Disordered Breathing (disordered + breathing)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Disordered Breathing

  • sleep disordered breathing


  • Selected Abstracts


    Prevalence of Sleep Disordered Breathing in a Heart Failure Program

    CONGESTIVE HEART FAILURE, Issue 5 2004
    Robin J. Trupp MSN
    Recent data show that a high percentage of patients with systolic left ventricular dysfunction have sleep-disordered breathing (SDB), contributing to the incidence of morbidity and mortality in heart failure. This study examines the prevalence of sleep disorders in stable heart failure patients regardless of ejection fraction. On three consecutive days in a heart failure clinic, all patients were asked to participate in a screening for SDB. This screening involved the placement of an outpatient device (ClearPath, Nexan, Inc., Alpharetta, GA), which collects thoracic impedance, oxyhemoglobin saturation, and 2-lead electrocardiogram data. Sixteen patients (42%) had moderate or severe SDB, and 22 patients (55%) had mild or no significant SDB. Fourteen of the 16 patients with moderate or severe SDB subsequently received treatment by confirming SDB and the continuous positive airway pressure in a sleep lab. Forty-two percent of patients with stable heart failure presenting to a heart failure clinic screened positive for SDB, despite receiving optimal standard of care. [source]


    Pacemaker Diagnosis of Sleep Disordered Breathing

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 10 2006
    IRENE H. STEVENSON M.D.
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Inflammation and Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children: A State-of-the-Art Review,

    PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Aviv D. Goldbart MD
    Abstract Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) represents a spectrum of breathing disorders, ranging from snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), that disrupt nocturnal respiration and sleep architecture. OSAS is a common disorder in children, with a prevalence of 2,3%. It is associated with neurobehavioral, cognitive, and cardiovascular morbidities. In children, adenotonsillectomy is the first choice for treatment and is reserved for moderate to severe OSAS, as defined by an overnight polysomnography. In adults, OSAS is the result of mechanical dysfunction of the upper airway, manifesting as severity-dependent nasal, oropharyngeal, and systemic inflammation that decrease after continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Inflammatory changes have been reported in upper airway samples from children with OSAS, and systemic inflammation, as indicated by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, has been shown to decrease in children with OSAS after adenotonsillectomy. Anti-inflammatory treatments for children with mild OSAS are associated with major improvements in symptoms, polysomnographic respiratory values, and radiologic measures of adenoid size. Inflammation is correlated to some extent with OSAS-related neurocognitive morbidity, but the role of inflammatory markers in the diagnosis and management of OSAS, and the role of anti-inflammatory treatments, remains to be clarified. This review examines the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric patients and the potential therapeutic implications. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2008; 43:1151,1160. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Sleep Disordered Breathing: Surgical Outcomes in Prepubertal Children

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2004
    BiolD, Christian Guilleminault MD
    Abstract Objective To evaluate the treatment outcomes of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in prepubertal children 3 months following surgical intervention. Study Design Retrospective investigation of 400 consecutively seen children with SDB who were referred to otolaryngologists for treatment. Method After masking the identities and conditions of the children, the following were tabulated: clinical symptoms, results of clinical evaluation and polysomnography at entry, the treatment chosen by the otolaryngologists, and clinical and polysomnographic results 3 months after surgery. Results Treatment ranged from nasal steroids to various surgical procedures. Adenotonsillectomy was performed in only 251 of 400 cases (68%). Four cases included adenotonsillectomy in conjunction with pharyngoplasty (closure of the tonsillar wound by suturing the anterior and posterior pillar to tighten the airway). Persistent SDB was seen in 58 of 400 children (14.5%), and an additional 8 had persistent snoring. Best results were with adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB involves obstruction of the upper airway, which may be partially due to craniofacial structure involvement. The goal of surgical treatment should be aimed at enlarging the airway, and not be solely focused on treating inflammation or infection of the lymphoid tissues. This goal may not be met in some patients, thus potentially contributing to residual problems seen after surgery. The possibility of further treatment, including collaboration with orthodontists to improve the craniofacial risk factors, should be considered in children with residual problems. [source]


    Sleep Disordered Breathing in Renal Transplant Patients

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2009
    F. Mallamaci
    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a prevalent, important nontraditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factor in end-stage renal disease patients. The prevalence of SDB in renal transplant patients is unknown. We compared polysomnographic studies in 163 transplant patients with matched samples in the general population and explored longitudinally the effect of return to dialysis after graft failure on SDB in three consecutive cases. Episodes of nocturnal hypoxemia, average and minimal O2 saturation overnight in transplant patients did not differ from those in individuals in the general population matched for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). The prevalence of moderate-to-severe SBD in these patients did not exceed the estimated prevalence of the same disturbance in the general population. The respiratory disturbance index in transplant patients was directly associated with BMI (p < 0.001). In the longitudinal study all indicators of SDB coherently increased after transplant failure. The prevalence of SDB in transplant patients does not differ from that in well-matched individuals in the general population. The favorable effect of renal transplantation on CV risk may be at least partially explained by the lack of risk excess for SDB in this population. Longitudinal observations after transplant failure are compatible with the hypothesis that renal transplantation reverses SDB. [source]


    Sleep in individuals with Cri du Chat syndrome: a comparative study

    JOURNAL OF INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY RESEARCH, Issue 8 2009
    A. P. H. M. Maas
    Abstract Background Sleep problems are common in individuals with intellectual disability. Little is known about sleep in children and adults with Cri du Chat syndrome (CDC). Method Sleep was investigated in 30 individuals with CDC using a sleep questionnaire. Sleep problems and sleep behaviours in individuals with CDC were compared with individuals with non-specific intellectual disabilities (NS) (n = 30) and Down's syndrome (DS) (n = 30). Results Nine individuals with CDC (i.e. 30%) had a sleep problem, compared with seven individuals with NS (i.e. 23%) and three individuals with DS (i.e. 10%). Though there were few differences between diagnostic groups, night waking problems were most common in CDC. Individuals with CDC frequently showed behaviours related to disordered breathing and poor-quality sleep. Several behaviours related to sleep had a higher occurrence in CDC than in DS (P < 0.05) but not in NS. Conclusions It is concluded that individuals with CDC do not have an increased probability of sleep problems as compared with other individuals who share similar demographic characteristics. Hypotheses about causes of night waking problems in CDC are generated and suggestions for future research of sleep in individuals with CDC are given. [source]


    Sleep-Disordered Breathing in Recipients of Implantable Defibrillators

    PACING AND CLINICAL ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY, Issue 2009
    WOLFRAM GRIMM M.D.
    Study Objectives: To examine the prevalence and clinical significance of sleep-disordered breathing in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Methods and Results: Overnight sleep studies were performed in 129 ICD recipients who had no history of sleep apnea. The mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 29 11%. Mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea was diagnosed in the presence of an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) of 5,15/h, 15.1,30/h, and >30/h, respectively. No sleep apnea was present in 49 patients (38%), 57 (44%) had central sleep apnea (CSA), and 23 patients (18%) had obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Mild, moderate, and severe sleep apnea were present in 25%, 31%, and 44% of patients with CSA, compared with 52%, 22%, and 26% of patients with OSA (P < 0.05). LVEF was similar in patients with versus without OSA or CSA. Patients with CSA were significantly older and had a higher prevalence of ischemic cardiomyopathy than patients without sleep apnea. Conclusions: Previously undiagnosed CSA is common in ICD recipients. Severely disordered breathing during sleep was more prevalent among patients with CSA than patients with OSA. This prospective, observational study will examine the long-term clinical significance of sleep-disordered breathing in ICD recipients. [source]


    Neurocognitive and behavioral impact of sleep disordered breathing in children,

    PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Judith A. Owens MD
    Abstract The consequences of poor quality and/or inadequate sleep in children and adolescents have become a major public health concern, and one in which pediatric health care professionals have become increasingly involved. In particular, insufficient and/or fragmented sleep resulting from primary sleep disorders such as obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), often compounded by the presence of comorbid sleep disorders as well as by voluntary sleep curtailment related to lifestyle and environmental factors, has been implicated in a host of negative consequences. These range from metabolic dysfunction and increased cardiovascular morbidity to impairments in mood and academic performance. The following review will focus on what is currently known about the effects of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) specifically on neurobehavioral and neurocognitive function in children. Because of the scarcity of literature on the cognitive and behavioral impact of sleep disorders in infants and very young children, this review will target largely the preschool/school-aged child and adolescent populations. In addition, the focus will be on a review of the most recent literature, as a supplement to several excellent previous reviews on the topic.1,4 Pediatr Pulmonol. 2009; 44:417,422. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Inflammation and Sleep Disordered Breathing in Children: A State-of-the-Art Review,

    PEDIATRIC PULMONOLOGY, Issue 12 2008
    Aviv D. Goldbart MD
    Abstract Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) represents a spectrum of breathing disorders, ranging from snoring to obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), that disrupt nocturnal respiration and sleep architecture. OSAS is a common disorder in children, with a prevalence of 2,3%. It is associated with neurobehavioral, cognitive, and cardiovascular morbidities. In children, adenotonsillectomy is the first choice for treatment and is reserved for moderate to severe OSAS, as defined by an overnight polysomnography. In adults, OSAS is the result of mechanical dysfunction of the upper airway, manifesting as severity-dependent nasal, oropharyngeal, and systemic inflammation that decrease after continuous positive airway pressure therapy. Inflammatory changes have been reported in upper airway samples from children with OSAS, and systemic inflammation, as indicated by high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels, has been shown to decrease in children with OSAS after adenotonsillectomy. Anti-inflammatory treatments for children with mild OSAS are associated with major improvements in symptoms, polysomnographic respiratory values, and radiologic measures of adenoid size. Inflammation is correlated to some extent with OSAS-related neurocognitive morbidity, but the role of inflammatory markers in the diagnosis and management of OSAS, and the role of anti-inflammatory treatments, remains to be clarified. This review examines the role of inflammation in the pathophysiology of sleep-disordered breathing in pediatric patients and the potential therapeutic implications. Pediatr. Pulmonol. 2008; 43:1151,1160. 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Acute mountain sickness is associated with sleep desaturation at high altitude

    RESPIROLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Keith R. BURGESS
    Objective: This study was intended to demonstrate a biologically important association between acute mountain sickness (AMS) and sleep disordered breathing. Methodology: A total of 14 subjects (eight males, six females aged 36 10 years) were studied at six different altitudes from sea level to 5050 m over 12 days on a trekking route in the Nepal Himalaya. AMS was quantified by Lake Louise (LL) score. At each altitude, sleep was studied by 13 channel polysomnography (PSG). Resting arterial blood gases (ABG) and exercise SaO2 were measured. Ventilatory responses (VR) were measured at sea level. Individual data were analysed for association at several altitudes and mean data were analysed for association over all altitudes. Results: ABG showed partial acclimatization. For the mean data, there were strong positive correlations between LL score and altitude, and periodic breathing, as expected. Strong negative correlations existed between LL score and PaO2, PaCO2, sleep SaO2 and exercise SaO2, but there was no correlation with sea level VR. There were equally tight correlations between LLs/PaO2 and LL score/sleep SaO2. The individual data showed no significant correlations with LL score at any altitude, probably reflecting the non-steady state nature of the experiment. In addition, mean SaO2 during sleep was similar to minimum exercise SaO2 at each altitude and minimum sleep SaO2 was lower, suggesting that the hypoxic insult during sleep was equivalent to or greater than walking at high altitude. Conclusions: It is concluded that desaturation during sleep has a biologically important association with AMS, and it is speculated that under similar conditions (trekking) it is an important cause of AMS. [source]


    Sleep Disordered Breathing: Surgical Outcomes in Prepubertal Children

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 1 2004
    BiolD, Christian Guilleminault MD
    Abstract Objective To evaluate the treatment outcomes of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) in prepubertal children 3 months following surgical intervention. Study Design Retrospective investigation of 400 consecutively seen children with SDB who were referred to otolaryngologists for treatment. Method After masking the identities and conditions of the children, the following were tabulated: clinical symptoms, results of clinical evaluation and polysomnography at entry, the treatment chosen by the otolaryngologists, and clinical and polysomnographic results 3 months after surgery. Results Treatment ranged from nasal steroids to various surgical procedures. Adenotonsillectomy was performed in only 251 of 400 cases (68%). Four cases included adenotonsillectomy in conjunction with pharyngoplasty (closure of the tonsillar wound by suturing the anterior and posterior pillar to tighten the airway). Persistent SDB was seen in 58 of 400 children (14.5%), and an additional 8 had persistent snoring. Best results were with adenotonsillectomy. Conclusion SDB involves obstruction of the upper airway, which may be partially due to craniofacial structure involvement. The goal of surgical treatment should be aimed at enlarging the airway, and not be solely focused on treating inflammation or infection of the lymphoid tissues. This goal may not be met in some patients, thus potentially contributing to residual problems seen after surgery. The possibility of further treatment, including collaboration with orthodontists to improve the craniofacial risk factors, should be considered in children with residual problems. [source]


    Sleep Disordered Breathing in Renal Transplant Patients

    AMERICAN JOURNAL OF TRANSPLANTATION, Issue 6 2009
    F. Mallamaci
    Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) is a prevalent, important nontraditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factor in end-stage renal disease patients. The prevalence of SDB in renal transplant patients is unknown. We compared polysomnographic studies in 163 transplant patients with matched samples in the general population and explored longitudinally the effect of return to dialysis after graft failure on SDB in three consecutive cases. Episodes of nocturnal hypoxemia, average and minimal O2 saturation overnight in transplant patients did not differ from those in individuals in the general population matched for age, gender and body mass index (BMI). The prevalence of moderate-to-severe SBD in these patients did not exceed the estimated prevalence of the same disturbance in the general population. The respiratory disturbance index in transplant patients was directly associated with BMI (p < 0.001). In the longitudinal study all indicators of SDB coherently increased after transplant failure. The prevalence of SDB in transplant patients does not differ from that in well-matched individuals in the general population. The favorable effect of renal transplantation on CV risk may be at least partially explained by the lack of risk excess for SDB in this population. Longitudinal observations after transplant failure are compatible with the hypothesis that renal transplantation reverses SDB. [source]


    Screening of obstructive and central apnoea/hypopnoea in children using variability: A preliminary study

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 5 2006
    Jong Yong A. Foo
    Abstract Aim: Polysomnography (PSG) is the current standard protocol for sleep disordered breathing (SDB) investigation in children. Presently, there are limited reliable screening tests for both central (CE) and obstructive (OE) respiratory events. This study compared three indices, derived from pulse oximetry and electrocardiogram (ECG), with the PSG gold standard. These indices were heart rate (HR) variability, arterial blood oxygen de-saturation (SaO2) and pulse transit time (PTT). Methods: 15 children (12 male) from routine PSG studies were recruited (aged 3,14 years). The characteristics of the three indices were based on known criteria for respiratory events (RPE). Their estimation singly and in combination was evaluated with simultaneous scored PSG recordings. Results: 215 RPE and 215 tidal breathing events were analysed. For OE, the obtained sensitivity was HR (0.703), SaO2 (0.047), PTT (0.750), considering all three indices (0) and either of the indices (0.828) while specificity was (0.891), (0.938), (0.922), (0.953) and (0.859) respectively. For CE, the sensitivity was HR (0.715), SaO2 (0.278), PTT (0.662), considering all indices (0.040) and either of the indices (0.868) while specificity was (0.815), (0.954), (0.901), (0.960) and (0.762) accordingly. Conclusions: Preliminary findings herein suggest that the later combination of these non-invasive indices to be a promising screening method of SDB in children. [source]