Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Should night eating syndrome be included in the DSM?

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore PhD
Abstract Objective: This article examines the status of the literature on night-eating syndrome (NES) according to five criteria that have been proposed by Blashfield, Sprock, and Fuller1 (Compr Psychiatry 1990;31:15,19) to determine whether NES warrants inclusion in the psychiatric nosology as a distinct eating disorder. Method: Relevant research papers were identified in Medline and PsychInfo using the search term "night-eating syndrome." Results: None of the five criteria was met. Specifically, at the time of review, there were not yet 25 empirical papers on NES; no commonly accepted definition of or assessment approach to NES has been adopted; the utility and validity of NES need to be established, and NES needs to be differentiated more clearly from other eating disorder syndromes. Conclusion: This review suggests that the most pressing step toward clarifying the status of NES is to develop a uniform definition of NES. Once accomplished, research can progress to accumulating the necessary evidence to determine whether NES should be included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]

Utility of flow cytometry immunophenotyping in multiple myeloma and other clonal plasma cell-related disorders,

CYTOMETRY, Issue 4 2010
Bruno Paiva
Abstract In recent years, multiparameter flow cytometry (MFC) immunophenotyping has become mandatory in the clinical management of hematological malignancies, both for diagnostic and monitoring purposes. Multiple myeloma (MM) and other clonal plasma cell-related (PC) disorders should be no exception to this paradigm, but incorporation of immunophenotypic studies in the management of patients with PC disorders is still far from being routinely established in many diagnostic flow cytometry laboratories. For clonal PC disorders, MFC is of clear and established clinical relevance in: (1) the differential diagnosis between MM and other PC-related disorders; (2) the identification of high-risk MGUS and smoldering MM; (3) minimal residual disease investigation after therapy; additionally it may also be useful for (4) the definition of prognosis-associated antigenic profiles; and (5) the identification of new therapeutic targets. In this article, we review the clinical value of MFC in the study of PC disorders, with specific emphasis in those areas where consensus exists on the need to incorporate MFC into routine evaluation of MM and other clonal PC-related disorders. © 2010 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

Diagnosing PNH with FLAER and multiparameter flow cytometry

CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2007
D. Robert Sutherland
Abstract Background: PNH is an acquired hematopoietic stem cell disorder leading to a partial or absolute deficiency of all glycophosphatidyl-inositol (GPI)-linked proteins. The classical approach to diagnosis of PNH by cytometry involves the loss of at least two GPI-linked antigens on RBCs and neutrophils. While flow assays are more sensitive and specific than complement-mediated lysis or the Hams test, they suffer from several drawbacks. Bacterial aerolysin binds to the GPI moiety of cell surface GPI-linked molecules and causes lysis of normal but not GPI-deficient PNH cells. FLAER is an Alexa488-labeled inactive variant of aerolysin that does not cause lysis of cells. Our goals were to develop a FLAER-based assay to diagnose and monitor patients with PNH and to improve detection of minor populations of PNH clones in other hematologic disorders. Methods: In a single tube assay, we combined FLAER with CD45, CD33, and CD14 allowing the simultaneous analysis of FLAER and the GPI-linked CD14 structure on neutrophil and monocyte lineages. Results: Comparison to standard CD55 and CD59 analysis showed excellent agreement. Because of the higher signal to noise ratio, the method shows increased sensitivity in our hands over single (CD55 or CD59) parameter analysis. Using this assay, we were able to detect as few as 1% PNH monocytes and neutrophils in aplastic anemia, that were otherwise undetectable using CD55 and CD59 on RBC's. We also observed abnormal FLAER staining of blast populations in acute leukemia. In these cases, the neutrophils stained normally with FLAER, while the gated CD33bright cells failed to express normal levels of CD14 and additionally showed aberrant CD45 staining and bound lower levels of FLAER. Conclusion: FLAER combined with multiparameter flow cytometry offers an improved assay for diagnosis and monitoring of PNH clones and may have utility in detection of unsuspected myeloproliferative disorders. © 2007 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

Applications of gene targeting technology to mental retardation and developmental disability research

Aurea F. Pimenta
Abstract The human and mouse genome projects elucidated the sequence and position map of innumerous genes expressed in the central nervous system (CNS), advancing our ability to manipulate these sequences and create models to investigate regulation of gene expression and function. In this article, we reviewed gene targeting methodologies with emphasis on applications to CNS development and neurodevelopmental disorders. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:295,302. [source]

FACS-array gene expression analysis during early development of mouse telencephalic interneurons

Eric D. Marsh
Abstract Cortical interneuron dysfunction has been implicated in multiple human disorders including forms of epilepsy, mental retardation, and autism. Although significant advances have been made, understanding the biologic basis of these disorders will require a level of anatomic, molecular, and genetic detail of interneuron development that currently does not exist. To further delineate the pathways modulating interneuron development we performed fluorescent activated cell sorting (FACs) on genetically engineered mouse embryos that selectively express green fluorescent protein (GFP) in developing interneurons followed by whole genome microarray expression profiling on the isolated cells. Bioinformatics analysis revealed expression of both predicted and unexpected genes in developing cortical interneurons. Two unanticipated pathways discovered to be up regulated prior to interneurons differentiating in the cortex were ion channels/neurotransmitters and synaptic/vesicular related genes. A significant association of neurological disease related genes to the population of developing interneurons was found. These results have defined new and potentially important data on gene expression changes during the development of cortical interneurons. In addition, these data can be mined to uncover numerous novel genes involved in the generation of interneurons and may suggest genes/pathways potentially involved in a number of human neurological disorders. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008. [source]

Influence of parental deprivation on the behavioral development in Octodon degus: Modulation by maternal vocalizations

Katharina Braun
Abstract Repeated separation from the family during very early stages of life is a stressful emotional experience which induces a variety of neuronal and synaptic changes in limbic cortical areas that may be related to behavioral alterations. First, we investigated whether repeated parental separation and handling, without separation from the family, leads to altered spontaneous exploratory behavior in a novel environment (open field test) in 8-day-old Octodon degus. Second, we tested whether the parentally deprived and handled animals display different stimulus-evoked exploratory behaviors in a modified open field version, in which a positive emotional stimulus, the maternal call, was presented. In the open field test a significant influence of previous emotional experience was found for the parameters of running, rearing, and vocalization. Parentally deprived degus displayed increased horizontal (running) and vertical (rearing) motoric activities, but decreased vocalization, compared to normal and handled controls. The presentation of maternal vocalizations significantly modified running, vocalization, and grooming activities, which in the case of running activity was dependent on previous emotional experience. Both deprivation-induced locomotor hyperactivity together with the reduced behavioral response towards a familiar acoustic emotional signal are similar to behavioral disturbances observed in human attachment disorders. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev Psychobiol 42: 237,245, 2003. [source]

Mental health improvements of substance-dependent clients after 4 months in a Therapeutic Community

Abstract Introduction and Aims. Odyssey House Victoria's Therapeutic Community (TC) accepts substance-dependent clients, including those with co-occurring mental health issues. American data suggest that TCs are effective in rehabilitating such clients; however, Australian research is limited. The aim of the study was to examine Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2) profiles of Odyssey House TC residents early in their residency and again after 4 months, to chart changes in MMPI-2 profiles and compare them with norms for psychological health. Design and Methods. The sample comprised 351 clients who were part of the residential program between 1997 and 2007, and who remained in treatment at the TC for at least 4 months. They were administered the MMPI-2 after 5 weeks in treatment and again after 4 months. Results. At the first assessment, the validity scales of the MMPI-2 plus the clinical scales Depression, Psychopathic Deviate, Paranoia, Psychasthenia and Schizophrenia were in the clinical range. At the second assessment, mean scores on all clinical scales except Mania were significantly or near significantly lower and, except for Psychopathic Deviate, within the normal range. The validity scales also demonstrated improvement, although two of the three remained in the clinical range. Discussion and Conclusions. Results indicated that treatment within the TC over this time span was associated with improved mental health. The present study suggests that residential rehabilitation's holistic approach provides a suitable treatment model for clients with co-occurring mental health and substance use disorders.[Polimeni A-M, Moore SM, Gruenert S. Mental health improvements of substance-dependent clients after 4 months in a Therapeutic Community. Drug Alcohol Rev 2010] [source]

Overview of interventions to enhance primary-care provider management of patients with substance-use disorders

Abstract Issues. Despite the evidence for the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of interventions to manage substance use disorders, which are common presenting complaints in primary care, primary-care providers find managing substance use disorders a difficult business. This paper provides an overview of the evidence for interventions, including training and education programmes, in enhancing the management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders by health-care providers. Approach. The Cochrane Library and the database of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group were searched for answers to five questions: (i) Can education and training increase the involvement of primary care providers? (ii) Can education and training cause harm? (iii) Can education and training be enhanced with support and other organisational factors? (iv) Can finance systems change provider behaviour? and (v) Is political support needed? Key Findings. Education and training can increase the involvement of primary-care providers in managing alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders, with the impact enhanced by additional support and other organisational factors. There is some evidence that if education and training does not take account of providers' attitudes, then harm can be caused. There is limited evidence that finance systems can change provider behaviour, and that comprehensive policy, in which a health sector response is a part, can increase the potential of primary-care management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders. Conclusions. Tailored education and training programmes for the management of alcohol- and tobacco-use disorders need to be broadly implemented and embedded in overall comprehensive policies that provide the necessary organisational and financial incentives for enhancing provider behaviour. There is an urgent need to extend the evidence base on the impact of education and training and other strategies to increase the involvement of providers in managing substance-use disorders.[Anderson P. Overview of interventions to enhance primary-care provider management of patients with substance-use disorders. Drug Alcohol Rev 2009;28:567,574] [source]

Differential erbB signaling in astrocytes from the cerebral cortex and the hypothalamus of the human brain

GLIA, Issue 4 2009
Ariane Sharif
Abstract Studies in rodents have shown that astroglial erbB tyrosine kinase receptors are key regulatory elements in neuron,glia communication. Although both astrocytes and deregulation of erbB functions have been implicated in the pathogenesis of many common human brain disorders, erbB signaling in native human brain astrocytes has never been explored. Taking advantage of our ability to perform primary cultures from the cortex and the hypothalamus of human fetuses, we conducted a thorough analysis of erbB signaling in human astrocytes. We showed that human cortical astrocytes express erbB1, erbB2, and erbB3, whereas human hypothalamic astrocytes express erbB1, erbB2, and erbB4 receptors. Ligand-dependent activation of different erbB receptor heterodimeric complexes in these two populations of astrocytes translated into different morphological and proliferative responses. Although morphological plasticity was more pronounced in hypothalamic astrocytes than in cortical astrocytes, the former showed a lower mitogenic potential. Decreasing erbB4 expression via siRNA-mediated gene knockdown revealed that erbB4 constitutively restrains basal proliferative activity in hypothalamic astrocytes. We further show that treatment of human astrocytes with a protein kinase C activator results in rapid tyrosine phosphorylation of erbB receptors that involves cleavage of endogenous membrane bound erbB ligands by metalloproteinases. Together, these results indicate that erbB signaling in primary human brain astrocytes is functional, region-specific, and can be activated in a paracrine and/or autocrine manner. In addition, by revealing that some aspects of astroglial erbB signaling are different between human and rodents, our results provide a molecular framework to explore the potential involvement of astroglial erbB signaling deregulation in human brain disorders. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Alcohol inhibition of neurogenesis: A mechanism of hippocampal neurodegeneration in an adolescent alcohol abuse model

HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 5 2010
Stephanie A. Morris
Abstract Adolescents diagnosed with an alcohol use disorder show neurodegeneration in the hippocampus, a region important for learning, memory, and mood regulation. This study examines a potential mechanism by which excessive alcohol intake, characteristic of an alcohol use disorder, produces neurodegeneration. As hippocampal neural stem cells underlie ongoing neurogenesis, a phenomenon that contributes to hippocampal structure and function, we investigated aspects of cell death and cell birth in an adolescent rat model of an alcohol use disorder. Immunohistochemistry of various markers along with Bromo-deoxy-Uridine (BrdU) injections were used to examine different aspects of neurogenesis. After 4 days of binge alcohol exposure, neurogenesis was decreased by 33 and 28% at 0 and 2 days after the last dose according to doublecortin expression. To determine whether this decrease in neurogenesis was due to effects on neural stem cell proliferation, quantification of BrdU-labeled cells revealed a 21% decrease in the dentate gyrus of alcohol-exposed brains. Cell survival and phenotype of BrdU-labeled cells were assessed 28 days after alcohol exposure and revealed a significant, 50% decrease in the number of surviving cells in the alcohol-exposed group. Reduced survival was supported by significant increases in the number of pyknotic-, FluoroJade B positive-, and TUNEL-positive cells. However, so few cells were TUNEL-positive that cell death is likely necrotic in this model. Although alcohol decreased the number of newborn cells, it did not affect the percentage of cells that matured into neurons (differentiation). Thus, our data support that in a model of an adolescent alcohol use disorder, neurogenesis is impaired by two mechanisms: alcohol-inhibition of neural stem cell proliferation and alcohol effects on new cell survival. Remarkably, alcohol inhibition of neurogenesis may outweigh the few dying cells per section, which implies that alcohol inhibition of neurogenesis contributes to hippocampal neurodegeneration in alcohol use disorders. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Exploring time-dependent symptom outcomes in office staff

Xiaoshu Lu
This article illustrates the application of a new mathematical model developed for the study of time-dependent health outcomes for office staff during computer work. The model describes the time-dependent associations of computer usage with outcomes expressed as discomfort in multiple body regions. The association is explicitly presented with a functional relationship that is parameterized by body regions. The validation of the model demonstrated accuracy in reproducing the observed quantities for the study population. Therefore, we used this model to assess the impact of computer-related work exposure on discomfort in different body regions among office staff to better understand the behavior of musculoskeletal and other symptoms. The exposures and outcomes were recorded parallel in time as usage of keyboard and mouse and with diaries of discomfort. The body regions of neck/shoulders, eyes, head, shoulder joint/upper arm, and upper back were identified to have the highest discomfort levels and rates for the development of discomfort parallel with exposures. Most of our findings are consistent with the literature. The developed mathematical methodology may be used to understand how the human body reacts to computer work to further prevent potential musculoskeletal and other disorders. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Accuracy of self-reported weight and height: Relationship with eating psychopathology among young women

Caroline Meyer PhD
Abstract Objective: Self-reported height and weight data are commonly reported within eating disorders research. The aims of this study are to demonstrate the accuracy of self-reported height and weight and to determine whether that accuracy is associated with levels of eating psychopathology among a group of young nonclinical women. Method: One hundred and four women were asked to report their own height and weight. They then completed the Eating Disorders Examination-Questionnaire. Finally, they were weighed and their height was measured in a standardized manner. Accuracy scores for height and weight were calculated by subtracting their actual weight and height from their self-reports. Results: Overall, the women overestimated their heights and underestimated their weights, leading to significant errors in body mass index where self-report is used. Those women with high eating concerns were likely to overestimate their weight, whereas those with high weight concerns were more likely to underestimate it. Discussion: These data show that self-reports of height and weight are inaccurate in a way that skews any research that depends on them. The errors are influenced by eating psychopathology. These findings highlight the importance of obtaining objective height and weight data, particularly when comparing those data with those of patients with eating disorders. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

Personality pathology and substance abuse in eating disorders: A longitudinal study

Heather Thompson-Brenner PhD
Abstract Objective: Substance abuse has been shown to predict poor outcome in eating disorder (ED) samples, and prior cross-sectional data on personality subtypes of EDs suggest that substance abuse is associated with dysregulated and possibly avoidant-insecure subtypes. This study investigates longitudinal associations between personality and substance use. Method: Personality pathology and substance use were assessed in 213 individuals with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa at baseline; substance use was assessed at regular follow-up intervals over a 9-year period. Results: Of the five personality factors identified, the obsessional-sensitive and high-functioning types were negatively associated with substance abuse at baseline, while the behaviorally dysregulated type was positively associated with substance abuse at baseline. Longitudinal associations were observed, suggesting that obsessional-sensitive personality type was protective against the development of substance abuse. Longitudinal associations between the other personality types and substance abuse were nonsignificant after baseline substance abuse history was included as a covariate in the model. Conclusion: Substance use demonstrates cross-sectional associations with personality style, but substance abuse history appears to be the most important predictor of future substance abuse in women with eating disorders. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

Geographical clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students,,

Valerie L. Forman-Hoffman PhD
Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if eating disorder behaviors geographically clustered among U.S high school students. Method: Our sample consisted of 15,349 high school students who responded to the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Study (YRBS). Weight control and eating disordered behaviors under investigation included dieting, exercising, fasting, using diet pills, and purging to control weight in the last 30 days. We calculated pairwise odds ratios (PWORs) to determine the degree of within-county clustering. Results: Among all participants, adjusted analyses revealed that having any weight control or eating disorder symptom, severe restricting, dieting, exercising, and diet pill use each showed significant clustering (p < .05). Purging did not significantly cluster by county. The magnitude of clustering was stronger for female students than male students. Conclusion: The significant clustering of weight control and eating disorder behavior in U.S. high school students confirms evidence of a social contagion effect of eating disorders. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

The prevalence of eating disorders not otherwise specified

Paulo P.P. Machado PhD
Abstract Objective: Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS) represent the most common eating disorder diagnosed in specialized treatment settings. The purpose of the current study is to assess the prevalence of EDNOS in a nationwide community sample. Method: Participants were 2,028 female students, aged 12,23, attending public schools in the 9th to 12th grades in Portugal. Participants completed the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire in Stage 1 of the study. In Stage 2, we selected all the participants who met any of these criteria: (1) BMI ,17.5, (2) scores ,4 on any of the four EDE-Q Subscales, (3) a total EDE-Q score ,4, or (4) the presence of dysfunctional eating behaviors. In Stage 2, eating disorder experts interviewed 901 participants using the Eating Disorder Examination. Results: The prevalence of all eating disorders was 3.06% among young females. Prevalence for anorexia nervosa was 0.39%, for bulimia nervosa 0.30%, EDNOS 2.37%. Conclusion: EDNOS is a very common eating disorder and accounts for three-quarters of all community cases with eating disorders. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2007 [source]

Mirror exposure for the treatment of body image disturbance

Sherrie Selwyn Delinsky PhD
Abstract Objective Body image disturbance is a risk factor for the development and persistence of eating disorders. Limitations of current treatments for body image disturbance prompted the development of a mirror exposure (ME) treatment. Method ME involves deliberate, planned, and systematic exposure to body image. The approach is nonjudgmental, holistic in focus, and mindful of present emotional experience. Complementary behavioral assignments aim to reduce avoidance and excessive checking. The current study evaluated the effectiveness of ME therapy (in a three-session format) compared with a nondirective (ND) therapy for 45 women with extreme weight and shape concerns. Results ME resulted in significant improvements at termination and follow-up in body checking and avoidance, weight and shape concerns, body dissatisfaction, dieting, depression, and self-esteem. As hypothesized, ME was significantly better than ND on many of the outcome measures. Conclusion ME is an effective treatment for body image disturbance and should be evaluated in the context of treatments for eating disorders. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Accuracy of reported weight and menstrual status in teenage girls with eating disorders

Ingemar Swenne MD
Abstract Objective The current study investigated the accuracy of reported current and historical weights and of menstrual status in teenage girls with eating disorders. Method Reported current weight in one interview was compared with measured weight at another occasion. Reported historical weights were compared with documented weights from growth charts of the school health services. Reports of menstrual status from two different interviews were compared. Results The overall correlation between reported and measured/documented weight was high. Current weight was reported with high accuracy in all diagnostic groups and without tendencies to underreport. Patients with bulimia nervosa, but not those with anorexia nervosa, underreported their historical top weight. The most common reason for large discrepancies between reported and documented historical weights was that the two weights compared referred to different time points. The reports on menstrual status were divergent for 13% of the patients, most notably 4 of 15 patients on oral contraceptives had been categorized as having menstruations in one of the interviews. Conclusion Reported weight history and menstrual status are of high accuracy in teenage girls with eating disorders. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Impact of traumatic experiences and violent acts upon response to treatment of a sample of Colombian women with eating disorders

Maritza Rodríguez MD
Abstract Objective The current article compared the impact of exposure to sexual trauma and other types of physical threats against the patient or the patient's family on response to treatment, relapse, and dropout rates in 160 Colombian women between 12 and 49 years of age with eating disorders. Method A comparison was made to 70 cases with unsatisfactory response to treatment and 90 controls with a better response to treatment goals. Results Forty-five percent had a history of sexual abuse, other violent traumas, or both. Significant statistical differences were observed between both groups in exposure variables. The highest probability of poor outcome was observed in patients with sexual abuse and exposure to other violent acts (odds ratio [OR] = 6.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.1,19.07). The risk of dropout or relapse was, respectively, 10 and 3 times greater among those exposed. Discussion Violent social conditions should be noted as another form of trauma with potential impact on outcome in Colombian women with eating disorders. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

An integration of cognitive-behavioral therapy and interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa: A case study using the case formulation method

Peter S. Hendricks MA
Abstract Objective The current study provides an illustration of an integration of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for the treatment of bulimia nervosa (BN), based on the case formulation strategy. Method A 25-year-old Hispanic female referred herself for the treatment of eating difficulties and depressed mood. Diagnostic criteria were met for BN, major depressive episode, and alcohol abuse. Components of both CBT and IPT were utilized throughout the course of treatment. Results CBT techniques appeared to be most effective in eliminating binge eating and binge drinking behavior, whereas IPT techniques seemed to be most effective in reducing purging behavior. Results revealed that the client was no longer experiencing clinically significant symptoms of BN, depression, or alcohol abuse at end of treatment and follow-up (18 months after treatment onset). Discussion Findings support the integration of CBT and IPT for the treatment of BN and, potentially, other eating disorders. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Health services use in women with a history of bulimia nervosa or binge eating disorder

Ruth H. Striegel-Moore PhD
Abstract Objective The current study examined health services use during the past 12 months in a sample of young women with a history of an adolescent eating disorder (bulimia nervosa [BN] or binge eating disorder [BED]). Method A community sample of 1,582 young women (mean age = 21.5 years) was classified, based on a screening interview (and, for eating disorder diagnosis, confirmatory diagnostic interview), into one of three groups: BN or BED (n = 67), other psychiatric disorder (n = 443), and no adolescent psychiatric disorder (n = 1,072). Results A history of BN/BED in adolescence was associated with elevated health services use, but this was a general effect associated with having a psychiatric disorder, not an effect specific to the diagnosis of an eating disorder. Total service days, outpatient psychotherapy visits, and emergency department visits were elevated in the combined group of BN/BED and other psychiatric disorder participants relative to the healthy comparison group. The women with BN/BED did not differ significantly from the women with a non,eating-related psychiatric disorder in the use of these services. Discussion The similarity of health services use in young women with BN or BED and those with other psychiatric disorders underscores the clinical and economic impact of these eating disorders. © 2004 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Child and adolescent predictors for eating disorders in a community population of young adult women

Debra J. Moorhead
Abstract Objective This study investigated early predictors for developing eating disorders by young adulthood in a community sample of women participating in a 22-year longitudinal study. Method Twenty-one women were identified at age 27 with lifetime full or partial eating disorders. These women were compared with 47 women with no history of eating disorders on predictive factors from three broad domains. Results The women with eating disorders had more serious health problems before age 5 and mother-reported anxiety-depression at age 9. At 15, mothers described them as having more behavior problems. Before age 15, families of the eating disorder group had more histories of depression, eating problems and changes in family financial circumstances. Discussion This study identifies early predictors distinguishing girls who develop eating disorders. Findings point to the need for continued research in the area of early health to comprehensively examine the biologic, behavioral, and environmental risks for eating disorders. © 2002 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 1,9, 2003. [source]

Quantitative analysis of total mitochondrial DNA: Competitive polymerase chain reaction versus real-time polymerase chain reaction

Hari K. Bhat
Abstract An efficient and effective method for quantification of small amounts of nucleic acids contained within a sample specimen would be an important diagnostic tool for determining the content of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in situations where the depletion thereof may be a contributing factor to the exhibited pathology phenotype. This study compares two quantification assays for calculating the total mtDNA molecule number per nanogram of total genomic DNA isolated from human blood, through the amplification of a 613-bp region on the mtDNA molecule. In one case, the mtDNA copy number was calculated by standard competitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique that involves co-amplification of target DNA with various dilutions of a nonhomologous internal competitor that has the same primer binding sites as the target sequence, and subsequent determination of an equivalence point of target and competitor concentrations. In the second method, the calculation of copy number involved extrapolation from the fluorescence versus copy number standard curve generated by real-time PCR using various dilutions of the target amplicon sequence. While the mtDNA copy number was comparable using the two methods (4.92 ± 1.01 × 104 molecules/ng total genomic DNA using competitive PCR vs 4.90 ± 0.84 × 104 molecules/ng total genomic DNA using real-time PCR), both inter- and intraexperimental variance were significantly lower using the real-time PCR analysis. On the basis of reproducibility, assay complexity, and overall efficiency, including the time requirement and number of PCR reactions necessary for the analysis of a single sample, we recommend the real-time PCR quantification method described here, as its versatility and effectiveness will undoubtedly be of great use in various kinds of research related to mitochondrial DNA damage- and depletion-associated disorders. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biochem Mol Toxicol 18:180,186, 2004 Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com). DOI 10.1002/jbt.20024 [source]

Ethnicity in trauma and psychiatric disorders: findings from the collaborative longitudinal study of personality disorders,,

Carlos I. Pérez Benítez
Abstract The study's aims are to explore ethnic differences in rates of adverse childhood experiences and lifetime traumatic events and in rates of psychiatric disorders for patients exposed to similar traumas. Rates of these events and rates of major depressive disorder, posttraumatic stress, substance use, and borderline personality disorders were compared among 506 non-Hispanic Whites (N-HW), 108 Latina(o)s, and 94 African Americans (AA) participating in the Collaborative Longitudinal Personality Disorder Study. We found that Whites reported higher rates of neglect than African Americans and Latina(o)s, higher rates of verbal/emotional abuse than African Americans, and higher rates of accidents and injuries/feared serious injury than Latina(o)s. African Americans had higher rates of seeing someone injured/killed than Whites. No significant interaction was observed between adverse events and ethnicity for mental disorders. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: 66:1,16, 2010. [source]

"Juvenile stress" alters maturation-related changes in expression of the neural cell adhesion molecule L1 in the limbic system: Relevance for stress-related psychopathologies

M.M. Tsoory
Abstract L1 is critically involved in neural development and maturation, activity-dependent synaptic plasticity, and learning processes. Among adult rats, chronic stress protocols that affect L1 functioning also induce impaired cognitive and neural functioning and heightened anxiety reminiscent of stress-induced mood and anxiety disorders. Epidemiological studies indicate that childhood trauma is related predominantly to higher rates of both mood and anxiety disorders in adulthood and is associated with altered limbic system functioning. Exposing rats to stress during the juvenile period ("juvenile stress") has comparable effects and was suggested as a model of induced predisposition for these disorders. This study examined the effects of juvenile stress on rats aversive learning and on L1 expression soon after exposure and in adulthood, both following additional exposure to acute stress and in its absence. Adult juvenile-stressed rats exhibited enhanced cued fear conditioning, reduced novel-setting exploration, and impaired avoidance learning. Furthermore, juvenile stress increased L1 expression in the BLA, CA1, DG, and EC both soon after the stressful experience and during adulthood. It appears that juvenile stress affects the normative maturational decrease in L1 expression. The results support previous indications that juvenile stress alters the maturation of the limbic system and further support a role for L1 regulation in the mechanisms that underlie the predisposition to exhibit mood and/or anxiety disorders in adulthood. Furthermore, the findings support the "network hypothesis," which postulates that information-processing problems within relevant neural networks might underlie stress-induced mood and anxiety disorders. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Evaluation of human fetal neural stem/progenitor cells as a source for cell replacement therapy for neurological disorders: Properties and tumorigenicity after long-term in vitro maintenance

Daisuke Ogawa
Abstract It is expected that human neural stem/progenitor cells (hNS/PCs) will some day be used in cell replacement therapies. However, their availability is limited because of ethical issues, so they have to be expanded to obtain sufficient amounts for clinical application. Moreover, in-vitro-maintained hNS/PCs may have a potential for tumorigenicity that could be manifested after transplantation in vivo. In the present study, we demonstrate the in vitro and in vivo properties of long-term-expanded hNS/PCs, including a 6-month bioluminescence imaging (BLI) study of their in vivo tumorigenicity. hNS/PCs cultured for approximately 250 days in vitro (hNS/PCs-250) exhibited a higher growth rate and greater neurogenic potential than those cultured for approximately 500 days in vitro (hNS/PCs-500), which showed greater gliogenic potential. In vivo, both hNS/PCs-250 and -500 differentiated into neurons and astrocytes 4 weeks after being transplanted into the striatum of immunodeficient mice, and hNS/PCs-250 exhibited better survival than hNS/PCs-500 at this time point. We also found that the grafted hNS/PCs-250 survived stably and differentiated properly into neurons and astrocytes even 6 months after the surgery. Moreover, during the 6-month observation period by BLI, we did not detect any evidence of rapid tumorigenic growth of the grafted hNS/PCs, and neither PCNA/Ki67-positive proliferating cells nor significant malignant invasive features were detected histologically. These findings support the idea that hNS/PCs may represent a nontumorigenic, safe, and appropriate cell source for regenerative therapies for neurological disorders. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Transcriptional changes in insulin- and lipid metabolism-related genes in the hippocampus of olfactory bulbectomized mice

Peter Gass
Abstract Affymetrix chips were used to perform a hypothesis-free large-scale screening of transcripts in the hippocampus of olfactory bulbectomized mice, an established animal model of depression. Because only 11 transcripts were significantly changed, the statistically subsequent 25 transcripts below the significance level were additionally included in a first round of qRT-PCR evaluations. Furthermore, all 36 genes were then tested for mutual interactions or interactions with other molecules in a physiological context using PathwayArchitect software. Thirty of them were displayed in a network interacting with at least one partner molecule from the list or with other partner molecules known from the literature. All partner molecules from the most prominent 10 molecules of this network were then identified and put together into a new list. On those grounds, the hypothesis was made that metabolic network components of the insulin signaling pathway are perturbed in the disease. This pathway was subsequently tested by a second round of qRT-PCR, adding also a few additional candidate molecules belonging to this pathway. It turned out that the key target,FABP7,fell into the group of transcripts not significantly regulated within the chip data, and another key target,IRS1,did not show up in the chip experiments at all. In conclusion, our data reveal a problem with adhering to statistical significances in microarray experiments, insofar as molecules important for the disease may fall into the range of statistical noise. This approach may also be useful to find new targets for pharmacotherapy in affective disorders. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

New implications for the QUAKING RNA binding protein in human disease

Carol Anne Chénard
Abstract The use of spontaneously occurring mouse models has proved to be a valuable tool throughout the years to delineate the signals required for nervous system development. This is especially true in the field of myelin biology, with a large number of different models available. The quaking viable mouse models dysmyelination in the nervous system and links the QUAKING RNA binding proteins to myelination and cell fate decisions. In this Mini-Review, we highlight the biological functions attributed to this KH-type RNA binding protein and the recent achievements linking it to human disorders. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Activation of epidermal growth factor receptors in astrocytes: From development to neural injury

Bin Liu
Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) pathway controls the phenotypic characteristics of astrocytes. In the developing central nervous system (CNS), activation of the EGFR pathway induces astrocyte differentiation, forming the cribriform structure that surrounds axons and providing a supportive environment for neurons. In the adult CNS, the EGFR pathway is absent from astrocytes but is highly up-regulated and activated following neuronal injury. Activation of the EGFR pathway triggers quiescent astrocytes to become reactive astrocytes. Although astrocytes regulated by the EGFR pathway play constructive roles in the developing CNS, astrocytes that become reactive in response to activation of the EGFR pathway appear to be destructive to neurons in the adult CNS. The reappearance and activation of EGFRs in astrocytes under pathological conditions may activate a developmental process in an adult tissue. Regulation of EGFR function in astrocytes may be a new therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neural disorders. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Flow cytometry as a method for studying effects of stressors on primary rat neurons

H. Behbahani
Abstract The mechanisms associated with cell death have been an important focus for neurobiology research. In the present study, the methodology of flow cytometry was used to optimize quantification of the toxic effects of tumor necrosis factor-, (TNF-,), trans-4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE), and aged amyloid-, (A,1,42) on rat primary cortical neurons. The fluorescent dyes annexin V-FITC and propidium iodide (PI) were used to identify populations of viable, early apoptotic, necrotic and late apoptotic cells by flow cytometry. Prior to exposure, the primary cultures showed 83% cell viability. Flow cytometry following labeling of cells with a specific neuronal marker, TUJ-1, revealed 82% pure neuronal populations, whereas approximately 7% were astrocytic as shown by glial fibrillary acidic protein positivity. Exposure of primary cultures to TNF-,, 4-HNE, and aged A,1,42 gave an increased number of early apoptotic cells. We show that flow cytometry is a suitable method for quantifying effects of different stressors on neurons in primary cultures. This technique could be useful for screening and testing of pharmacological compounds relevant to neurodegenerative disorders. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Dietary lithium induces regional increases of mRNA encoding cysteine string protein in rat brain

Mara L. Cordeiro
Abstract Lithium salts are used to treat manic-depressive disorders; however, the mechanism by which lithium produces its therapeutic benefit remains obscure. The action of lithium may involve alterations of proteins important for regulating synaptic function. In this context, we observed recently that lithium at therapeutically relevant concentrations enhanced expression of cysteine string protein (csp) at the level of both mRNA and protein, in cell culture and in rat brain. Several lines of evidence have shown that csps are vital components of the regulated secretory pathway. We were interested whether lithium modulates expression of csp in specific brain regions. To study this issue, we analyzed the effects of chronic lithium administration (21 days) on csp mRNA levels in rat brain using in situ hybridization. Densitometric analysis revealed that lithium upregulated csp mRNA in several brain areas that are important for mood and behavior. This effect may be germane to understanding the beneficial action of lithium in mood disorders. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]