Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Disorder

  • X-link disorder
  • adjustment disorder
  • affective disorder
  • antisocial personality disorder
  • anxiety disorder
  • asperger disorder
  • attachment disorder
  • attention deficit disorder
  • attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder
  • attention hyperactivity disorder
  • attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • autism spectrum disorder
  • autistic disorder
  • autistic spectrum disorder
  • autoimmune disorder
  • autoinflammatory disorder
  • autosomal dominant disorder
  • autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder
  • autosomal recessive disorder
  • autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disorder
  • autosomal-recessive disorder
  • avoidant personality disorder
  • behavior disorder
  • behaviour disorder
  • binge eating disorder
  • bipolar affective disorder
  • bipolar disorder
  • bipolar i disorder
  • bipolar ii disorder
  • bleeding disorder
  • blistering disorder
  • blood disorder
  • body dysmorphic disorder
  • bone disorder
  • borderline personality disorder
  • brain disorder
  • cardiac disorder
  • cell disorder
  • childhood disorder
  • chromosomal disorder
  • chronic disorder
  • chronic inflammatory disorder
  • chronic posttraumatic stress disorder
  • clonal disorder
  • coagulation disorder
  • common disorder
  • common neurodegenerative disorder
  • common psychiatric disorder
  • comorbid anxiety disorder
  • comorbid disorder
  • comorbid obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • comorbid psychiatric disorder
  • complex disorder
  • compulsive disorder
  • conduct disorder
  • conformational disorder
  • congenital disorder
  • connective tissue disorder
  • control disorder
  • conversion disorder
  • coordination disorder
  • cutaneous disorder
  • debilitating disorder
  • defiant disorder
  • deficit disorder
  • deficit hyperactivity disorder
  • deficit-hyperactivity disorder
  • delusional disorder
  • depressive disorder
  • dermatological disorder
  • desire disorder
  • devastating neurodegenerative disorder
  • developmental coordination disorder
  • developmental disorder
  • disabling disorder
  • dissociative disorder
  • dominant disorder
  • dominant neurodegenerative disorder
  • dynamic disorder
  • dysmorphic disorder
  • dysphoric disorder
  • dysthymic disorder
  • eating disorder
  • emotional disorder
  • endocrine disorder
  • energetic disorder
  • eye movement sleep behavior disorder
  • fatal disorder
  • fibrosing disorder
  • gait disorder
  • gender identity disorder
  • general anxiety disorder
  • generalized anxiety disorder
  • genetic disorder
  • granulomatous disorder
  • health disorder
  • hereditary disorder
  • heterogeneous disorder
  • hyperactivity disorder
  • hypoactive sexual desire disorder
  • i disorder
  • identity disorder
  • ii disorder
  • impulse control disorder
  • inflammatory disorder
  • inflammatory skin disorder
  • inherited bleeding disorder
  • inherited disorder
  • inherited metabolic disorder
  • intrinsic disorder
  • language disorder
  • lymphoproliferative disorder
  • lysosomal storage disorder
  • major depressive disorder
  • memory disorder
  • mental disorder
  • mental health disorder
  • metabolic disorder
  • mitochondrial disorder
  • mood disorder
  • motility disorder
  • motor disorder
  • movement disorder
  • movement sleep behavior disorder
  • multifactorial disorder
  • multisystem disorder
  • myeloproliferative disorder
  • narcissistic personality disorder
  • neurodegenerative disorder
  • neurodevelopmental disorder
  • neurologic disorder
  • neurological disorder
  • neuromuscular disorder
  • neuropsychiatric disorder
  • obsessive compulsive disorder
  • obsessive-compulsive disorder
  • one disorder
  • oppositional defiant disorder
  • orientational disorder
  • pain disorder
  • panic disorder
  • personality disorder
  • pervasive developmental disorder
  • photosensitivity disorder
  • physiological disorder
  • pigmentary disorder
  • post traumatic stress disorder
  • post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder
  • post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder
  • post-traumatic stress disorder
  • posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder
  • posttraumatic stress disorder
  • premenstrual dysphoric disorder
  • prevalent disorder
  • progressive disorder
  • progressive neurodegenerative disorder
  • proliferative disorder
  • proton disorder
  • psychiatric disorder
  • psychopathic disorder
  • psychotic disorder
  • quenched disorder
  • rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder
  • rare autosomal dominant disorder
  • rare autosomal recessive disorder
  • rare disorder
  • rare genetic disorder
  • rare hereditary disorder
  • recessive bleeding disorder
  • recessive disorder
  • recessive neurodegenerative disorder
  • relate disorder
  • rem sleep behavior disorder
  • respiratory disorder
  • rotational disorder
  • schizoaffective disorder
  • seasonal affective disorder
  • seizure disorder
  • separation anxiety disorder
  • severe personality disorder
  • sexual desire disorder
  • skin disorder
  • sleep behavior disorder
  • sleep disorder
  • social anxiety disorder
  • somatoform disorder
  • spectrum disorder
  • speech disorder
  • static disorder
  • storage disorder
  • stress disorder
  • structural disorder
  • substance use disorder
  • system disorder
  • systemic disorder
  • temporomandibular disorder
  • thought disorder
  • tic disorder
  • tissue disorder
  • transient myeloproliferative disorder
  • traumatic stress disorder
  • uncommon disorder
  • underlying disorder
  • use disorder
  • vascular disorder

  • Terms modified by Disorder

  • disorder alone
  • disorder assessment
  • disorder behavior
  • disorder clinic
  • disorder comorbidity
  • disorder criterioN
  • disorder diagnosis
  • disorder examination
  • disorder feature
  • disorder group
  • disorder groups
  • disorder inventory
  • disorder leading
  • disorder model
  • disorder other
  • disorder patient
  • disorder phase transition
  • disorder phenomenoN
  • disorder profile
  • disorder psychopathology
  • disorder questionnaire
  • disorder scale
  • disorder services
  • disorder severity
  • disorder specialist
  • disorder symptom
  • disorder symptomatology
  • disorder trait
  • disorder transition
  • disorder treatment

  • Selected Abstracts


    CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    In this study, we build on recent social disorganization research, estimating models of the relationships between disorder, burglary, cohesion, and fear of crime using a sample of neighborhoods from three waves of the British Crime Survey. The results indicate that disorder has an indirect effect on burglary through fear and neighborhood cohesion. Although cohesion reduces disorder, nonrecursive models show that disorder also reduces cohesion. Part of the effect of disorder on cohesion is mediated by fear. Similar results are obtained in nonrecursive burglary models. Together, the results suggest a feedback loop in which decreases in neighborhood cohesion increase crime and disorder, increasing fear, in turn, further decreasing cohesion. [source]


    First page of article [source]


    Scholars argue that violence will not occur in the presence of efficient property rights institutions. Empirical evidence from the Riverina district in New South Wales between 1855 and 1870 contradicts this claim. This paper provides a preliminary analysis of evidence to explain this apparent inconsistency. Violence was directed at upstream users who dammed rivers, preventing flow to downstream users. Evidence suggests violence was a form of social control referred to as self-help employed to enforce conventions of fairness. Dams were perceived as unfair because they reduced the distributive equity embodied in the common law of riparian rights that established water-use rules to allocate water between competing users. Violence in the form of dam destruction occurred primarily during drought years and was the preferred over common law remedies because of the lag time between seeking court intervention and obtaining a remedy. Coasean bargaining was not possible because of high transaction costs. The findings suggest that violence may occur in the presence of efficient property rights institutions if actors violate conventions of fairness. Violence may be more likely if property rights themselves embody these conventions. [source]


    ADDICTION, Issue 5 2006
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Franti, vßra MD
    SUMMARY The global widespread of the chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a worldwide health problem. Its increasing incidence and prevalence and adverse outcomes (including decreased quality of life, increased morbidity and mortality) represents a huge challenge for all recent health are systems. Reflecting this situation, the new, global initiative (KDIGO) was established to enhance communication and clinical decision-making, promote the use of evidence based medicine and facilitate clinical research. The new definition, evaluation and classification of "renal osteodystrophy"; has been one of the first outcome of this initiative, suggesting the topic of chronic kidney disease,mineral and bone disorder (CKD-MBD) to be a hot problem of recent nephrology. The new terminology is consistent with a recent view on this topic and describes CKD-MBD as a complex syndrome, including abnormal mineral and PTH metabolism, altered bone structure as far as extra-skeletal calcifications. [source]


    Anthony W Bateman
    ABSTRACT Psychotherapy continues to be bedevilled by ideological schisms with practitioners apparently ignoring alternative conceptualizations and potentially superior interventions. However, I argue here that there is evidence of a rapprochement, both in theory and in practice, between cognitive therapy and psychoanalytic therapy, especially within the domain of personality disorder, which may lead to the development of integrative psychotherapy. Cognitive therapy has begun to encompass an interpersonal approach within its theoretical base. Similarly, psychoanalytic therapy increasingly uses an interpersonal formulation of the process of therapy. The therapeutic alliance is emphasized equally and process research suggests that interventions, when given by experienced practitioners, are not as dissimilar as,brand-named' therapies imply. Continued refinement of process psychotherapy research could lead to true integration of efficacious therapeutic interventions. But translating research findings into practice will necessitate psychotherapists opening themselves up to each others' ideas. [source]

    Prevalence and relationship to delusions and hallucinations of anxiety disorders in schizophrenia

    F.R.C.P.C., Philip Tibbo M.D.
    Abstract We investigated the prevalence of anxiety disorders in a sample of individuals with chronic schizophrenia, controlling for anxiety symptoms that may be related to delusions and hallucinations, and the possible differences in clinical variables between the groups. Individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia and able to give informed consent were recruited from the community. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) was administered to both confirm the DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and screen for comorbid anxiety disorders. If a comorbid anxiety disorder was found, its relation to the individual's delusions and hallucinations was examined. Clinical rating scales for schizophrenia were administered as well as rating scales for specific anxiety disorders where appropriate. Overall, anxiety disorders ranged from 0% [ for Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)] to 26.7% [ for generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and agoraphobia without panic] with lower rates when controlled for anxiety symptoms related to delusions and hallucinations. In investigating clinical variables, the cohort was initially divided into schizophrenics with no anxiety disorders and those with an anxiety disorder; with further analyses including schizophrenics with anxiety disorders related to delusions and hallucinations and those with anxiety disorders not related to delusions and hallucinations. The most consistent difference between all the groups was on the PANSS-G subscale. No significant differences were found on the remaining clinical variables. Comorbid anxiety disorders in schizophrenia can be related to the individual's delusions and hallucinations, though anxiety disorders can occur exclusive of these positive symptoms. Clinicians must be aware that this comorbidity exists in order to optimize an individual's treatment. Depression and Anxiety 17:65,72, 2003. ę 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Body Dysmorphic Disorder and the Liposuction Patient

    Dee Anna Glaser MD
    background. Body dysmorphic disorder (BDD) is an under-recognized disorder that affects a sizeable number of patients who seek cosmetic enhancement, in particular liposuction. Understanding and recognizing BDD can positively impact the care delivered to patients. objective. To familiarize physicians with the presenting signs of BDD and present strategies for caring for BDD patients in a liposuction and/or cosmetic surgery practice. methods. Review of currently available literature and diagnostic criteria. results. BDD affects approximately 1% of patients in the United States, but as many as 7 to 15% of patients seeking cosmetic surgery. Patients with BDD will usually demonstrate an obsession with the area they seek treatment of. In addition, patients with BDD present a unique challenge to the liposuction surgeon. conclusions. Physicians who care for patients seeking liposuction or other cosmetic procedures should learn to recognize those who have BDD. Proper recognition and counseling of BDD patients can have a significant positive impact on not only their care but also on the patient-physician relationship. Failure to recognize BDD can, and often does, lead to patient dissatisfaction, as well as difficult future interactions with the BDD patient. [source]

    The heterogeneity of causes and courses of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    H-C. Steinhausen
    Objective:, Attention-deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a frequent mental disorder with onset in childhood and persistence into adulthood in a sizeable number of people. Despite a rather simple clinical definition, ADHD has many facets because of frequent co-morbid disorders and varying impact on psychosocial functioning. Thus, there is considerable heterogeneity in various domains. Method:, A review of recent research findings in: i) selected domains of aetiology reflecting the role of genes, brain structures and functioning and the interplay of causal factors and ii) clinical heterogeneity in terms of co-morbidities, gender effects, courses and outcomes. Results:, Molecular genetic studies have identified a number of candidate genes which have a small effect on behavioural variation in ADHD. In the most recent Genome Scan Meta Analysis of seven ADHD linkage studies, genome-wide significant linkage was identified on chromosome 16. The volume of both the total brain and various regions including the prefrontal cortex, the caudate nucleus and the vermis of the cerebellum is smaller in ADHD. Functional MRI has documented a specific deficit of frontostriatal networks in ADHD. Integrative aetiological models have to take the interaction of gene and environment on various dysfunctions into account. Clinical heterogeneity results from frequent associations with various co-morbidities, the impact of the disorder on psychosocial functioning, and gender effects. Partly, these effects are evident also in the course and outcome of ADHD. Conclusion:, ADHD is a chronic mental disorder with a complex aetiology. So far, various neurobiological factors have been identified that need to be studied further to better understand their interaction with environmental factors. The clinical presentation and the long-term course of ADHD are manifold. [source]

    Lux vs. wavelength in light treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder

    J. L. Anderson
    Objective:, Published dosing guidelines for treatment of Seasonal Affective Disorder (SAD) refer to photopic lux, which is not appropriate for short-wavelength light. Short wavelengths are most potent for many non-visual responses to light. If SAD therapy were similarly mediated, standards utilizing lux risk overestimating necessary dose. We investigated antidepressant responses to light using two light-emitting diode (LED) sources, each emitting substantial short-wavelength light, but <2500 lux. Method:, A randomized, double-blind trial investigated 3-week 45 min/day out-patient treatment with blue-appearing (goLITE«) or blue-enriched white-appearing light in 18 moderately-depressed adults (12F, 49.1 ▒ 9.5 years). Equivalent numbers of photons within the short-wavelength range were emitted, but the white source emitted twice as many photons overall and seven-fold more lux. Results:, Depression ratings (SIGH-ADS; http://www.cet.org) decrease averaged 82% (SD = 17%) from baseline (P < 0.0001) in both white- and blue-light groups. Both sources were well tolerated. Conclusion:, Short-wavelength LED light sources may be effective in SAD treatment at fewer lux than traditional fluorescent sources. [source]

    The neurobiological profile of girls with ADHD

    E. Mark Mahone
    Abstract Since boys are more commonly diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) than girls, the majority of theories and published research studies of ADHD have been based on samples comprised primarily (or exclusively) of boys. While psychosocial impairment in girls with ADHD is well established, the neuropsychological and neurobiological basis of these deficits is less consistently observed. There is growing evidence that boys' and girls' brains develop and mature at different rates, suggesting that the trajectory of early anomalous brain development in ADHD may also be sex-specific. It remains unclear, however, whether earlier brain maturation observed in girls with ADHD is protective. In this review, we outline the current theory and research findings that seek to establish a unique neurobiological profile of girls with ADHD, highlighting sex differences in typical brain development and among children with ADHD. The review highlights findings from neurological, neurocognitive, and behavioral studies. Future research directions are suggested, including the need for longitudinal neuroimaging and neurobehavioral investigation beginning as early as the preschool years, and continuing through adolescence and adulthood, with consideration of identified sex differences in the development of ADHD. ę 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:276,284. [source]

    Attention deficits, Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, and intellectual disabilities

    Curtis K. Deutsch
    Abstract Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and its earlier nosologic classifications have been extensively investigated since the 1960s, with PubMed listings alone exceeding 13,000 entries. Strides have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD in individuals with intellectual function in the normal range, as described in companion reviews in this special issue. In contrast, comparatively little is known about ADHD in intellectual developmental disabilities (IDD) despite the possibility that ADHD is statistically overrepresented among individuals with IDD (Pearson et al. 1997 Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in mental retardation: nature of attention deficits. In: Burack J, Enns J, editors. Attention, development, and psychopathology. New York: Guilford Press. p 205,229; Pearson et al. 2000 Am. J. Ment. Retard. 105:236,251). Here, we provide a review of diagnostic controversies in ADHD with IDD, and discuss several topics that are currently attracting research efforts in the field. These include behavioral phenotyping and attempts to come to grips with problems of behavioral and etiological heterogeneity. Additionally, we consider issues relating to methodologically sound assessment of attention disorders and evidence-based intervention procedures that may clarify and/or ameliorate attention deficits in individuals with IDD. ę 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Dev Disabil Res Rev 2008;14:285,292. [source]

    Sexual orientation, substance use behaviors and substance dependence in the United States

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2009
    Sean Esteban McCabe
    ABSTRACT Aims To assess past-year prevalence rates of substance use behaviors and substance dependence across three major dimensions of sexual orientation (identity, attraction and behavior) in a large national sample of adult women and men in the United States. Design Data were collected from structured diagnostic face-to-face interviews using the Alcohol Use Disorder and Associated Disabilities Interview Schedule DSM-IV version IV (AUDADIS-IV). Setting Prevalence estimates were based on data collected from the 2004,2005 (wave 2) National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (NESARC). Participants A large national sample of 34 653 adults aged 20 years and older: 52% female, 71% white, 12% Hispanic, 11% African American, 4% Asian and 2% Native American. Findings Approximately 2% of the population self-identified as lesbian, gay or bisexual; 4% reported at least one life-time same-sex sexual partner and 6% reported same-sex sexual attraction. Although non-heterosexual orientation was generally associated with a higher risk of substance use and substance dependence, the majority of sexual minority respondents did not report substance use or meet criteria for DSM-IV substance dependence. There was considerable variation in substance use outcomes across sexual orientation dimensions; these variations were more pronounced among women than among men. Conclusions Results support previous research findings of heightened risk of substance use and substance dependence among some sexual minority groups and point to the need for research that examines the reasons for such differences. Results also highlight important gender differences and question previous findings indicating uniformly higher risk for substance dependence among sexual minorities. Risks appear to vary based on gender and how sexual orientation is defined. Findings have implications for more effective prevention and intervention efforts that target subgroups at greatest risk. [source]

    High Risk of Reading Disability and Speech Sound Disorder in Rolandic Epilepsy Families: Case,Control Study

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2007
    Tara Clarke
    Summary Purpose: Associations between rolandic epilepsy (RE) with reading disability (RD) and speech sound disorder (SSD) have not been tested in a controlled study. We conducted a case,control study to determine whether (1) RD and SSD odds are higher in RE probands than controls and (2) an RE proband predicts a family member with RD or SSD, hence suggesting a shared genetic etiology for RE, RD, and SSD. Methods: Unmatched case,control study with 55 stringently defined RE cases, 150 controls in the same age range lacking a primary brain disorder diagnosis, and their siblings and parents. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by multiple logistic regression, adjusted for sex and age, and for relatives, also adjusted for comorbidity of RD and SSD in the proband. Results: RD was strongly associated with RE after adjustment for sex and age: OR 5.78 (95% CI: 2.86,11.69). An RE proband predicts RD in family members: OR 2.84 (95% CI: 1.38,5.84), but not independently of the RE proband's RD status: OR 1.30 (95% CI: 0.55,12.79). SSD was also comorbid with RE: adjusted OR 2.47 (95%CI: 1.22,4.97). An RE proband predicts SSD in relatives, even after controlling for sex, age and proband SSD comorbidity: OR 4.44 (95% CI: 1.93,10.22). Conclusions: RE is strongly comorbid with RD and SSD. Both RD and SSD are likely to be genetically influenced and may contribute to the complex genetic etiology of the RE syndrome. Siblings of RE patients are at high risk of RD and SSD and both RE patients and their younger siblings should be screened early. [source]

    It's Time to Eliminate the Term Seizure Disorder from Our Lexicon

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 3 2005
    Carl E. Stafstrom
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Mild Generalized Epilepsy and Developmental Disorder Associated with Large Inv Dup(15)

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2002
    Rosanna Chifari
    Summary: ,Purpose: Several studies attempted to clarify the genotype,phenotype correlations in patients with inverted duplication of chromosome 15 [inv dup(15)], which is usually characterized by severe mental retardation and epilepsy in individuals with large duplications including the Prader,Willi/Angelman region. We report two patients with inv dup(15) who, in spite of a large duplication, had a mild phenotype including adult-onset epilepsy. This report may help to define the milder spectrum of the syndrome. Methods: A 25-year-old girl with mild mental retardation had a 6-year history of absence seizures, with occasional head drop. Interictal EEG revealed diffuse spike,wave complexes. Epilepsy was well controlled by a combination of lamotrigine (LTG) and valproate (VPA). The other patient, a 27-year-old man with mild mental retardation, had a 5-year history of rare generalized tonic,clonic seizure during sleep, and frequent episodes of unresponsiveness, which appeared to be atypical absence seizures on video-EEG recordings. A combination of VPA and LTG led to a remarkable improvement, although no complete control. Results: Molecular analysis revealed a large inv dup15 in both patients. Conclusions: The discrepancy between the mild phenotype and the severe chromosomal abnormality detected in these two patients further supports the notion that the site of breakpoint might be contributory to the inv dup(15) phenotype. Inv dup(15) should be considered in atypical cases of generalized epilepsy of adult onset without clear-cut etiology. [source]

    Predisposed Susceptibility and Partial Seizure Disorder

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2001
    Juhn A. Wada
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Conceiving Risk, Bearing Responsibility: Fetal Alcohol Syndrome and the Diagnosis of Moral Disorder

    ADDICTION, Issue 8 2004
    C. C. H. COOK
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Surviving a Distant Past: A Case Study of the Cultural Construction of Trauma Descendant Identity

    ETHOS, Issue 4 2003
    Carol A. Kidron
    Despite the abundance of psychological studies on trauma related ills of descendants of historical trauma, and the extensive scholarly work describing the memory politics of silenced traumatic pasts, there has yet to emerge a critical analysis of the constitutive practices of descendants of historical trauma. This article presents an ethnographic account of a support group for descendants of Holocaust survivors, proposing that the discursive frame of intergenerational transmission of Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and support group based narrative practices allow descendants to fashion their sense of self as survivors of the distant traumatic past. The discursive frame of transmitted PTSD acts as both a mnemonic bridge to the past and a mechanism of identity making, as participants narratively reemplot their life stories as having been personally constituted by the distant past A close ethnographic reading of on-site discursive practices points to how culture ferments to produce narratives, practices and ultimately carriers of memory to both sustain and revitalize historical grand narratives and the cultural scenarios they embed. [source]

    Eating disorders in females with type 1 diabetes: an update of a meta-analysis

    S°ren Nielsen
    Abstract Objective: Firstly to provide a quantitative summary of existing studies on the occurrence of eating disorders (ED) in females with type 1 diabetes (IDDM), with the focus on retinopathy and insulin misuse for the different eating disorders. Secondly to disseminate knowledge about useful statistical tools. Research Design and Methods: Data were extracted from the relevant case,control and follow-up studies. Odds ratios (OR) and risk differences (RD) were the main effect sizes analysed. Analyses were based on ,exact' methods as many studies are sparse. Data and findings are presented in sufficient detail for re-analysis. Results: An hypothesis of an increase in Anorexia Nervosa (AN) in IDDM is not supported by existing evidence. Bulimia Nervosa is increased (OR,=,2.9 (95%CI: 1.03 to 8.4); pOR,=,0.04) in IDDM. Both ED-NOS and subthreshold ED is increased (OR ,2; pOR,<,0.001) in females with IDDM. Co-existing ED in IDDM increases the overall common OR for retinopathy to 4.8 (95%CI: 3.0 to 7.8); pOR,<,0.00001, and the overall mean RD is 33% (95%CI: 25% to 42%); pRD,<,0.001. Insulin misuse (IM) is increased when ED co-exists with IDDM: OR 12.6 (95%CI: 7.8 to 21.1); pOR,<,0.00001, and mean RD is 40% (95%CI: 29% to 50%); pRD,<,0.001. Conclusions: ED-NOS and subthreshold ED seem to be the quantitatively most important EDs in type 1 diabetic females. Mismanagement of diabetes in the form of IM is frequent in eating disordered IDDM probands. Early occurrence of retinopathy and other complications is an increased risk in concurrent cases, as is premature death. The implications of Binge Eating Disorder (BED) and overweight needs to be elucidated for both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Copyright ę 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and substance use disorders: is there a causal link?

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2001
    Michael T. Lynskey
    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), characterized by restless, inattentive and hyperactive behaviours, is a relatively common childhood disorder that affects approximately 5% of the general population. There has been controversy about whether ADHD increases risks of developing substance use disorders. The available evidence suggests that, in the absence of conduct disorder, ADHD is not associated with an increased risk of substance use problems in males. There is only limited evidence on the role of ADHD in the aetiology of substance use disorders among females. While ADHD has traditionally been considered as a childhood disorder, it may also occur in adults; research needs to examine the extent to which ADHD in adulthood increases the risk of substance use disorders. [source]

    Family Transactions and Relapse in Bipolar Disorder,

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2001
    Irwin S. Rosenfarb Ph.D.
    This study examined whether patient symptoms and relatives' affective behavior, when expressed during directly observed family interactions, are associated with the short-term course of bipolar disorder. Twenty-seven bipolar patients and their relatives participated in two 10-minute family interactions when patients were discharged after a manic episode. Results indicated that patients who showed high levels of odd and grandiose thinking during the interactions were more likely to relapse during a 9-month followup period than patients who did not show these symptoms during the family discussions. Relapse was also associated with high rates of harshly critical and directly supportive statements by relatives. Patients' odd thinking and relatives' harsh criticism were significantly more likely to be correlated when patients relapsed (r = .53) than when they did not relapse (r = .12). Results suggest that bipolar patients who show increased signs of residual symptomatology during family transactions during the post-hospital period are at increased relapse risk. The data also suggest that relatives of relapsing patients cope with these symptoms by increasing both positive and negative affective behaviors. Moreover, a bidirectional, interactional relationship between patients' symptoms and relatives' coping style seems to capture best the role of the family in predicting relapse in bipolar disorder. [source]

    Engineering Disorder: Engineering Disorder in Superdiffusive LÚvy Glasses (Adv. Funct.

    Engineering disorder makes it possible to realize materials with advanced optical properties. On page 965, Bertolotti et al. report the recipe for LÚvy glasses, strongly inhomogeneous disordered systems displaying superdiffusive light transport. The degree of superdiffusion is fine-tuned by embedding transparent spheres varying in size by orders of magnitude in a scattering medium. [source]

    Engineering Disorder in Superdiffusive LÚvy Glasses

    Jacopo Bertolotti
    Abstract Disorder is known to have a substantial impact on light transport in optical materials. In particular, when properly tuned, disorder can unveil optical properties that common, periodically patterned materials do not possess. In this paper, a method to realize disordered dielectric materials dubbed LÚvy glasses, in which light transport is superdiffusive, is presented. The degree of superdiffusion is set by engineering the spatial inhomogeneity of the scatterer density in the material. A model that relates the microscopic parameters to the macroscopic transport properties of LÚvy glasses is given and the signature of superdiffusion on the transmission profile in a slab configuration is shown experimentally. [source]

    College Students Classified as Having Learning Disabilities and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and the Foreign Language Requirement

    Richard L. Sparks EdD
    College students classified as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are often assumed by educators and service providers to have problems that impair FL learning. To date, no empirical studies have investigated this assumption. In the two studies reported here, college students classified as LD or as both LD and having ADHD (LD/ADHD) who had either substituted courses for the FL requirement (petition) or had fulfilled the requirement by passing FL courses (nonpetition) were compared in terms of demographic, cognitive, and academic achievement profiles, and FL grades. In the first study, few differences were found in demographic, cognitive, and achievement profiles between petition students classified as LD or LD/ADHD. In the second study, no significant differences in demographic profiles were found among groups classified as petition LD, petition LD/ADHD, nonpetition LD, and nonpetition LD/ADHD. On cognitive and academic achievement measures, the nonpetition LD/ADHD group scored significantly higher than the petition LD group on measures of IQ, reading, math, and scholastic achievement (ACT). The results of both studies appear to be counterintuitive because students with two disabilities (LD and ADHD) were found to exhibit cognitive ability, academic achievement, and FL grades greater than or equal to students with LD alone. Findings suggest that students classified as both LD and ADHD may not necessarily experience serious problems with FL learning. [source]

    Modeling Polymer Dielectric/Pentacene Interfaces: On the Role of Electrostatic Energy Disorder on Charge Carrier Mobility

    Nicolas G. Martinelli
    Abstract Force-field and quantum-chemical calculations are combined to model the packing of pentacene molecules at the atomic level on two polymer dielectric layers (poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) versus polystyrene (PS)) widely used in field-effect transistors and to assess the impact of electrostatic interactions at the interface on the charge mobility values in the pentacene layers. The results show unambiguously that the electrostatic interactions introduce a significant energetic disorder in the pentacene layer in contact with the polymer chains; a drop in the hole mobility by a factor of 5 is predicted with PS chains while a factor of 60 is obtained for PMMA due to the presence of polar carbonyl groups. [source]

    Interfacial Strain-Induced Oxygen Disorder as the Cause of Enhanced Critical Current Density in Superconducting Thin Films

    Stuart C. Wimbush
    Abstract To understand the origin of the increase in critical current density of rare earth barium cuprate superconductor thin films with decreasing thickness, a series of sub-300-nm EuBa2Cu3O7,, thin films deposited on SrTiO3 substrates are studied by X-ray diffraction and electrical transport measurements. The out-of-plane crystallographic mosaic tilt and the out-of-plane microstrain both increase with decreasing film thickness. The calculated density of c -axis threading dislocations matches the extent of the observed low-field enhancement in critical current density for fields applied parallel to c. The in-plane mosaic twist and in-plane microstrain are both around twice the magnitude of the out-of-plane values, and both increase with decreasing film thickness. The results are consistent with the observed stronger field enhancement in critical current density for fields applied parallel to ab. The lattice parameter variation with thickness is not as expected from consideration of the biaxial strain with the substrate, indicative of in-plane microstrain accommodation by oxygen disorder. Collectively, the results point to an enhancement of critical current by interfacial strain induced oxygen disorder which is greatest closest to the film-substrate interface. The findings of this study have important implications for other thin functional oxide perovskite films and nanostructures where surface and interfacial strains dominate the properties. [source]

    Creating Democracy's Good Losers: The Rise, Fall and Return of Parliamentary Disorder in Post-war Japan*

    Eugene L. Wolfe
    ABSTRACT ,Good losers', legislators willing to play by parliamentary rules, even at the cost of defeat, are a microfoundation of democracy. Yet how they are created has not been adequately explained. Theories focusing on institutions, evolving norms, electoral incentives and ideology do not account for the case of post-war Japan, where deliberate disorder was common in the 1950s and 1960s, absent in the 1970s and 1980s, and returned in the 1990s. This paper highlights the importance of the legislative majority's behaviour in encouraging procedural compliance through the provision of informal mechanisms of consultation and compromise. The lack of such mechanisms also explains periods of parliamentary disorder in other countries. [source]

    Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in Migraine: Further Comments

    HEADACHE, Issue 5 2009
    B. Lee Peterlin DO
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Migraine: A Chronic Sympathetic Nervous System Disorder

    HEADACHE, Issue 1 2004
    Stephen J. Peroutka MD
    Objective.,To determine the degree of diagnostic and clinical similarity between chronic sympathetic nervous system disorders and migraine. Background.,Migraine is an episodic syndrome consisting of a variety of clinical features that result from dysfunction of the sympathetic nervous system. During headache-free periods, migraineurs have a reduction in sympathetic function compared to nonmigraineurs. Sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is also the major feature of rare neurological disorders such as pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy. There are no known reports in the medical literature, however, comparing sympathetic nervous system function in individuals with migraine, pure autonomic failure, and multiple system atrophy. Methods.,A detailed review of the literature was performed to compare the results of a wide variety of diagnostic tests and clinical signs that have been described in these 3 heretofore unrelated disorders. Results.,The data indicate that migraine shares significant diagnostic and clinical features with both pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy, yet represents a distinct subtype of chronic sympathetic dysfunction. Migraine is most similar to pure autonomic failure in terms of reduced supine plasma norepinephrine levels, peripheral adrenergic receptor supersensitivity, and clinical symptomatology directly related to sympathetic nervous system dysfunction. The peripheral sympathetic nervous system dysfunction is much more severe in pure autonomic failure than in migraine. Migraine differs from both pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy in that migraineurs retain the ability, although suboptimal, to increase plasma norepinephrine levels following physiological stressors. Conclusions.,The major finding of the present study is that migraine is a disorder of chronic sympathetic dysfunction, sharing many diagnostic and clinical characteristics with pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy. However, the sympathetic nervous system dysfunction in migraine differs from pure autonomic failure and multiple system atrophy in that occurs in an anatomically intact system. It is proposed that the sympathetic dysfunction in migraine relates to an imbalance of sympathetic co-transmitters. Specifically, it is suggested that a migraine attack is characterized by a relative depletion of sympathetic norepinephrine stores in conjunction with an increase in the release of other sympathetic cotransmitters such as dopamine, prostaglandins, adenosine triphosphate, and adenosine. An enhanced understanding of the sympathetic dysfunction in migraine may help to more effectively diagnose, prevent, and/or treat migraine and other types of headache. [source]