Disorder Symptoms (disorder + symptom)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Disorder Symptoms

  • conduct disorder symptom
  • eating disorder symptom
  • personality disorder symptom
  • stress disorder symptom

  • Selected Abstracts

    Dimensions of Normal and Abnormal Personality: Elucidating DSM-IV Personality Disorder Symptoms in Adolescents

    Noor B. Tromp
    ABSTRACT The present study aimed to elucidate dimensions of normal and abnormal personality underlying DSM-IV personality disorder (PD) symptoms in 168 adolescents referred to mental health services. Dimensions derived from the Big Five of normal personality and from Livesley's (2006) conceptualization of personality pathology were regressed on interview-based DSM-IV PD symptom counts. When examined independently, both models demonstrated significant levels of predictive power at the higher order level. However, when added to the higher order Big Five dimensions, Livesley's higher and lower order dimensions afforded a supplementary contribution to the understanding of dysfunctional characteristics of adolescent PDs. In addition, they contributed to a better differentiation between adolescent PDs. The present findings suggest that adolescent PDs are more than extreme, maladaptive variants of higher order normal personality traits. Adolescent PDs seem to encompass characteristics that may be more completely covered by dimensions of abnormal personality. Developmental issues and implications of the findings are discussed. [source]

    Behavioral measures of impulsivity and the law,

    Charles W. Mathias Ph.D.
    The General Theory of Crime proposes that crime is explained by the combination of situational opportunity and lack of self-control. Impulsivity is one of the important components of self-control. Because behavioral measures of impulsivity are becoming more commonly utilized to assess forensic populations, this manuscript provides an overview of three current behavioral measures. In doing so, an example of their application is provided using a group of individuals likely to come into contact with the legal system: adolescents with Conduct Disorder. Earlier age of onset of Conduct Disorder symptoms has been shown to be an important predictor of the persistence of poor outcomes into adulthood, including participation in criminal activities. This study found differential behavioral profiles across distinct measures of impulsivity by those with childhood- versus adolescent-onset Conduct Disorder. Legal implications for defining behavioral deficits using behavioral measures of impulsivity and their current limitations are discussed. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Geographical clustering of eating disordered behaviors in U.S. high school students,,

    Valerie L. Forman-Hoffman PhD
    Abstract Objective: The aim of this study was to determine if eating disorder behaviors geographically clustered among U.S high school students. Method: Our sample consisted of 15,349 high school students who responded to the 1999 Youth Risk Behavior Study (YRBS). Weight control and eating disordered behaviors under investigation included dieting, exercising, fasting, using diet pills, and purging to control weight in the last 30 days. We calculated pairwise odds ratios (PWORs) to determine the degree of within-county clustering. Results: Among all participants, adjusted analyses revealed that having any weight control or eating disorder symptom, severe restricting, dieting, exercising, and diet pill use each showed significant clustering (p < .05). Purging did not significantly cluster by county. The magnitude of clustering was stronger for female students than male students. Conclusion: The significant clustering of weight control and eating disorder behavior in U.S. high school students confirms evidence of a social contagion effect of eating disorders. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

    Personality disorder scale predictors of depression stability over time as a partial function of mental health history

    Alan R. King
    The high comorbidity of personality disturbance and psychiatric symptomatology has been well established. Diagnostic and Statistical Manual-IV (DSM-IV) personality disorder symptom clusters often represent aberrant, intense and labile emotional reactions to stressors. The role of personality disorder traits on the variability of depression symptoms as expressed over time, however, has gained relatively little research attention. The presence and number of personality disorder diagnoses have been associated with earlier depression onset and less favourable treatment outcomes suggesting that this form of mood disturbance may be more durable over time when associated with Axis II features. The present study examined Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) temporal stability as a function of Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-II) personality disorder base rate scores among 406 college students with and without reported histories of significant mental health concerns. Instability of BDI scores across time was shown to be predicted (r = 0.15) by selected personality disorderscale dimensions (antisocial, self-defeating, borderline and total number of MCMI-II personality disorder elevations). BDI reliability did drop significantly among participants reporting a mental health treatment history and multiple personality disorder elevations. Gender differences were not found in the strength of these bivariate correlations. Women generated smaller BDI absolute differences than men. While BDI test,retest reliability was only linked modestly to personality disorder attributes in this college sample, further study may be warranted to evaluate similar relationships within a clinical sample. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality disorders improve in patients treated for major depression

    R. T. Mulder
    Mulder RT, Joyce PR, Frampton CMA. Personality disorders improve in patients treated for major depression. Objective:, To examine the stability of personality disorders and their change in response to the treatment of major depression. Method:, 149 depressed out-patients taking part in a treatment study were systematically assessed for personality disorders at baseline and after 18 months of treatment using the SCID-II. Results:, Personality disorder diagnoses and symptoms demonstrated low-to-moderate stability (overall , = 0.41). In general, personality disorder diagnoses and symptoms significantly reduced over the 18 months of treatment. There was a trend for the patients who had a better response to treatment to lose more personality disorder symptoms, but even those who never recovered from their depression over the 18 months of treatment lost, on average, nearly three personality disorder symptoms. Conclusion:, Personality disorders are neither particularly stable nor treatment resistant. In depressed out-patients, personality disorder symptoms in general improve significantly even in patients whose response to their treatment for depressive symptoms is modest or poor. [source]

    Interpersonal problems and emotional intelligence in compulsive hoarding

    Jessica R. Grisham Ph.D.
    Abstract There is some evidence that compulsive hoarding is associated with social impairment, which may contribute to poor functional outcomes among hoarding patients. In this study, individuals with compulsive hoarding (n = 30) were compared to nonhoarding anxious or depressed patients (n = 30) and nonclinical community participants (n = 30) with respect to clinical characteristics, interpersonal difficulties, and emotional intelligence. All participants were diagnosed using a semi-structured interview and completed self-report measures. Participants with compulsive hoarding endorsed more depression and schizotypal personality disorder symptoms than participants in both comparison groups. Hoarding participants also reported more interpersonal difficulties than community volunteers, but they did not differ significantly from nonhoarding participants with an anxiety or mood disorder. Multiple regression analyses demonstrated that hoarding-related beliefs were marginally related to increased interpersonal problems over and above the effect of depression and anxiety. The groups did not differ significantly with respect to emotional intelligence. Depression and Anxiety. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Citalopram treatment of social anxiety disorder with comorbid major depression

    Franklin R. Schneier M.D.
    Abstract Treatment of patients with both social anxiety disorder and major depression has been little studied although social anxiety disorder and depression frequently co-occur. Each disorder has been shown to respond to serotonin reuptake inhibitor treatment. Objectives of this study were to characterize a sample of these comorbid patients and to assess response to treatment with citalopram. Patients with primary DSM-IV generalized subtype of social anxiety disorder and comorbid major depression (N = 21) were assessed for symptoms of each disorder, including atypical depressive features, and functional impairment. Patients were treated with a flexible dose of open label citalopram for 12 weeks. Response rates for the intention-to-treat sample at week 12 were 14/21 (66.7%) for social anxiety disorder and 16/21 (76.2%) for depression. All continuous measures of social anxiety, depression, and functional impairment improved significantly with treatment, but depression symptoms responded more rapidly and more completely than social anxiety symptoms. Mean dose of citalopram at study endpoint was 37.6 mg/day. Only three patients (14.3%) fulfilled DSM-IV criteria for atypical features of depression, although 18 (85.7%) fulfilled the criterion for interpersonal rejection sensitivity. Citalopram treatment may benefit patients with primary social anxiety disorder and comorbid major depression, and it should be further studied in controlled trials. Improvement in social anxiety disorder symptoms lagged behind improvement in depression, and greater than 12 weeks of treatment may be required to assess full social anxiety response in patients with comorbid depression. The overlap of social anxiety disorder with atypical features of depression may primarily be due to the shared feature of rejection sensitivity. Depression and Anxiety 17:191,196, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A case series investigating acceptance and commitment therapy as a treatment for previously treated, unremitted patients with anorexia nervosa

    M. I. Berman
    Abstract The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) for treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN) using a case series methodology among participants with a history of prior treatment for AN. Three participants enrolled; all completed the study. All participants had a history of 1,20 years of intensive eating disorder treatment prior to enrollment. Participants were seen for 17,19 twice-weekly sessions of manualized ACT. Symptoms were assessed at baseline, post-treatment and 1-year follow-up. All participants experienced clinically significant improvement on at least some measures; no participants worsened or lost weight even at 1-year follow-up. Simulation modelling analysis (SMA) revealed for some participants an increase in weight gain and a decrease in eating disorder symptoms during the treatment phase as compared to a baseline assessment phase. These data, although preliminary, suggest that ACT could be a promising treatment for subthreshold or clinical cases of AN, even with chronic participants or those with medical complications. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Collaborative care between professionals and non-professionals in the management of eating disorders: a description of workshops focussed on interpersonal maintaining factors

    J. Treasure
    Abstract The aim of this paper is to describe the content and processes involved in a series of workshops for carers of people with an eating disorder. These workshops were designed to equip carers with the skills and knowledge needed to be a ,coach' and help the person with an eating disorder break free from the traps that block recovery. The first hurdle is to overcome the unhelpful patterns of interpersonal processes between the person with an eating disorder and their carers. In both naturalistic studies and randomised controlled trials (RCT), family factors have been implicated either as moderators or mediators of outcome. High levels of expressed emotion (EE), misattributions about the illness or unhelpful methods of engaging with the eating disorder symptoms contribute to this effect. These workshops aim to reduce EE such as over protection. Carers are introduced to the transtheoretical model of change and the principles of motivational interviewing so that they can help rather than hinder change. They learn how to use reflective listening to reduce confrontation and how to sidestep resistance. Carers learn what is needed to help their daughter change by reflecting on the processes involved in changing their own behaviours in relationship with the person with eating disorders. Once they recognise that they may need to change then they can use their skills, information and insight to help change eating disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Adults with chronic eating disorders.

    Two-year follow-up after inpatient treatment
    Abstract Objective The aims of this prospective study were (1) to report on the 2-year outcome of chronically ill adult eating disorder patients, (2) to investigate whether a specialized inpatient treatment might influence the course of the illness, and (3) to search for prognostic factors. Method Seventy-two patients were treated in a 4,5-month specialized group treatment programme for chronically ill adults with eating disorders. Sixty-five (90%) with mean age of 30 years were available for the follow-up assessment. Results Forty-six (71%) patients had improved at the 2-year follow-up and 17 (26%) did not meet diagnostic criteria for an eating disorder. The symptom reductions per time were statistically significantly larger during the inpatient period compared to the waiting-list and follow-up periods. No significant predictors of treatment outcome were found. Patients with avoidant personality disorder had a higher level of distress at all times, but improved at the same rate as the others. Conclusion At the 2-year follow-up, there were substantial reductions in eating disorder symptoms and general psychiatric symptoms. Most of the improvement occurred during inpatient treatment, which might be an option for chronic eating disorders. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Clinician stance in the treatment of chronic eating disorders

    Josie Geller
    Abstract Long-term outcome studies of anorexia nervosa have shown that a significant number of individuals do not fully recover from their eating disorder symptoms. Individuals who develop chronic eating disorders may express either strong ambivalence about symptom reduction or a complete lack of interest in change. As a result, clinicians can find this group particularly challenging. This report expands upon a treatment stance based on principles of Motivational Interviewing that addresses difficulties typically encountered in working with this population. The stance outlines a mission statement and specific clinician behaviours that promote engagement and alliance with this group, including the communication of beliefs that foster client self-acceptance, not making assumptions, being curious, active, and on the same side, and maximizing client responsibility for change. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    The history of eating disorders in Norway

    Finn Skårderud
    Abstract The history of eating disorders in Norway is described in four phases: (1) early case histories of eating disorder symptoms in the late 19th century Norwegian medical literature, (2) the pioneers of the post-World War 2 decades, (3) the 1980s when eating disorders became visible to the public and a focus of interest among professionals, and (4) the consolidation of professional networks and the emergence of a national policy for treatment. In contrast to many other countries, the official Norwegian policy is to improve clinical competence and knowledge about eating disorders at all levels of health care rather than establishing special clinics. Beside arguing for such a policy, we suggest that discussing the balance between general and specialist services is an important future issue. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Nutritional Risk among Elderly Rural Midwestern Women

    Leslee K. Pollina
    Nutritional risk in relation to depression and eating disorder symptoms was assessed among a sample of rural, elderly Midwestern women. Thirty-seven community-dwelling women (M age = 72.37, SD = 16.66) were recruited from senior center nutrition sites and other venues. Body mass index (BMI) was derived from bioelectric impedance measurements, and participants completed several questionnaires including the Level I Nutrition Screen, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Eating Attitudes Test (EAT). Results indicated that 72% of participants had BMI scores outside the healthy range for older adults, but they were more likely to be overweight than underweight. Other areas of nutritional concern were identified. Several nutritional risk items were associated with eating disorder symptoms and with higher depression scores. However, in an elderly population, EAT items may reflect health-related as well as eating disorder symptoms. The need for comprehensive nutritional evaluations involving psychosocial and environmental factors is discussed. [source]

    Inappropriate eating behaviors during pregnancy: Prevalence and associated factors among pregnant women attending primary care in southern Brazil,

    Rafael Marques Soares RD
    Abstract Objective: To examine the prevalence of inappropriate eating behaviors and associated factors among pregnant women in primary care. Method: The Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire was used to assess eating disorders and the Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders was used to examine anxiety and depressive symptoms. Body mass index (BMI) and pregestational weight were also assessed. Results: Prevalence of binge eating during pregnancy was 17.3% [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.5,20.0], followed by excessive shape (5.6%; 95% CI 4,8) and weight concerns (5.5%; 95% CI 4,8). Binge eating during pregnancy was significantly associated with binge eating before pregnancy [prevalence ratio (PR) = 3.1; 95% CI 2.2,4.3], current anxiety symptoms (PR = 1.8; 95% CI 1.3,2.4), and prepregnancy BMI < 19.8 kg/m2 (PR = 1.6; 95% CI 1.1,2.5). The prevalence of eating disorders was 0.6% (95% CI 0.01,1.11). Discussion: Eating disorder symptoms should be routinely assessed and treated during prenatal care, along with other comorbid psychiatric symptoms such as anxiety. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord, 2009 [source]

    Gender difference in the prevalence of eating disorder symptoms,,

    Ruth H. Striegel-Moore PhD
    Abstract Objective: This study examined gender differences in prevalence of eating disorder symptoms including body image concerns (body checking or avoidance), binge eating, and inappropriate compensatory behaviors. Method: A random sample of members (ages 18,35 years) of a health maintenance organization was recruited to complete a survey by mail or on-line. Items were drawn from the Patient Health Questionnaire and the Body Shape Questionnaire. Results: Among the 3,714 women and 1,808 men who responded, men were more likely to report overeating, whereas women were more likely to endorse loss of control while eating. Although statistically significant gender differences were observed, with women significantly more likely than men to report body checking and avoidance, binge eating, fasting, and vomiting, effect sizes ("Number Needed to Treat") were small to moderate. Discussion: Few studies of eating disorders include men, yet our findings suggest that a substantial minority of men also report eating disorder symptoms. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2009 [source]

    Self-criticism is a key predictor of eating disorder dimensions among inpatient adolescent females

    Silvana Fennig MD
    Abstract Objective: Although the unipolar depression-eating disorder comorbidity is adequately documented, examination of the role of depressive personality styles in eating disorders is relatively scarce. Method: Associations between depressive symptoms, depressive risk and resilience (i.e., dependency, self-criticism, and sense of efficacy), and eating disorder symptoms (as measured by the Eating Disorder Inventory-2) were examinedin inpatient adolescent females (N = 81). Results: Self-criticism emerged as independent, robust, and strong predictor of eating disorder symptoms. Conclusion: Patients self-criticism should be targeted in psychotherapy and might serve as an obstacle for successful inpatient treatment. The role of self-derogation in eating disorders should be examined further. © 2008 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

    Changes in psychopathology and symptom severity in bulimia nervosa between 1993 and 2003

    Amanda S. Vaught BA
    Abstract Objective: This study investigated changes in symptom severity and the psychopathology of patients with bulimia nervosa between 1993 and 2003. Method: Pretreatment data of patients diagnosed with bulimia nervosa, collected between 1993 and 1997 from two multisite studies (N = 263), and from 2001 to 2003 from a third multisite study (N = 233) were compared for differences in psychopathology, eating disorder symptoms, and demographic characteristics. Results: There was a significant increase in baseline age between the cohorts (1993M = 28.7 ± 7.9, 2001M = 30.3 ± 8.7, p = 0.036) together with a decrease in personality disorders and in several aspects of eating disorder psychopathology. After controlling for age however, significant pretreatment differences were found only in the restraint subscale on the EDE. Conclusion: Results suggest that the presentation of individuals with bulimia nervosa has changed between 1993 and 2003, in that participants were older and demonstrated less dietary restraint. Hence, comparisons between samples and treatment trials over time must be made with caution. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2008 [source]

    Prevalence and correlates of eating disorders in Latinos in the United States

    Margarita Alegria PhD
    Abstract Objective: To present national estimates and correlates of lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV eating disorders for Latinos. Method: Data come from the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS), a national epidemiological household survey of Latinos in the United States. Results: Latinos have elevated rates of any binge eating and binge eating disorder but low prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa. The US born and those living a greater percentage of their lifetime in the US evidenced higher risk for certain eating disorders while severe obesity and low levels of education were significant correlates. Rates of treatment utilization were exceedingly low. Conclusion: Standard eating disorder criteria may not be appropriate for understanding psychological morbidity of eating disorders for Latinos, particularly less acculturated Latinos, due to cultural differences in the presentation of eating disorder symptoms. Criteria for disturbed eating patterns that are more reflective of the illness experience of Latinos should be developed. © 2007 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    A survey of herbal and alternative medication use among participants with eating disorder symptoms

    Kristine J. Steffen PharmD
    Abstract Objective: The purpose of this survey was to collect data on herbal use in participants with eating disorder symptoms. Method: A survey was administered to 100 participants who had either sought treatment at the Eating Disorder Institute (EDI) or had been enrolled in previous research as the result of eating disorder symptoms. Results: Of the 100 participants, 64% used an herbal product for weight loss. The mean monthly expenditure on herbs over the past year was $33.88 ± $41.10, with a range of $2,$200. Dexatrim (Chattem, Chattanooga, TN; N = 27) and St. John's Wort (N = 19) had the highest reported use. Magazines were the most common source of product information (38.3%), with health care professionals being reported less frequently as the source of information. Knowledge of ephedra-related adverse effects was variable, and depended on a previous history of use. The majority (62.3%) of herb users reported an adverse effect. Conclusion: Herbal use is frequent among those with eating disorder symptoms, often resulting in substantial financial cost. Health professionals are rarely the source of herbal information. Therefore, there is ample room for educational interventions, which may result in the safer use of herbal products. © 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006; 39:741,746 [source]

    Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire as a measure of change in patients with bulimia nervosa

    Robyn Sysko MS
    Abstract Objective The current study evaluated the agreement between the Eating Disorder Examination and the Eating Disorder Examination-Questionnaire in assessing eating disorder pathology in a sample of women with bulimia nervosa. Method Patients with broadly defined bulimia nervosa were enrolled in a double-blind, placebo-controlled treatment study of fluoxetine, with and without guided self-help. The current study presents information from 50 patients with data from both the EDE and EDE-Q at study entry and treatment termination. Results The EDE and EDE-Q produced more similar scores for compensatory behaviors (vomiting/laxative use) than complex eating-disordered features (binge eating/importance of shape and weight) at the pretreatment and posttreatment assessments, and for change during the study. Discussion The EDE and EDE-Q are highly correlated for many of the behavioral and attitudinal features of bulimia nervosa. There is substantial variability in agreement for individual patients, but on average, the EDE and EDE-Q will yield similar assessments of eating disorder symptoms and change in symptoms over time. © 2005 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Olanzapine treatment of anorexia nervosa: A retrospective study

    Amanda Malina
    Abstract Background Recent reports raise the possibility that olanzapine, which commonly causes weight gain in non,eating-disordered subjects, assisted weight gain and mood during refeeding in anorexia nervosa (AN) patients. Methods Eighteen AN subjects who engaged in open treatment with olanzapine were retrospectively questioned about their response. Results Subjects reported a significant reduction in anxiety, difficulty eating, and core eating disorder symptoms after taking olanzapine. Discussion These data lend support to the possibility that olanzapine may be useful in AN patients. Conclusion A controlled trial is necessary to prove that olanzapine is efficacious. © 2003 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 33: 234,237, 2003. [source]

    Non-somatic effects of patient aggression on nurses: a systematic review

    Ian Needham MNSc RN NT
    Aim., This paper describes a systematic review of the predominant non-somatic effects of patient assault on nurses. Background., Patient aggression towards nurses is a longstanding problem in most nursing domains. Although reports on the consequences of physical aggression are more numerous, the non-physical effects create much suffering. Method., A systematic review of literature from 1983 to May 2003 was conducted using the Medline, CINAHL, PsychINFO and PSYINDEX databases. Articles from international journals in English or German and reporting at least three non-somatic responses to patient aggression were included. Findings., The electronic search produced 6616 articles. After application of the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 25 texts from eight countries and four domains of nursing remained. Twenty-eight main effects were found, and these were categorized using a system suggested by Lanza and including bio-physiological, emotional, cognitive, and social dimensions. The predominant responses were anger, fear or anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, guilt, self-blame, and shame. These main effects occurred across most countries and nursing domains. Conclusion., Despite differing countries, cultures, research designs and settings, nurses' responses to patient aggression are similar. Standardized questionnaires could help improve estimations of the real prevalence of non-somatic effects. Given the suffering caused by non-somatic effects, research should be aimed at preventing patient aggression and at developing better ways to prepare nurses to cope with this problem. [source]

    Combat experience and the acquired capability for suicide,

    Craig J. Bryan
    Abstract Rising suicide rates are an increasing concern among military personnel. The interpersonal-psychological theory of suicide proposes that three necessary factors are needed to die by suicide: feelings that one does not belong with other people, feelings that one is a burden on others or society, and an acquired capability to overcome the fear and pain associated with suicide. The current study tests the theory's proposal that acquired capability may be particularly influenced by military experience, because combat exposure may cause habituation to fear of painful experiences such as suicide. Utilizing clinical and nonclinical samples of military personnel deployed to Iraq, results of the current study indicate that a greater range of combat experiences predicts acquired capability above and beyond depression and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms, previous suicidality, and other common risk factors for suicide. Combat experiences did not, however, predict perceived burdensomeness or thwarted belongingness. The authors discuss how combat experiences might serve as a mechanism for elevating suicide risk and implications for clinical interventions and suicide prevention efforts. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol: 66:1,13, 2010. [source]

    Structure of borderline personality disorder symptoms in a nonclinical sample

    Jeanette Taylor
    Relations among symptoms of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Text Revision (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000) borderline personality disorder (BPD) assessed using semistructured clinical interviews were examined using exploratory principal components analysis in a sample of 82 college men and women who were symptomatic for BPD (30.4% of whom met criteria for a BPD diagnosis at threshold or subthreshold certainty level). A three-component solution was found and, as expected, the first component was characterized by interpersonal instability and included unstable relationships, identity disturbance, and chronic emptiness. The second component reflected affective instability and low impulsivity. The third component reflected stress-related paranoia and low anger. Results highlight similarities in the structure of BPD criteria in clinical and nonclinical samples, and could inform future research on dimensional models of BPD. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 63: 805,816, 2007. [source]

    Examining antisocial behavior through the lens of the five factor model of personality

    Joshua D. Miller
    The current study attempts to provide greater precision in understanding how personality is related to antisocial behavior. Specifically, we examined the relations between the facets (subordinate traits) from three domains (superordinate dimensions): Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, of the Five Factor Model and five outcome variables: stability of conduct problems, variety of conduct problems, onset of conduct problems, aggression, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. These relations were examined in a community sample of 481 individuals. These three personality dimensions were chosen for exploration due to their consistent relations, at the domain level, with antisocial behaviors. The results from this study suggest that the facets from the dimension of Agreeableness are the most consistently related to all five outcomes. However, the facets from all three domains made significant contributions. Overall, three personality traits stood out as being the strongest and most consistent predictors: low straightforwardness, low compliance, and low deliberation. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 29:497,514, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    A Structured Interview for the Assessment of the Five-Factor Model of Personality: Facet-Level Relations to the Axis II Personality Disorders

    Timothy J. Trull
    The Structured Interview for the Five-Factor Model (SIFFM; Trull & Widiger, 1997) is an 120-item semistructured interview that assesses both adaptive and maladaptive features of the personality traits included in the five-factor model of personality, or "Big Five." In this article, we evaluate the ability of SIFFM scores to predict personality disorder symptomatology in a sample of 232 adults (46 outpatients and 186 nonclinical college students). Personality disorder symptoms were assessed using the Personality Diagnostic Questionnaire-Revised (PDQ-R; Hyler & Rider, 1987). Results indicated that many of the predicted associations between lower-order personality traits and personality disorders were supported. Further, many of these associations held even after controlling for comorbid personality disorder symptoms. These findings may help inform conceptualizations of the personality disorders, as well as etiological theories and treatment. [source]

    Peritraumatic distress, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and posttraumatic growth in victims of violence,

    M. J. J. Kunst
    This study explored whether peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms are curvilinearly related to posttraumatic growth in victims of violence several years after victimization (Time 1; n = 678) and 6 months later (Time 2, n = 205). At both time points, curve estimation revealed linear and quadratic associations between peritraumatic distress and posttraumatic growth and quadratic associations between PTSD symptoms and posttraumatic growth. In multivariate regressions controlling for background variables, the linear peritraumatic distress and quadratic PTSD symptom terms remained significant predictors of posttraumatic growth Time 1 scores. For Time 2, the linear peritraumatic distress term remained significant, though only prior to controlling for posttraumatic growth Time 1 scores. The results suggest that peritraumatic distress enables growth after substantial time has elapsed since victimization. [source]

    Posttraumatic stress symptoms, coping, and physical health status among university students seeking health care

    Casey Lawler
    This study examined posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, coping, and physical health status in students reporting a trauma history (N = 138) using structural equation modeling. Participants completed questionnaires assessing PTSD symptoms, coping specific to health-related and trauma-related stressors and physical health. After accounting for coping with health-specific problems, trauma-specific avoidance coping was uniquely associated with poorer health status. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were associated with poorer physical health status, controlling for age, health behaviors, and other psychopathology. In addition, the effect of PTSD symptoms on poorer health status was mediated by health- and trauma-specific avoidance coping. Results suggest that university health centers should screen for PTSD and consider psychoeducational programs and coping skills interventions for survivors of trauma. [source]

    Juvenile conduct disorder as a risk factor for trauma exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder

    Karestan C. Koenen
    Juvenile conduct disorder (CD) is a well-documented risk factor for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This study examines the mechanisms underlying this relationship by using data from 3,315 twin pairs in the Vietnam Era Twin Registry. Results indicate the number of conduct disorder symptoms increased risk of trauma exposure and PTSD in a dose,response fashion. This increased risk was mediated in part by the positive association between CD and lifestyle factors and was not due to confounding by shared genetic or familial vulnerability. The findings suggest CD increases risk for trauma exposure and PTSD among male veterans through direct and indirect mechanisms. Veterans who have a history of CD are at high risk for trauma exposure and development of PTSD. [source]

    A novel approach to treating eating disorders in a day-hospital treatment program

    NUTRITION & DIETETICS, Issue 3 2010
    Mellisa ASHLEY
    Abstract Aim:, The aim of the present study was to evaluate the short-term effectiveness of an adult day-hospital program that uses a novel approach to delivering nutritional interventions. Methods:, Fifty-six adult eating disorder patients of the Sydney West Area Eating Disorders Day Treatment Program participated in the study. Participants completed standardised self-reported questionnaires designed to measure eating disorder symptoms, at the commencement of treatment and after 12 weeks. Results:, Participation in day-hospital treatment was associated with increases in weight, reductions in number of binge-eating and purging episodes, and frequency of exercise sessions. Participants also experienced improvements in their eating attitudes, drive for thinness, bulimia, depression and anxiety symptoms. Conclusion:, These findings add to the growing body of literature supporting the use of day-hospital programs in the treatment of eating disorders. A number of strategies are suggested for the effective delivery of nutritional interventions in day-hospital programs, such as methods that assist with integrating new information, having an experiential focus and the use of collaborative education processes. [source]