in the diffusion perpendicular to fibers,,3 (by 34%) as compared with the contralateral side. These opposing changes cause an increase in the diffusion anisotropy but no change in the trace ADC. It is suggested that the pressure caused by the tumor may lead to an increase in white matter fiber tension, thus causing an increase in ,1. On the other hand, the same pressure causes increased fiber density per unit area, leading to a higher degree of restricted diffusion in the extracellular space and, hence, a reduction in ,3. [source]

    Investigation of a cyclopic, human, term fetus by use of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

    JOURNAL OF ANATOMY, Issue 5 2002
    D. Situ
    Abstract Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the internal neural and craniofacial malformations of a cyclopic fetus are described. External facial features were characterized by a tubular proboscis situated above a single eye slit. The brain was recognized as ,pancake' type alobar holoprosencephaly (a condition where the undifferentiated telencephalon partially surrounds a monoventricle). Displacement of some bones that normally contribute to the orbit could be clearly discerned. Absence of neural structures (e.g. falx cerebri, corpus callosum) and missing components of the ethmoid bone indicated a midline deficit. This correlates with proposed theories of cyclopic embryopathy, which suggest that the prechordal plate and the neural crest cells are affected during the third week of gestation in cyclopia. [source]

    Reconstructing asymmetrical reproductive character displacement in a periodical cicada contact zone

    Abstract Selection against costly reproductive interactions can lead to reproductive character displacement (RCD). We use information from patterns of displacement and inferences about predisplacement character states to investigate causes of RCD in periodical cicadas. The 13-year periodical cicada Magicicada neotredecim exhibits RCD and strong reproductive isolation in sympatry with a closely related 13-year species, Magicicada tredecim. Displacement is asymmetrical, because no corresponding pattern of character displacement exists within M. tredecim. Results from playback and hybridization experiments strongly suggest that sexual interactions between members of these species were possible at initial contact. Given these patterns, we evaluate potential sources of selection for displacement. One possible source is ,acoustical interference', or mate-location inefficiencies caused by the presence of heterospecifics. Acoustical interference combined with the species-specificity of song pitch and preference appears to predict the observed asymmetrical pattern of RCD in Magicicada. However, acoustical interference does not appear to be a complete explanation for displacement in Magicicada, because our experiments suggest a significant potential for direct sexual interactions between these species before displacement. Another possible source of selection for displacement is hybrid failure. We evaluate the attractiveness of inferred hybrid mating signals, and we examine the viability of hybrid eggs. Neither of these shows strong evidence of hybrid inferiority. We conclude by presenting a model of hybrid failure related to life cycle differences in Magicicada. [source]

    Editorial: Late-Term Displacement of Amplatzer Duct Occluder II Device Following Percutaneous Closure of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in an Adult

    (J Interven Cardiol 2010;23:368,369) [source]

    Novel synthesis of [1- 11C], -vinyl- , -aminobutyric acid ([1,11C]GVG) for pharmacokinetic studies of addiction treatment

    Zongren Zhang
    Abstract , -Vinyl- , -aminobutyric acid (GVG, Vigabatrin®), a suicide inhibitor of GABA-transaminase (GABA-T), has been suggested as a new drug for the treatment of substance abuse. In order to better understand its pharmacokinetics and potential side effects, we have developed a radiosynthesis of carbon-11 (t1/2=20 min) labeled GVG for positron emission tomographic (PET) studies. We report here a novel synthetic strategy to prepare the precursor and to efficiently label GVG with C-11. 5-Bromo-3-(carbobenzyloxy)amino-1-pentene was synthesized in five steps from homoserine lactone, including reduction and methylenation. This was used in a one-pot, two-step radiosynthesis. Displacement of bromide with no-carrier-added [11C]cyanide followed by acid hydrolysis afforded [1- 11C]GVG with decay corrected radiochemical yields of 27±9% (n=6, not optimized) with respect to [11C]cyanide in a synthesis time of 45 min. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Small potent ligands to the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP)/AT4 receptor

    Andreas Axén
    Abstract Angiotensin IV analogs encompassing aromatic scaffolds replacing parts of the backbone of angiotensin IV have been synthesized and evaluated in biological assays. Several of the ligands displayed high affinities to the insulin-regulated aminopeptidase (IRAP)/AT4 receptor. Displacement of the C -terminal of angiotensin IV with an o -substituted aryl acetic acid derivative delivered the ligand 4, which exhibited the highest binding affinity (Ki = 1.9 nM). The high affinity of this ligand provides support to the hypothesis that angiotensin IV adopts a ,-turn in the C -terminal of its bioactive conformation. Ligand (4) inhibits both human IRAP and aminopeptidase N-activity and induces proliferation of adult neural stem cells at low concentrations. Furthermore, ligand 4 is degraded considerably more slowly in membrane preparations than angiotensin IV. Hence, it might constitute a suitable research tool for biological studies of the (IRAP)/AT4 receptor. Copyright © 2007 European Peptide Society and John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]