Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Disc

  • accretion disc
  • articular disc
  • circular disc
  • dentine disc
  • galactic disc
  • gas disc
  • imaginal disc
  • intervertebral disc
  • leaf disc
  • lumbar disc
  • lumbar intervertebral disc
  • optic disc
  • outer disc
  • protostellar disc
  • stellar disc
  • thin disc
  • unit disc
  • wing disc

  • Terms modified by Disc

  • disc appearance
  • disc area
  • disc cell
  • disc change
  • disc degeneration
  • disc development
  • disc diameter
  • disc diffusion
  • disc diffusion method
  • disc disease
  • disc displacement
  • disc embedded
  • disc equation
  • disc evolution
  • disc extrusion
  • disc formation
  • disc galaxy
  • disc height
  • disc herniation
  • disc method
  • disc model
  • disc models
  • disc morphology
  • disc parameter
  • disc photography
  • disc ratio
  • disc size
  • disc specimen
  • disc structure
  • disc tissue
  • disc width

  • Selected Abstracts

    Hepatocyte growth factor promotes cell survival from Fas-mediated cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma cells via Akt activation and Fas-death,inducing signaling complex suppression

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 4 2000
    Atsushi Suzuki
    The Akt/PI-3 kinase pathway is a system essential for cell survival. In the current study, we showed that hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) activates the Akt/PI-3 kinase pathway to suppress Fas-mediated cell death in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC; 3 lines; SK-Hep1, HLE, and Chang Liver cell lines), hepatoblastoma (1 line; HepG2), and embryonic hepatocyte (1 line; WRL). Five tested cell lines showed the resistance to Fas-mediated cell death by the pretreatment of HGF. This HGF-induced cell survival was suppressed by wortmannin (Akt/PI-3 kinase pathway inhibitor), suggesting an involvement of Akt. When cells were pretreated with HGF, Fas-mediated cell death was suppressed, followed by Akt phosphorylation at Ser473. Fas-death,inducing signaling complex (DISC) formation, especially FADD and caspase 8 interaction, was suppressed by HGF and the suppression of the Akt/PI-3 kinase pathway by transient expression of PTEN, resulting in acquisition of Fas-DISC formation and Fas-mediated cell death in HGF-treated cells. We suggest that HGF promotes cell survival in hepatocyte-derived cell lines (HCC, hepatoblastoma, and embryonic hepatocyte) from Fas-mediated cell death via Fas-DISC suppression as a result of Akt activation. [source]

    Hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy: Initial experience

    Abstract Objectives: To report our initial experience of hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy for stage T1 renal tumors. Methods: The clinical data on 22 consecutive patients who had undergone hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy and 22 who had undergone open radical nephrectomy were reviewed. The operation was performed with a hand placed retroperitoneally through a pararectal longitudal 7,7.5 cm incision using a LAP DISC. Results: The total operating time was between 2.3 and 5.8 h (mean: 3.4 h). The estimated blood loss was between 15 and 650 mL (mean: 170 mL). The complication rate was 9% (2/22). No conversions to open procedure occurred. In comparison to open radical nephrectomy, the operating time was similar (3.4 vs 3.9 h) whereas the estimated blood loss was significantly less in this procedure (170 vs 495 mL). During the convalescence period the patients revealed significantly less postoperative pain, shorter intervals to resuming oral intake and more rapid return to normal activities compared to the open radical nephrectomy patients. Conclusion: Hand-assisted retroperitoneoscopic radical nephrectomy is an effective and safe procedure for T1 renal tumors. [source]

    DR5-mediated DISC controls caspase-8 cleavage and initiation of apoptosis in human glioblastomas

    Anita C. Bellail
    Abstract To explore the molecular mechanisms by which glioblastomas are resistant to tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), we examined TRAIL signalling pathways in the tumours. TRAIL has four membrane-anchored receptors, death receptor 4/5 (DR4/5) and decoy receptor 1/2 (DcR1/2). Of these receptors, only DR5 was expressed consistently in glioblastoma cell lines and tumour tissues, ruling out the role of DcR1/2 in TRAIL resistance. Upon TRAIL binding, DR5 was homotrimerized and recruited Fas-associated death domain (FADD) and caspase-8 for the assembly of death-inducing signalling complex (DISC) in the lipid rafts of the plasma membrane. In the DISC, caspase-8 was cleaved and initiated apoptosis by cleaving downstream caspases in TRAIL-sensitive glioblastoma cells. In TRAIL-resistant cells, however, DR5-mediated DISC was modified by receptor-interacting protein (RIP), cellular FADD-like interleukin-1,-converting enzyme inhibitory protein (c-FLIP) and phosphoprotein enriched in diabetes or in astrocyte-15 (PED/PEA-15). This DISC modification occurred in the non-raft fractions of the plasma membrane and resulted in the inhibition of caspase-8 cleavage and activation of nuclear factor-,B (NF-,B). Treatment of resistant cells with parthenolide, an inhibitor of inhibitor of ,B (I-,B), eliminated TRAIL-induced NF-,B activity but not TRAIL resistance. In contrast, however, targeting of RIP, c-FLIP or PED/PEA-15 with small interfering RNA (siRNA) led to the redistribution of the DISC from non-rafts to lipid rafts and eliminated the inhibition of caspase-8 cleavage and thereby TRAIL resistance. Taken together, this study indicates that the DISC modification by RIP, c-FLIP and PED/PEA-15 is the most upstream event in TRAIL resistance in glioblastomas. [source]

    Non-muscle myosin IIB helps mediate TNF cell death signaling independent of actomyosin contractility (AMC)

    Patrick G. Flynn
    Abstract Non-muscle myosin II (NM II) helps mediate survival and apoptosis in response to TNF-alpha (TNF), however, NM II's mechanism of action in these processes is not fully understood. NM II isoforms are involved in a variety of cellular processes and differences in their enzyme kinetics, localization, and activation allow NM II isoforms to have distinct functions within the same cell. The present study focused on isoform specific functions of NM IIA and IIB in mediating TNF induced apoptosis. Results show that siRNA knockdown of NM IIB, but not NM IIA, impaired caspase cleavage and nuclear condensation in response to TNF. NM II's function in promoting cell death signaling appears to be independent of actomyosin contractility (AMC) since treatment of cells with blebbistatin or cytochalasin D failed to inhibit TNF induced caspase cleavage. Immunoprecipitation studies revealed associations of NM IIB with clathrin, FADD, and caspase 8 in response to TNF suggesting a role for NM IIB in TNFR1 endocytosis and the formation of the death inducing signaling complex (DISC). These findings suggest that NM IIB promotes TNF cell death signaling in a manner independent of its force generating property. J. Cell. Biochem. 9999: 1365,1375, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    ABSTRACT A comparison of two different scale corotating disc scraped surface heat exchangers (CDHE) was performed experimentally. The findings were compared to predictions from a finite element model. We find that the model predicts well the flow pattern of the two CDHE's investigated. The heat transfer performance predicted by the model agrees well with experimental observations for the laboratory scale CDHE whereas the overall heat transfer in the scaled-up version was not in equally good agreement. The lack of the model to predict the heat transfer performance in scale-up leads us to identify the key dimensionless parameters relevant for scale-up. [source]

    c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase-dependent fas activation contributes to etoposide-induced apoptosis in p53-mutated prostate cancer cells

    THE PROSTATE, Issue 4 2003
    Keiji Shimada
    Abstract Background The death receptor, Fas, has recently been demonstrated to contribute the chemotherapeutic agents-induced apoptosis, however, the detail mechanisms have yet to be fully understood, especially in prostate cancer cells. Methods PC-3 and DU145 stably transfected with dominant negative form of Fas-associated death domain (FADD) or specific kinase of c-Jun NH2 -terminal kinase (JNK) (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase, MKK7) were selected in the presence of hygromycin B (Hyg B). Cell viability was examined by (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulphonyl)- 2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS) assay or flowcytometric analysis using green fluorescent protein (GFP). Apoptosis was examined by DNA ladder, Western blotting analysis of cleaved caspases, or morphological analysis. The expression of Fas and JNK activation were investigated by Western blotting/flowcytometric analysis and in vitro kinase assay, respectively. Results Stimulation with etoposide significantly up-regulated Fas, and the death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) was formed in PC-3 and DU145. Stable transfection with dominant-negative FADD inhibited etoposide-induced apoptosis. In addition, stable transfection with dominant-negative MKK7, by which JNK activation was inhibited, canceled both the up-regulation of Fas and the formation of DISC by etoposide. Re-introduction of wild type p53 into PC-3 and DU145 completely suppressed these inhibitory effects. Conclusions These results suggest that, in p53-mutated prostate cancer, JNK-initiated Fas-mediated apoptotic signals may play an important role in chemosensitivity. Prostate 55: 265,280, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Posttraumatic Symptoms, Functional Impairment, and Coping among Adolescents on Both Sides of the Israeli,Palestinian Conflict: A Cross-Cultural Approach

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 4 2009
    Ruth Pat-Horenczyk
    This study assessed the effects of the ongoing violence on the mental health of Palestinian and Israeli youths. Parallel instruments were developed and adapted, as part of a collaborative project, in order to assess, in each society: (1) differential rates of exposure to the conflict, (2) the association between exposure and the severity of posttraumatic symptoms (PTS), and (3) the inter-relationships among PTS, functional impairment, somatic complaints, and coping strategies. Participants were 1,016 Israeli and 1,235 Palestinian adolescents. A self-report questionnaire assessed exposure. PTS was measured using the UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, functional impairment and somatic complaints were measured with the DISC, and coping strategies were assessed with Brief Cope. In both societies, greater exposure to conflict-related violence was associated with more PTS and more somatic complaints, with girls reporting more distress than boys. A total of 6.8 per cent of the Israeli students and 37.2 per cent of the Palestinian students met criteria for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). In both societies, but more pronounced in the Palestinian Authority, adolescents reported significant levels of functional impairment, mainly in the area of school functioning. Students with PTSD reported more somatic complaints as well as greater functional impairment. The results show the serious psychological impact of the ongoing violent conflict on Israeli and Palestinian students and point to the need to develop appropriate school-based interventions to address their mental health needs. Cette étude évalue les effets de la violence continuelle sur la santé mentale des jeunes palestiniens et israéliens. Des instruments analogues ont été développés et adaptés, dans le cadre d'un projet de collaboration, afin d'évaluer dans chaque société: (1) les différences de taux d'exposition au conflit, (2) l'association entre l'exposition et la sévérité des symptômes post-traumatiques (PTS) et (3) les interrelations entre les PTS, les troubles fonctionnels, les plaintes somatiques et les stratégies de faire-face. 1016 adolescents israéliens et 1235 adolescents palestiniens ont participéà cette étude. Un questionnaire auto-administré mesure l'exposition au conflit. Les PTS sont mesurés par l'utilisation de l'UCLA PTSD Reaction Index, les troubles fonctionnels et les plaintes somatiques sont approchés par le DISC, et les stratégies de faire-face par le Brief Cope. Dans les deux sociétés, une plus grande exposition au conflit et à ses violences est associée à des PTS plus importants et à plus de plaintes somatiques, les filles manifestant plus de détresse que les garçons. Un total de 6.8% des étudiants israéliens et 37.2% des étudiants palestiniens répondent à des critères du Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). Dans les deux sociétés, mais de façon plus prononcée dans l'Autorité palestinienne, les adolescents rapportent des niveaux significatifs de troubles fonctionnels, principalement dans le domaine du fonctionnement scolaire. Les étudiants avec PTSD manifestent plus de plaintes somatiques, il en va de même pour les troubles fonctionnels. Les résultats montrent le sérieux impact psychologique d'un conflit violent et continuel sur les étudiants israéliens et palestiniens et signale le besoin de développer des interventions scolaires appropriées à leurs besoins en matière de santé mentale. [source]

    Impairment of death-inducing signalling complex formation in CD95-resistant human primary lymphoma B cells

    Alicia Lajmanovich
    Summary Multiple mechanisms exist by which tumour cells can escape CD95-mediated apoptosis. Previous studies by our laboratory have shown that primary B cells from non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma (B-NHL) were resistant to CD95-induced cell death. In the current study, we have analysed the mechanisms underlying CD95 resistance in primary human lymphoma B cells. We report that FADD (FAS-associated death domain protein) and caspase-8 were constitutively expressed in lymphoma B cells and that the CD95 pathway was blocked upstream to caspase-8 activation. However, caspase-8 was processed and functional after treatment with staurosporine (STS). We found that the expression levels of FLICE (FADD-like interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme)-Inhibitory Protein (c-FLIP) and Bcl-2-related proteins were heterogeneous in B-NHL cells and were not related to CD95 resistance. Finally, we report the absence of a CD95-induced signalling complex [death-inducing signalling complex (DISC)] in lymphoma B cells, with no FADD and caspase-8 recruitment to CD95 receptor. In contrast, DISC formation was observed in CD95-resistant non-tumoural (NT) B cells. Therefore, we propose that the absence of DISC formation in primary lymphoma B cells may contribute to protect these cells from CD95-induced apoptosis. [source]


    E. Aubry
    First page of article [source]


    Discs of apple tissue were compressed to 75% of their original height. Throughout compression, the force-distance curve was collected and the electrical impedance of the discs was measured at two frequencies of alternating current,1 kHz and 1 MHz. Electrical impedance was separated into its resistive and reactive components, and at these particular frequencies changes in resistance predominated. Measurements at 1 kHz indicate the resistance of extracellular regions of the discs (ruptured cells as well as those regions external to the plasma membrane), while measurements at 1 MHz indicate the resistance of the entire disc (combined intracellular and extracellular regions). Juice was released from the discs as a result of damage to cells and the extrusion of cellular fluid into intercellular air spaces. This resulted in a decline in electrical resistance at 1 kHz, but little change to the resistance at 1 MHz. Changes in juice release as determined by electrical measurement were related to the mechanical properties of the discs. Generally, the release of juice occurred after the inflection point on the force-distance curves, but much earlier than mechanical failure (indicated by maximum force). The extent of tissue damage was determined from the relative decrease in resistance at 1 kHz, and was found to vary among apple cultivars and in response to fruit ripening. [source]

    Expression of Acid-Sensing Ion Channel 3 (ASIC3) in Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc Is Regulated by p75NTR and ERK Signaling,

    Yoshiyasu Uchiyama
    Abstract Although a recent study has shown that skeletal tissues express ASICs, their function is unknown. We show that intervertebral disc cells express ASIC3; moreover, expression is uniquely regulated and needed for survival in a low pH and hypoeromsotic medium. These findings suggest that ASIC3 may adapt disc cells to their hydrodynamically stressed microenvironment. Introduction: The nucleus pulposus is an avascular, hydrated tissue that permits the intervertebral disc to resist compressive loads to the spine. Because the tissue is hyperosmotic and avascular, the pH of the nucleus pulposus is low. To determine the mechanisms by which the disc cells accommodate to the low pH and hypertonicity, the expression and regulation of the acid sensing ion channel (ASIC)3 was examined. Materials and Methods: Expression of ASICs in cells of the intervertebral disc was analyzed. To study its regulation, we cloned the 2.8-kb rat ASIC3 promoter and performed luciferase reporter assays. The effect of pharmacological inhibition of ASICs on disc cell survival was studied by measuring MTT and caspase-3 activities. Results: ASIC3 was expressed in discal tissues and cultured disc cells in vitro. Because studies of neuronal cells have shown that ASIC3 expression and promoter activity is induced by nerve growth factor (NGF), we examined the effect of NGF on nucleus pulposus cells. Surprisingly, ASIC3 promoter activity did not increase after NGF treatment. The absence of induction was linked to nonexpression of tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA), a high-affinity NGF receptor, although a modest expression of p75NTR was seen. When treated with p75NTR antibody or transfected with dominant negative-p75NTR plasmid, there was significant suppression of ASIC3 basal promoter activity. To further explore the downstream mechanism of control of ASIC3 basal promoter activity, we blocked p75NTR and measured phospho extracellular matrix regulated kinase (pERK) levels. We found that DN-p75NTR suppressed NGF mediated transient ERK activation. Moreover, inhibition of ERK activity by dominant negative-mitogen activated protein kinase kinase (DN-MEK) resulted in a dose-dependent suppression of ASIC3 basal promoter activity, whereas overexpression of constitutively active MEK1 caused an increase in ASIC3 promoter activity. Finally, to gain insight in the functional importance of ASIC3, we suppressed ASIC activity in nucleus pulposus cells. Noteworthy, under both hyperosmotic and acidic conditions, ASIC3 served to promote cell survival and lower the activity of the pro-apoptosis protein, caspase-3. Conclusions: Results of this study indicate that NGF serves to maintain the basal expression of ASIC3 through p75NTR and ERK signaling in discal cells. We suggest that ASIC3 is needed for adaptation of the nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus cells to the acidic and hyperosmotic microenvironment of the intervertebral disc. [source]

    MEK/ERK Signaling Controls Osmoregulation of Nucleus Pulposus Cells of the Intervertebral Disc by Transactivation of TonEBP/OREBP,

    Tsung-Ting Tsai
    Abstract Earlier studies have shown that intervertebral disc cells express TonEBP, a transcription factor that permits adaptation to osmotic stress and regulates aggrecan gene expression. However, the mechanism of hyperosmotic activation of TonEBP in disc cells is not known. Results of this study show that hypertonic activation of ERK signaling regulates transactivation activity of TonEBP, modulating its function. Introduction: In an earlier report, we showed that tonicity enhancer binding protein (TonEBP) positively regulates aggrecan gene expression in disc cells, thereby autoregulating its osmotic environment. Although these studies indicated that the cells of the nucleus pulposus were optimally adapted to a hyperosmotic state, the mechanism by which the cells transduce the osmotic stress was not delineated. The primary goal of this study was to test the hypothesis that, in a hyperosmotic medium, the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway regulated TonEBP activity. Materials and Methods: Nucleus pulposus cells were maintained in isotonic or hypertonic media, and MAPK activation and TonEBP expression were analyzed. To study the role of MAPK in regulation of TonEBP function, gel shift and luciferase reporter assays were performed. ERK expression in cells was modulated by using expression plasmids or siRNA, and transactivation domain (TAD)-TonEBP activity was studied. Results: We found that hypertonicity resulted in phosphorylation and activation of ERK1/2 proteins and concomitant activation of C terminus TAD activity of ELK-1, a downstream transcription factor. In hypertonic media, treatment with ERK and p38 inhibitors resulted in downregulation of TonE promoter activity of TauT and HSP-70 and decreased binding of TonEBP to TonE motif. Similarly, forced expression of DN-ERK and DN-p38 in nucleus pulposus cells suppressed TauT and HSP-70 reporter gene activity. Finally, we noted that ERK was needed for transactivation of TonEBP. Expression of DN-ERK significantly suppressed, whereas, WT-ERK and CA-MEK1 enhanced, TAD activity of TonEBP. Experiments performed with HeLa cells indicated that the ERK signaling pathway also served a major role in regulating the osmotic response in nondiscal cells. Conclusions: Together, these studies showed that adaptation of the nucleus pulposus cells to their hyperosmotic milieu is dependent on activation of the ERK and p38- MAPK pathways acting through TonEBP and its target genes. [source]

    Multi-coloring the Mycielskian of graphs

    Wensong Lin
    Abstract A k -fold coloring of a graph is a function that assigns to each vertex a set of k colors, so that the color sets assigned to adjacent vertices are disjoint. The kth chromatic number of a graph G, denoted by ,k(G), is the minimum total number of colors used in a k -fold coloring of G. Let µ(G) denote the Mycielskian of G. For any positive integer k, it holds that ,k(G) + 1,,k(µ(G)),,k(G) + k (W. Lin, Disc. Math., 308 (2008), 3565,3573). Although both bounds are attainable, it was proved in (Z. Pan, X. Zhu, Multiple coloring of cone graphs, manuscript, 2006) that if k,2 and ,k(G),3k,2, then the upper bound can be reduced by 1, i.e., ,k(µ(G)),,k(G) + k,1. We conjecture that for any n,3k,1, there is a graph G with ,k(G)=n and ,k(µ(G))=n+ k. This is equivalent to conjecturing that the equality ,k(µ(K(n, k)))=n+k holds for Kneser graphs K(n, k) with n,3k,1. We confirm this conjecture for k=2, 3, or when n is a multiple of k or n,3k2/ln k. Moreover, we determine the values of ,k(µ(C2q+1)) for 1,k,q. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Graph Theory 63: 311,323, 2010 [source]

    Factory at Night. © Photo Disc, Inc. (Chem. Eng.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Sulfur crystal through a microscope. © Photo Disc, Inc. (Chem. Eng.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Titelbild: Cholesterinacetat © Photo Disc, Inc. (Chem. Ing.

    Tech. 12/2008)
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Optic disc swelling in an adolescent with insulin dependent diabetes mellitus

    Samantha Fraser-Bell BSc(Med) MBBS
    Abstract A 14-year-old Ukrainian girl with uncontrolled insulin dependent diabetes developed bilateral optic disc swelling when diabetic treatment was instituted. There was no retinal ischaemia. The disc swelling resolved completely over 8 months without specific ocular therapy. Disc swelling in juvenile diabetics must be differentiated from disc neovascularization. These patients may develop retinal ischaemia and neovascularization after the disc changes resolve. [source]

    Effect of Silicate-Substitution on Attachment and Early Development of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells Seeded on Microporous Hydroxyapatite Discs,

    Katharina Guth
    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a well-established graft material used in bone repair. Silicon-substituted hydroxyapatite (SA; 0.8,wt% Si) has shown greater bone ingrowth and bone coverage than phase pure HA. To assess the effect of microporosity on sensitivity of cell attachment to surface physiochemistry, microporous SA and HA discs, and control Thermanox (TMX) discs were incubated with osteoblast-like cells (5,×,104 HOS-TE85 cells) under differing tissue culture conditions. To investigate early cellular attachment, organization, and differentiation, cells were also stained for integrin,,5,1, actin, and runt-related transcription factor (RUNX-2), respectively, after incubation on HA, SA, and TMX discs for 3 days. No significant differences emerged between HA, SA, and TMX discs in mean numbers of cells attached in serum free medium (SFM) over 90,min incubation. In contrast, significantly more cells were attached to SA than HA after 180,min incubation in complete medium (C-MEM) containing fetal calf serum (p,<,0.05). Cell attachment to SA and HA discs pre-conditioned in SFM supplemented with fibronectin (FN) was lower than discs pre-conditioned in C-MEM, suggesting sensitivity of an active FN conformation to the presence of co-adsorbates. Confocal microscopy demonstrated significantly more co-localization of integrin ,5,1 and actin on SA than HA. Translocalization of RUNX-2 to the nucleus was stronger in cells incubated on SA. Microporosity did not diminish the effect of surface physiochemistry on cell adhesion, and enhanced cell attachment for SA appears to be mediated by differences in the quality of adsorbed protein rather than via direct effects of substrate chemistry. [source]

    Evaluation of processed bovine cancellous bone matrix seeded with syngenic osteoblasts in a critical size calvarial defect rat model

    U. Kneser
    Abstract Introduction: Biologic bone substitutes may offer alternatives to bone grafting procedures. The aim of this study was to evaluate a preformed bone substitute based on processed bovine cancellous bone (PBCB) with or without osteogenic cells in a critical size calvarial defect rat model. Methods: Discs of PBCB (Tutobone®) were seeded with second passage fibrin gel-immobilized syngenic osteoblasts (group A, n = 40). Cell-free matrices (group B, n = 28) and untreated defects (group C; n=28) served as controls. Specimens were explanted between day 0 and 4 months after implantation and were subjected to histological and morphometric evaluation. Results: At 1 month, bone formation was limited to small peripheral areas. At 2 and 4 months, significant bone formation, matrix resorption as well as integration of the implants was evident in groups A and B. In group C no significant regeneration of the defects was observed. Morphometric analysis did not disclose differences in bone formation in matrices from groups A and B. Carboxyfluorescine-Diacetate-Succinimidylester (CFDA) labeling demonstrated low survival rates of transplanted cells. Discussion: Osteoblasts seeded into PBCB matrix display a differentiated phenotype following a 14 days cell culture period. Lack of initial vascularization may explain the absence of added osteogenicity in constructs from group A in comparison to group B. PBCB is well integrated and represents even without osteogenic cells a promising biomaterial for reconstruction of critical size calvarial bone defects. [source]


    Discs of apple tissue were compressed to 75% of their original height. Throughout compression, the force-distance curve was collected and the electrical impedance of the discs was measured at two frequencies of alternating current,1 kHz and 1 MHz. Electrical impedance was separated into its resistive and reactive components, and at these particular frequencies changes in resistance predominated. Measurements at 1 kHz indicate the resistance of extracellular regions of the discs (ruptured cells as well as those regions external to the plasma membrane), while measurements at 1 MHz indicate the resistance of the entire disc (combined intracellular and extracellular regions). Juice was released from the discs as a result of damage to cells and the extrusion of cellular fluid into intercellular air spaces. This resulted in a decline in electrical resistance at 1 kHz, but little change to the resistance at 1 MHz. Changes in juice release as determined by electrical measurement were related to the mechanical properties of the discs. Generally, the release of juice occurred after the inflection point on the force-distance curves, but much earlier than mechanical failure (indicated by maximum force). The extent of tissue damage was determined from the relative decrease in resistance at 1 kHz, and was found to vary among apple cultivars and in response to fruit ripening. [source]

    Classification of Suspensions by Means of Rotating Filter Discs and Autodynamic High-Frequency Backwashing

    L. Steinke
    Abstract A new method for the classification of suspensions by means of rotating filter discs is presented. The classification without a filter cake buildup by means of a single shaft disc filter is possible using the high-frequency autodynamic backwashing method. High-frequency autodynamic backwashing results from an overpressure fluctuation between the filtrate and concentrate sides, resulting in different flow directions of the filtrate volume flow. The main parameters are the centrifugal force acting on the fluid inside the discs in combination with the fact that the discs are slightly inclined. It is demonstrated that the separation of coarse particles is entirely possible. [source]

    Primary sex ratios in birds: problems with molecular sex identification of undeveloped eggs

    MOLECULAR ECOLOGY, Issue 12 2003
    Kathryn E. Arnold
    Abstract Sex allocation studies seek to ascertain whether mothers manipulate offspring sex ratio prior to ovulation. To do so, DNA for molecular sexing should be collected as soon after conception as possible, but instead neonates are usually sampled. Here, we aim to identify and quantify some of the problems associated with using molecular techniques to identify the sex of newly laid avian eggs. From both fertilized and unfertilized chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs, we sampled (1) the blastoderm/disc, (2) vitelline membrane and (3) a mixture of (1) and (2). Thus, we replicated scenarios under which contaminated samples are taken and/or unfertilized eggs are not identified as such and are sampled. We found that two commonly used molecular sexing tests, based on the CHD-1 genes, differed in sensitivity, but this did not always predict their ability to sex egg samples. The vitelline membrane was a considerable source of maternal and probably paternal contamination. Fertile eggs were regularly assigned the wrong sex when vitelline membrane contaminated the blastoderm sample. The membrane of unfertilized eggs was always female, i.e. maternal DNA had been amplified. DNA was amplified from 47 to 63% of unfertilized blastodiscs, even though it was highly unlikely that DNA from a single haploid cell could be amplified reliably using these polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Surprisingly, the blastodiscs were identified as both males and females. We suggest that in these cases only maternal DNA was amplified, and that ,false' males, Z not ZZ, were detected. This was due to the reduced ability of both sets of primers to anneal to the W chromosome compared to the Z chromosome at low DNA concentrations. Overall, our data suggested that estimates of primary sex ratios based on newly laid eggs will be appreciably inaccurate. [source]

    The effect of interocclusal appliances on temporomandibular joints as assessed by 3D reconstruction of MRI scans

    Sandra A. Chu
    Abstract Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) enables simulataneous visualization of hard and soft tissues. The aims of the present study were to computer generate three-dimensional (3D) images, reconstructed from MRI scans of normal temporomandibular joints (TMJ), to assess the relative positions of the disc, condyle and articular surface of the temporal bone and to study the effects of two mandibular group function interocclusal appliances (IOAs). Bilateral MRI scans of 2mm slice thickness were generated for the TMJs of 12 asymptomatic subjects with the image acquisition coils orientated in a corrected oblique sagittal plane. MRI scans were generated for all subjects with 3mm interincisal distance IOAs, while a subgroup (n=4) was also scanned with a 5mm interincisal IOA in situ.. An average of 10 slices through each TMJ were generated for the closed mouth and IOA positions. Three-dimensional reconstruction was performed on a 486 IBM compatible computer using a suite of nine programs not commercially available. Three-dimensional images allowed visualization of composite images of joint relationships. Subjective assessment indicated that joint relations in 3D were more informative than multiple separate 2D MRI scans. With the 3mm IOA in situ, the disc was positioned posteriorly and superiorly to the condyle in three of 12 cases. In four of 12 cases the condyle, and in two of 12 cases both the disc and condyle, were positioned anteriorly and inferiorly. With the 5mm IOA changes in condyle/disc and condyle/fossa relationships were more variable. It was concluded that 3D images of TMJs enabled the assessment of the positional changes of the condyle/disc and condyle/fossa relationships as altered by IOAs. However, the role of IOAs on the internal arrangements within the TMJ remains variable and is deserving of further study. [source]

    Locating a Surveillance Infrastructure in and Near Ports or on Other Planar Surfaces to Monitor Flows

    Pitu B. Mirchandani
    This article addresses the problem of locating surveillance radars to cover a given target surface that may have barriers through which radar signals cannot penetrate. The area of coverage of a radar is assumed to be a disc, or a partial disc when there are barriers, with a known radius. The article shows that the corresponding location problems relate to two well studied problems: the set-covering model and the maximal covering problem. In the first problem, the minimum number of radars is to be located to completely cover the target area; in the second problem a given number M of radars are to be located to cover the target area as much as possible. Based on a discrete representation of the target area, a Lagrangian heuristic and a two-stage procedure with a conquer-and-divide scaling are developed to solve the above two models. The computational experiences reported demonstrate that the developed method solves well the radar location problems formulated here. [source]

    The Laser-Assisted Neck Lift: Modifications in Technique and Postoperative Care to Improve Results

    F. Richard Noodleman MD
    background. Conventional submental tumescent liposuction has proved disappointing for some patients with anterior neck laxity, ptotic platysma muscles, and increased subplatysmal fat. Many of these patients are facelift candidates but are unwilling to undergo this extensive procedure. We describe our hybrid approach, which offers consistently improved results and enhanced patient satisfaction. objective. To establish a sharper cervicomental angle by more completely removing subplatysmal fat. We also wished to achieve more consistent, smoother results, minimizing ripples, folds, and hematomas with a novel postoperative dressing system. methods. Extensive tumescent liposuction of the lower face, jowls, and anterior neck was performed. Following this, subplatysmal fat was removed by dissection, the platysma muscle was imbricated, and the CO2 laser utilized in a defocused, low-power mode to partially treat the dermal undersurface and underlying muscle. Our postoperative dressing included a 10 cm mineral oil polymer gel disc in the submental location, covered by tape, silicone foam, and a lower face and neck garment to provide both support and even compression over the entire neck for at least the first 24 hours. results. Results proved uniformly satisfying for most patients, even those in their senior years. Benefits included an improved cervicomental angle, a decrease in jowling, and a marked reduction in the laxity and wrinkling of the neck skin and horizontal neck creases. Problems related to postoperative rippling or folding of the redraped skin and hematoma formation were minimized. conclusion. Laser neck tightening combined with tumescent liposuction and an advanced postoperative dressing for superior support and uniform compression has resulted in consistently excellent outcomes with improved patient satisfaction. [source]

    Mi-2 chromatin remodeling factor functions in sensory organ development through proneural gene repression in Drosophila

    Yasutoyo Yamasaki
    Mi-2, the central component of the nucleosome remodeling and histone deacetylation (NuRD) complex, is known as an SNF2-type ATP-dependent nucleosome remodeling factor. No morphological mutant phenotype of Drosophila Mi-2 (dMi-2) had been reported previously; however, we found that rare escapers develop into adult flies showing an extra bristle phenotype. The dMi-2 enhanced the phenotype of acHw49c, which is a dominant gain-of-function allele of achaete (ac) and produces extra bristles. Consistent with these observations, the ac -expressing proneural clusters were expanded, and extra sensory organ precursors (SOP) were formed in the dMi-2 mutant wing discs. Immunostaining of polytene chromosomes showed that dMi-2 binds to the ac locus, and dMi-2 and acetylated hisotones distribute on polytene chromosomes in a mutually exclusive manner. The chromatin immunoprecipitation assay of the wing imaginal disc also demonstrated a binding of dMi-2 on the ac locus. These results suggest that the Drosophila Mi-2/NuRD complex functions in neuronal differentiation through the repression of proneural gene expression by chromatin remodeling and histone deacetylation. [source]

    Signaling in the third dimension: The peripodial epithelium in eye disc development

    Mardelle Atkins
    Abstract The eye-antennal imaginal disc of Drosophila melanogaster has often been described as an epithelial monolayer with complex signaling events playing out in two dimensions. However, the imaginal disc actually comprises two opposing epithelia (the peripodial epithelium, or PE, and the disc proper, or DP) separated by a lumen to form a sac-like structure. Recent studies expose complex molecular interactions between the PE and the DP, and reveal dynamic communication between the two tissues. Further findings suggest the PE makes important contributions to DP development by acting as a source of signaling molecules as well as cells. Here we summarize those findings and highlight implications for further research. Developmental Dynamics 238:2139,2148, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cerebral arteriovenous malformation presenting as visual deterioration in a child

    Lesley C Kaye MRC Ophth Associate Specialist in Ophthalmology
    A rare case of visual loss as the presenting feature of a central arteriovenous malformation involving the vein of Galen is reported. A 5-year-old girl with a history of deteriorating vision for the past 6 months was examined. Ocular examination showed a left hemianopia, left optic atrophy, and dilated vessels of the right optic disc. MRI revealed a massive deep-seated central arteriovenous malformation involving the vein of Galen. The mechanism of visual loss is likely to be a combination of ischaemic optic atrophy associated with a steal phenomenon and direct compression of the right optic radiation. [source]

    Protein kinase C beta inhibitor prevents diabetic peripheral neuropathy, but not histopathological abnormalities of retina in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii rat

    T. Sasase
    Spontaneously Diabetic Torii (SDT) rat shows severe ocular complications such as tractional retinal detachment. In the present study, effect of protein kinase C beta (PKC,) inhibitor JTT-010 was evaluated to clarify the involvement of PKC, in complications of SDT rat. SDT rats were administered JTT-010 (10 or 50 mg/kg/day) for 48 weeks. SDT rats showed delayed oscillatory potentials in electroretinogram. Delayed motor nerve conduction velocity, decreased coefficients of variation of R,R intervals in electrocardiogram and thermal hypoalgesia were also observed. These functional disorders were prevented by administration of JTT-010. Abnormal retinal vascular was formed and the optic disc was protruded in SDT rat; however, JTT-010 did not prevent these hyperglycaemia-induced retinal abnormalities. These findings indicate that PKC, is intimately involved in diabetic complications; however, it seems that other factor(s) are primary contributors to histopathological abnormalities in retina. Therefore, PKC, inhibitors require concurrent administration of antihyperglycaemic drugs to achieve maximum effect on diabetic complications. [source]

    Ecdysteroid synthesis and imaginal disc development in the midge Chironomus riparius as biomarkers for endocrine effects of tributyltin

    Torsten Hahn
    Abstract Acute effects of the endocrine disruptor bis (tri- n -butyltin) oxide (TBTO) on molting-hormone biosynthesis and imaginaldisc development were investigated in larvae of the midge Chironomus riparius (Meigen). Ecdysteroid synthesis was measured by 24-h incubation of molting-hormone-synthesizing tissues (prothoracic glands) in vitro with or without the addition of TBTO. The amount of ecdysteroids produced was analyzed by radioimmunoassay. Developmental effects in vivo were investigated by determining the developmental phase of the genital imaginal discs before and after a 48-h exposure to TBTO in water. Sex-specific effects were found with both endpoints. Ecdysteroid synthesis was significantly reduced (analysis of variance [ANOVA], p , 0.005) in female larvae at all concentrations (TBTO-Sn at 50, 500, and 5,000 ng/L), whereas a significant elevation of the biosynthesis rate occurred in male larvae in the 500-ng/L treatment (ANOVA, p , 0.05). In vivo experiments with development of the genital imaginal disc within a 48-h exposure period revealed a significantly slower development in female larvae and a significantly faster development in male larvae (contingency tables, p , 0.001) at all concentrations tested (TBTO-Sn at 10, 50, 200, and 1,000 ng/L). These results partly coincided with the in vitro effects on molting-hormone synthesis. The 48-h median lethal concentration (LC50) was 25 ,g/L (20,30 ,g/L 95% confidence intervals). The combination of in vitro and in vivo methods has proven to be a useful approach for the detection of endocrine effects of TBTO in C. riparius at levels 2,000-fold below the LC50 value. High sensitivity and short test duration suggest that chironomids may have potential as freshwater sentinel organisms for endocrine-disrupting chemicals. [source]