Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Terms modified by Dietary

  • dietary adaptation
  • dietary adherence
  • dietary administration
  • dietary advice
  • dietary allowance
  • dietary amino acid profile
  • dietary analysis
  • dietary antioxidant
  • dietary approach
  • dietary arginine
  • dietary arginine requirement
  • dietary assessment
  • dietary behavior
  • dietary calcium
  • dietary calcium intake
  • dietary carbohydrate
  • dietary carotenoid
  • dietary cd
  • dietary change
  • dietary cho
  • dietary cholesterol
  • dietary component
  • dietary composition
  • dietary compound
  • dietary concentration
  • dietary constituent
  • dietary control
  • dietary counselling
  • dietary crude protein
  • dietary data
  • dietary deficiency
  • dietary difference
  • dietary diversity
  • dietary effects
  • dietary energy
  • dietary energy level
  • dietary exposure
  • dietary factor
  • dietary fat
  • dietary fat intake
  • dietary fatty acid
  • dietary fiber
  • dietary fiber content
  • dietary fibre
  • dietary fibre content
  • dietary fish oil
  • dietary flavonoid
  • dietary flexibility
  • dietary freedom
  • dietary groups
  • dietary guideline
  • dietary habit
  • dietary history
  • dietary inclusion
  • dietary information
  • dietary ingredient
  • dietary intake
  • dietary intervention
  • dietary iron
  • dietary item
  • dietary l
  • dietary level
  • dietary lipid
  • dietary lipid level
  • dietary lipid source
  • dietary lysine
  • dietary management
  • dietary manipulation
  • dietary mean
  • dietary measure
  • dietary methionine
  • dietary mixing
  • dietary modification
  • dietary modifications
  • dietary nucleotide
  • dietary p
  • dietary pattern
  • dietary phospholipid
  • dietary phytate
  • dietary plasticity
  • dietary polyphenol
  • dietary practice
  • dietary prebiotic
  • dietary preference
  • dietary prescription
  • dietary prevention
  • dietary protein
  • dietary protein concentration
  • dietary protein content
  • dietary protein level
  • dietary protein requirement
  • dietary protein source
  • dietary quality
  • dietary questionnaire
  • dietary recall
  • dietary recommendation
  • dietary record
  • dietary reference intake
  • dietary regime
  • dietary regimen
  • dietary requirement
  • dietary restriction
  • dietary salt intake
  • dietary shift
  • dietary sodium
  • dietary sodium intake
  • dietary source
  • dietary specialization
  • dietary starch
  • dietary strategy
  • dietary studies
  • dietary supplement
  • dietary supplement use
  • dietary supplementation
  • dietary therapy
  • dietary treatment
  • dietary variable
  • dietary variation
  • dietary vitamin c
  • dietary vitamin e supplementation

  • Selected Abstracts

    Dietary and other risk factors in women having fibrocystic breast conditions with and without concurrent breast cancer: A nested case-control study in Shanghai, China

    Wenjin Li
    Abstract Risk of breast cancer is increased in women with proliferative benign breast conditions. Most of these conditions, however, do not progress to breast cancer. The purpose of our study was to identify factors possibly associated with this progression. Women with proliferative fibrocystic breast conditions alone (214), and women with proliferative fibrocystic breast conditions and concurrent breast cancer (130), were compared to each other, and each of these groups of women were also compared to 1,070 controls; and 176 women with non-proliferative benign breast conditions alone, and 155 also with breast cancer, were similarly compared. All study subjects were selected from a cohort of women enrolled in a trial of breast self-examination in Shanghai. Women were interviewed to ascertain information on suspected risk factors for breast cancer and dietary habits. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Increased risks of both proliferative fibrocystic breast conditions alone, and with breast cancer, were associated with low parity, a prior benign breast lump and breast cancer in a first-degree relative. Decreasing trends in the risk of both conditions with increasing intake of fruits and vegetables were observed. No factors were significantly associated with risk of breast cancer relative to risk of proliferative changes. Similar, but in some instances weaker, associations were observed for non-proliferative fibrocystic conditions with and without breast cancer. The possible risk or protective factors that were observed in our study most likely alter the risk of breast cancer at an early stage in the carcinogenic process, and probably do not alter risk of progression from proliferative fibrocystic breast conditions to breast cancer. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Effect of dietary copper and vitamin E supplementation, and extensive feeding with acorn and grass on longissimus muscle composition and susceptibility to oxidation in Iberian pigs

    A. I. Rey
    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of dietary copper and/or vitamin E supplementation on composition and oxidation of M. longissimus in Iberian pigs and to compare it with meat samples from pigs produced extensively and fed with acorn and grass. Grass had the highest ,-tocopherol content (> 150 mg/kg DM), while acorns had the highest copper concentration (78.1 mg/kg DM). Dietary treatment did not affect copper composition in muscle and no interactions were detected between copper and ,-tocopherol. The ,-tocopherol content in muscle from pigs fed diets supplemented with ,-tocopheryl acetate (100 mg/kg feed) was 1.5 times greater (p < 0.0001) than those from pigs receiving a basel diet. M. longisssimus dorsi from pigs fed extensively had a higher concentration of ,-tocopherol than those fed in confinement with the basel level of ,-tocopheryl acetate, but lower values than pigs fed supplemented levels. Total n -3 fatty acids (p < 0.02) and hematin (p < 0.0001) concentrations were significantly higher in muscle from pigs fed extensively than when fed in confinement. Muscle homogenates from Iberian pigs fed in extensive conditions showed significantly (p < 0.02) higher susceptibility to oxidation than those from pigs fed mixed diets. Dietary ,-tocopheryl acetate supplementation (100 mg/kg feed) significantly (p < 0.05) reduced lipid oxidation of muscle, while dietary copper concentration did not modify susceptibility to lipid oxidation. Das Ziel dieses Studiums war die Wirkung von Kupfer und Vitamin E Ergänzung im Futter auf die Zusammenstellung und Oxydation von M. longissimus in Iberischen Schweinen zu erforschen und es mit Fleisch-Beispielen von freilaufenden Schweinen zu vergleichen, die mit Eicheln und Gras gefüttert wurden. Gras hatte den höchsten ,-Tocopherolgehalt (> 150 mg/kg), während Eicheln die höchste Kupferkonzentration hatten (78.1 mg/kg). Diätgemäße Behandlung von Kupfer beeinflußte keine kupferne Zusammenstellung im Muskel. Es wurden auch keine Wechselwirkungen zwischen Kupfer und ,-Tocopherol entdeckt. Der ,-Tocopherolgehalt im Muskel von Schweinen, gefüttert mit ,-Tocopherolacetat-Ergänzung (100 mg/kg füttern), war bedeutend größer (p < 0.0001) als jener von Schweinen, die eine fundamentale Nahrung bekamen. Der M. longisssimus dorsi von in Freilauf ernährten Schweinen hatte eine höhere ,-Tocopherol-Konzentration, als der von Schweinen, die mit einem fundamentalen Gehalt an ,-Tocopherolacetat gefüttert wurden (p < 0.0001), aber geringer als der von mit ,-Tocopherol-Ergänzung gefütterten Schweine. Der Gehalt von n -3 Fettsäuren (p < 0.02) und Hematin (p < 0.0001) war beträchtlich höher im Muskel von im Freilauf gefütterten Schweinen, als der von mit konzentrierter Nahrung gefütterten Schweinen. Muskel-Homogenate von freilaufenden Iberischen Schweinen zeigten bedeutend (p < 0.02) höhere Anfälligkeit zu Oxydation, als jene von Schweinen, die mit gemischter Nahrungen gefüttert wurden. Diätgemäße ,-Tocopherolazetat-Ergänzung (100 mg/kg füttern) zeigte bedeutend (p < 0.05) reduzierte lipoide Oxydation des Muskels, während diätgemäße kupferne Konzentration die Anfälligkeit zu lipoider Oxydation nicht modifizierte. [source]

    Estuarine colonization, population structure and nursery functioning for 0-group sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax), flounder (Platichthys flesus) and sole (Solea solea) in a mesotidal temperate estuary

    F. Martinho
    Summary The function of the Mondego estuary as a fish nursery habitat was investigated from June 2003 to June 2004 by comparing the timing of estuarine colonization with juveniles of sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax, flounder Platichthys flesus, and sole Solea solea, while also analysing their population structure, growth and diet composition. Differences in the onset of estuarine colonization were observed, since sole juveniles were the first to enter the estuary (in January), followed by flounder in April and sea bass in June. The estuarine population of these species consisted of several age-groups, although the majority of individuals belonged to age-groups 0 and 1. The growth rates determined for 0-group fish were within the range of those reported for other European estuarine systems. Some differences were also recognized regarding the timing of estuarine colonization and the length of the growing season. Diet of 0-group sea bass consisted mainly of Crustacea, Polychaeta and Mollusca. Flounder juveniles fed chiefly on Amphipoda (especially Corophium spp.), with Polychaeta, Isopoda and Decapoda also being common prey. The diet of 0-group sole was dominated by Polychaeta, with Amphipoda, Mollusca and Decapoda ranking highest, with other important benthic organisms also being present. Dietary overlap among these species was relatively low. [source]

    Dietary folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels endanger dopaminergic neurons in models of Parkinson's disease

    Wenzhen Duan
    Abstract Although the cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) is unknown, data suggest roles for environmental factors that may sensitize dopaminergic neurons to age-related dysfunction and death. Based upon epidemiological data suggesting roles for dietary factors in PD and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders, we tested the hypothesis that dietary folate can modify vulnerability of dopaminergic neurons to dysfunction and death in a mouse model of PD. We report that dietary folate deficiency sensitizes mice to MPTP-induced PD-like pathology and motor dysfunction. Mice on a folate-deficient diet exhibit elevated levels of plasma homocysteine. When infused directly into either the substantia nigra or striatum, homocysteine exacerbates MPTP-induced dopamine depletion, neuronal degeneration and motor dysfunction. Homocysteine exacerbates oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis in human dopaminergic cells exposed to the pesticide rotenone or the pro-oxidant Fe2+. The adverse effects of homocysteine on dopaminergic cells is ameliorated by administration of the antioxidant uric acid and by an inhibitor of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. The ability of folate deficiency and elevated homocysteine levels to sensitize dopaminergic neurons to environmental toxins suggests a mechanism whereby dietary folate may influence risk for PD. [source]

    Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey,

    Lauren B. Zapata MSPH
    ABSTRACT Background:, Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods:, The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and distributed to a probability sample of Florida public middle schools (n = 73) in spring 2003, producing data from 4452 students in grades 6-8. Results:, Results showed that less than one fourth of youth met expert recommendations for daily fruit and vegetable intake and less than one fifth identified the daily fruit and vegetable serving recommendation. Less than half of students reported eating breakfast daily. More non-Hispanic black youth reported not engaging in vigorous or moderate physical activity during the previous 7 days, and more girls and Hispanic youth reported not attending any physical education classes during the average school week. Conclusion:, These findings demonstrate that dietary and physical activity behaviors and knowledge among these middle school youth are setting the stage for the obesity epidemic to continue. [source]

    Dietary poorly absorbed, short-chain carbohydrates increase delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon

    Summary Background, Functional gut symptoms are induced by inclusion and reduced by dietary restriction of poorly absorbed short-chain carbohydrates (FODMAPs), but the mechanisms of action remain untested. Aims, To determine the effect of dietary FODMAPs on the content of water and fermentable substrates of ileal effluent. Methods, Twelve ileostomates without evidence of small intestinal disease undertook two 4-day dietary periods, comprising diets differing only in FODMAP content in a randomized, cross-over, single-blinded intervention study. Daytime (14 h) ileal effluent was collected on day four of each diet. Patients rated effluent volume and consistency on a 10-cm visual analogue scale. The FODMAP content of the diet and effluent was measured. Results, Ingested FODMAPs of 32% (range 6,73%) was recovered in the high FODMAP diet effluent. Effluent collection weight increased by a mean of 22% (95% CI, 5,39), water content by 20% (2,38%) and dry weight by 24% (4,43%) with the high compared to low FODMAP diet arm. Output increased by 95 (28,161) mL. Volunteers perceived effluent consistency was thicker (95% CI, 0.6,1.9) with the low FODMAP diet than with the high FODMAP diet (3.5,6.1; P = 0.006). Conclusions, These data support the hypothetical mechanism; FODMAPs increase delivery of water and fermentable substrates to the proximal colon. [source]

    Effect of Dietary Carotenoids on Skin Color and Pigments of False Clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris, Cuvier

    Inayah Yasir
    This study evaluated the role of supplemented dietary carotenoids in regulating the skin color and pigments of the false clownfish, Amphiprion ocellaris. Three carotenoid types, such as astaxanthin, ,-carotene, and canthaxanthin, were added to the basal diet at four pigment doses (0, 20, 50, and 100 ppm). Carotenoid diets were feed for 5 wk and then withdrawn from the diet for three additional wk during an 8-wk trial. The dose of each diet did not change the overall color hue, brightness, or saturation, but astaxanthin was the only carotenoid that enhanced red hue by the end of Week 5. The withdrawal of astaxanthin from the diet did not reduce the red hue, but reduced saturation. In contrast, the withdrawal of dietary ,-carotene or canthaxanthin reduced color saturation and brightness, but did not affect color hue. Dietary astaxanthin increased skin astaxanthin in Week 1 and skin zeaxanthin in Week 5. The withdrawal of astaxanthin escalated skin canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin by Week 8. Dietary ,-carotene suppressed skin ,-carotene, but enhanced skin zeaxanthin by Week 8. Although skin canthaxanthin was enhanced by dietary ,-carotene from Week 5 onward, dietary ,-carotene at 100 ppm maximized skin canthaxanthin by Week 8. Interestingly, dietary canthaxanthin suppressed skin canthaxanthin and zeaxanthin, but increased ,-carotene. This study suggests that astaxanthin has the potential to enhance the red hue on clownfish skin and its withdrawal from the diet did not fade the red hue of the skin. [source]

    Systematic review: the effects of conservative and surgical treatment for obesity on gastro-oesophageal reflux disease

    N. L. DE GROOT
    Summary Background, Incidence rates of both obesity and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GERD) are increasing, particularly in the Western world. It has been suggested that GERD symptoms may be improved by weight reduction. Aim, To review the literature on the effect of various weight reducing modalities on manifestations of GERD in obese patients. Methods, A literature search was performed using PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library, combining the words obesity and gastro-oesophageal reflux with bariatric surgery, diet, lifestyle intervention and weight loss. Results, With regard to diet/lifestyle intervention (conservative), four of seven studies reported an improvement of GERD. For Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, a positive effect on GERD was found in all studies, although this was mainly evaluated by questionnaires. In contrast, for vertical banded gastroplasty, no change or even an increase of GERD was noted, whereas the results for laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding were conflicting. Conclusions, Dietary and lifestyle intervention may improve GERD in obese patients; however, the most favourable effect is likely to be found after bariatric surgery, especially after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Future studies need to elucidate for which GERD patients laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding might have a beneficial effect and how they can be identified preoperatively. [source]

    Dietary patterns and adult asthma: population-based case,control study

    ALLERGY, Issue 5 2010
    I. Bakolis
    To cite this article: Bakolis I, Hooper R, Thompson RL, Shaheen SO. Dietary patterns and adult asthma: population-based case,control study. Allergy 2010; 65: 606,615. Abstract Background:, Epidemiological studies of diet and asthma have focused on relations with intakes of individual nutrients and foods and evidence has been conflicting. Few studies have examined associations with dietary patterns. Methods:, We carried out a population-based case,control study of asthma in adults aged between 16 and 50 in South London, UK. Information about usual diet was obtained by food frequency questionnaire and we used principal components analysis to define five dietary patterns in controls. We used logistic and linear regression, controlling for confounders, to relate these patterns to asthma, asthma severity, rhinitis and chronic bronchitis in 599 cases and 854 controls. Results:, Overall, there was weak evidence that a ,vegetarian' dietary pattern was positively associated with asthma [adjusted odds ratio comparing top vs bottom quintile of pattern score 1.43 (95% CI: 0.93,2.20), P trend 0.075], and a ,traditional' pattern (meat and vegetables) was negatively associated [OR 0.68 (0.45,1.03), P trend 0.071]. These associations were stronger amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.030 and 0.001, respectively), and the association with the ,vegetarian' pattern was stronger amongst whites (P trend 0.008). No associations were observed with asthma severity. A ,prudent' dietary pattern (wholemeal bread, fish and vegetables) was positively associated with chronic bronchitis [OR 2.61 (1.13,6.05), P trend 0.025], especially amongst nonsupplement users (P trend 0.002). Conclusions:, Overall there were no clear relations between dietary patterns and adult asthma; associations in nonsupplement users and whites require confirmation. The finding for chronic bronchitis was unexpected and also requires replication. [source]

    The synthesis and accumulation of stearidonic acid in transgenic plants: a novel source of ,heart-healthy' omega-3 fatty acids

    Noemí Ruiz-López
    Summary Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids have a proven role in reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease and precursor disease states such as metabolic syndrome. Although most studies have focussed on the predominant omega-3 fatty acids found in fish oils (eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid), recent evidence suggests similar health benefits from their common precursor, stearidonic acid. Stearidonic acid is a ,6-unsaturated C18 omega-3 fatty acid present in a few plant species (mainly the Boraginaceae and Primulaceae) reflecting the general absence of ,6-desaturation from higher plants. Using a ,6-desaturase from Primula vialii, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis and linseed lines accumulating stearidonic acid in their seed lipids. Significantly, the P. vialii,6-desaturase specifically only utilises ,-linolenic acid as a substrate, resulting in the accumulation of stearidonic acid but not omega-6 ,-linolenic acid. Detailed lipid analysis revealed the accumulation of stearidonic acid in neutral lipids such as triacylglycerol but an absence from the acyl-CoA pool. In the case of linseed, the achieved levels of stearidonic acid (13.4% of triacylglycerols) are very similar to those found in the sole natural commercial plant source (Echium spp.) or transgenic soybean oil. However, both those latter oils contain ,-linolenic acid, which is not normally present in fish oils and considered undesirable for heart-healthy applications. By contrast, the stearidonic acid-enriched linseed oil is essentially devoid of this fatty acid. Moreover, the overall omega-3/omega-6 ratio for this modified linseed oil is also significantly higher. Thus, this nutritionally enhanced linseed oil may have superior health-beneficial properties. [source]

    Dietary and physiological controls on the hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of hair from mid-20th century indigenous populations

    Gabriel J. Bowen
    Abstract A semimechanistic model has recently been proposed to explain observed correlations between the H and O isotopic composition of hair from modern residents of the USA and the isotopic composition of drinking water, but the applicability of this model to hair from non-USA and preglobalization populations is unknown. Here we test the model against data from hair samples collected during the 1930s,1950s from populations of five continents. Although C and N isotopes confirm that the samples represent a much larger range of dietary "space" than the modern USA residents, the model is able to reproduce the observed ,2H and ,18O values given reasonable adjustments to 2 model parameters: the fraction of dietary intake derived from locally produced foods and the fraction of keratin H fixed during the in vivo synthesis of amino acids. The model is most sensitive to the local dietary intake, which appears to constitute between 60% and 80% of diet among the groups sampled. The isotopic data are consistent with a trophic-level effect on protein H isotopes, which we suggest primarily reflects mixing of 2H-enriched water and 2H-depleted food H in the body rather than fractionation during biosynthesis. Samples from Inuit groups suggest that humans with marine-dominated diets can be identified on the basis of coupled ,2H and ,18O values of hair. These results indicate a dual role for H and O isotopic measurements of keratin, including both biological (diet, physiology) and environmental (geographic movement, paleoclimate) reconstruction. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Dietary n-3/n-6 ratio affects the biochemical composition of Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) semen but not indicators of sperm quality

    Emilie Henrotte
    Abstract In general, the effects of dietary fatty acids (FA) on sperm quality have received less attention than egg quality, and were never studied in perch. This study investigated the effects of dietary FAs on the quality and chemical composition of sperm in Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). Two experimental diets containing 16% lipids and 45% proteins were compared. The n-3/n-6 ratios tested were 0.2 for diet 1 (D1) and 7.0 for diet 2 (D2). No significant effects of the n-3/n-6 ratio were observed on the sperm characteristics, either in terms of the sperm volume (around 1.2 mL) and density, spermatozoa motility (94%) and velocity, or the sperm osmolality. All these parameters corresponded to semen of good quality in Eurasian perch. Interestingly, both the FA composition and the lipid class profile of the semen were correlated to the tested diet. However, basal levels of certain highly unsaturated FAs such as eicosapentaenoic acid, 20:5 n-3 and docosahexaenoic acid, 22:6 n-3, were maintained in the sperm irrespective of the diet tested. Perch semen was characterized by high levels of cholesterol, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine. In conclusion, the dietary n-3/n-6 ratio affects the lipid composition of perch semen but not the indicators of sperm quality. [source]

    Dietary and health supplement use among older Australians: results from a national survey

    Sonya Brownie
    Objectives: To measure the extent of dietary and health supplement use among older Australians and to contrast older supplement users from older non-supplement users. Method: Survey participants (n= 1,263) provided information related to demographic, health and lifestyle features. The target population were Australians aged 65 years and over, randomly chosen from the Australian Electoral Commission. Data was obtained using a 12-page self-administered, mail questionnaire. Results: Forty-three percent (n=548) of the sample reported using at least one dietary and health supplement, 52% of females and 35% of males. Supplement use was significantly related to several demographic and lifestyle features including: gender, educational level, smoking status and number of visits to complementary health therapists. Conclusions: Clearly, supplements were chosen more for their perceived ability to attenuate or modify ailments, rather than their role in correcting nutritional deficiencies. Older Australians appear intent on taking health matters in their own hands. Approximately one third of them rarely inform their doctor about the supplements they use, which raises concerns about the safety and appropriateness of this action. [source]

    The genetic background of the curly tail strain confers susceptibility to folate-deficiency-induced exencephaly

    Katie A. Burren
    Abstract BACKGROUND: Suboptimal maternal folate status is considered a risk factor for neural tube defects (NTDs). However, the relationship between dietary folate status and risk of NTDs appears complex, as experimentally induced folate deficiency is insufficient to cause NTDs in nonmutant mice. In contrast, folate deficiency can exacerbate the effect of an NTD-causing mutation, as in splotch mice. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether folate deficiency can induce NTDs in mice with a permissive genetic background which do not normally exhibit defects. METHODS: Folate deficiency was induced in curly tail and genetically matched wild-type mice, and we analyzed the effect on maternal folate status, embryonic growth and development, and frequency of NTDs. RESULTS: Folate-deficient diets resulted in reduced maternal blood folate, elevated homocysteine, and a diminished embryonic folate content. Folate deficiency had a deleterious effect on reproductive success, resulting in smaller litter sizes and an increased rate of resorption. Notably, folate deficiency caused a similar-sized, statistically significant increase in the frequency of cranial NTDs among both curly tail (Grhl3 mutant) embryos and background-matched embryos that are wild type for Grhl3. The latter do not exhibit NTDs under normal dietary conditions. Maternal supplementation with myo -inositol reduced the incidence of NTDs in the folate-deficient wild-type strain. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary folate deficiency can induce cranial NTDs in nonmutant mice with a permissive genetic background, a situation that likely parallels gene-nutrient interactions in human NTDs. Our findings suggest that inositol supplementation may ameliorate NTDs resulting from insufficient dietary folate. Birth Defects Research (Part A), 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Dietary and lifestyle counselling reduces the clustering of overweight-related cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 6 2010
    M Hakanen
    Abstract Aim:, The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of individualised dietary and lifestyle counselling, primarily aimed to decrease serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, on the clustering of overweight-related cardiometabolic risk factors in children. Design and participants:, The 7-month-old study children were randomized either to counselling (n = 540) or control group (n = 522). Main outcome measures:, The 5- to 15-year-old participants who fulfilled the international criteria were classified as overweight. Being in the highest [lowest for high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol] age- and gender-specific quintile of body mass index (BMI), blood pressure, serum triglycerides, HDL cholesterol or glucose was considered a risk factor. A cluster was defined as having high BMI and ,2 other risk factors. Results:, The counselling did not reduce the prevalence of overweight in 5- to 15-year-old participants. From age 7 onwards, the proportion of children with ,2 risk factors was lower in the intervention than in the control group (p = 0.005). At the age of 15 years, 13.0% of girls and 10.8% of boys in the intervention group and 17.5% of girls and 18.8% of boys in the control group had the risk factor cluster (p = 0.046 for main effect of the study group). Having even one risk factor at the age of 5 years predicted the clustering of risk factors at the age of 15 years (OR: 3.8, p < 0.001). Conclusion:, Repeated, individualized dietary and lifestyle counselling may reduce the clustering of overweight-related cardiometabolic risk factors in adolescents even though the counselling is not intense enough to prevent overweight. [source]

    n-3 Fatty acid supplementation in burned paediatric patients

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 12 2009
    MC Marín
    Abstract Aim:, To determine the effect of dietary supplementation with n-3 fatty acids (FA) in paediatric burned patients who had less than 20% of total body surface affected. Methods:, Burned patients were randomly assigned into two groups, one of them received a supplement of n-3 FA during 5 weeks; the other group was considered as not n-3 supplemented burned group. A third group of no burned patients was selected as control. Blood samples were collected at admission and in burned groups at the final of the study. Plasma and erythrocyte phospholipid FA composition and some biochemical parameters related to the clinical evolution: total plasma proteins and C3 and C4 complement proteins were determined. Results:, In the early post-burn patients, there is an increase in saturated and monounsaturated FAs in plasma phospholipids, and a decrease in polyunsaturated FAs compared with control. These alterations are in favour of proinflammatory response to burn injury. In n-3 FA supplemented group, these changes were further reverted, and a favourable response in the amount of total plasma proteins and in C3 and C4 proteins of the complement system was demonstrated. Conclusion:, Dietary n-3 FA supplementation might be beneficial for patients suffering thermal injury. [source]

    Nutritional factors affecting serum phenylalanine concentration during pregnancy for identical twin mothers with phenylketonuria

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 8 2000
    C Fox
    The effect of energy, protein, fat, and phenylalanine on serum phenylalanine concentrations during pregnancy for a set of identical twins with phenylketonuria (PKU) was examined. Blood samples were collected one to two times per week. The subjects completed a 3-d food record prior to each blood collection. The effect of the factors on serum phenylalanine levels was evaluated statistically using time-series analysis. Dietary intakes of the nutrients evaluated were similar for the subjects. For one subject, there were highly significant effects of energy, protein, and fat on serum phenylalanine levels. In contrast, these nutrients had no significant effect on serum phenylalanine for the other subject. Dietary phenylalanine had no significant effect on serum phenylalanine for either twin. Conclusions: There was no effect of phenylalanine intake and no consistent effect of energy, protein, or fat on serum phenylalanine. Other dietary or environmental factors or a combination of factors may impact serum phenylalanine levels of pregnant women with PKU. [source]

    Childhood cancer,mainly curable so where next?

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 4 2000
    AW Craft
    More than 70% of childhood cancer is now curable with best modern therapy. The treatment is expensive but in terms of cost per life year saved, USD 1750, compares very favourably with other major health interventions. The rate of improvement in survival is slowing down. New, "designer", treatments are needed and, better still, prevention. The causes of childhood cancer are beginning to emerge. The origin for many is probably in utero and may be initiated by dietary and other environmental exposures perhaps in susceptible individuals. However, one of the great challenges for the future must be to extend the benefits of modern treatment to the 80% of the world's children who currently have little or no access to it in economically disadvantaged and emerging nations. The International Paediatric Oncology Society (SIOP) is leading the way in bringing hope for children with cancer worldwide. In India, with the support of the WHO, there is a "train the trainers" programme. In Africa, pilot studies of cost-effective treatments for Burkitt's lymphoma are producing gratifying results in Malawi and there are several examples of twinning programmes between major centres in developed and less well-developed countries. Conclusions: The future for children with cancer is bright. Most are curable and prevention may be just over the horizon. [source]

    Complementary and integrative medical therapies, the FDA, and the NIH: definitions and regulation

    Michael H. Cohen
    ABSTRACT: ,,The National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) presently defines complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) as covering "a broad range of healing philosophies (schools of thought), approaches, and therapies that mainstream Western (conventional) medicine does not commonly use, accept, study, understand, or make available. The research landscape, including NCCAM-funded research, is continually changing and subject to vigorous methodologic and interpretive debates. Part of the impetus for greater research dollars in this arena has been increasing consumer reliance on CAM to dramatically expand. State (not federal) law controls much of CAM practice. However, a significant federal role exists in the regulation of dietary supplements. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulates foods, drugs, and cosmetics in interstate commerce. No new "drug" may be introduced into interstate commerce unless proven "safe" and "effective" for its intended use, as determined by FDA regulations. "Foods", however, are subject to different regulatory requirements, and need not go through trials proving safety and efficacy. The growing phenomenon of consumer use of vitamins, minerals, herbs, and other "dietary supplements" challenged the historical divide between drugs and foods. The federal Dietary Supplements Health Education Act (DSHEA) allows manufacturers to distribute dietary supplements without having to prove safety and efficacy, so long as the manufacturers make no claims linking the supplements to a specific disease. State law regulates the use of CAM therapies through a variety of legal rules. Of these, several major areas of concern for clinicians are professional licensure, scope of practice, and malpractice. Regarding licensure, each state has enacted medical licensing that prohibits the unlicensed practice of medicine and thereby criminalizes activity by unlicensed CAM providers who offer health care services to patients. Malpractice is defined as unskillful practice which fails to conform to a standard of care in the profession and results in injury. The definition is no different in CAM than in general medicine; its application to CAM, however, raises novel questions. Courts rely on medical consensus regarding the appropriateness of a given therapy. A framework for assessing potential liability risk involves assessing the medical evidence concerning safety and efficacy, and then aligning clinical decisions with liability concerns. Ultimately research will or will not establish a specific CAM therapy as an important part of the standard of care for the condition in question. Legal rules governing CAM providers and practices are, in many cases, new and evolving. Further, laws vary by state and their application depends on the specific clinical scenario in question. New research is constantly emerging, as are federal and state legislative developments and judicial opinions resulting from litigation. [source]

    The Nutrition Transition in the Developing World

    Barry M. Popkin
    This article explores shifts in nutrition transition from the period termed the receding famine pattern to one dominated by nutrition-related noncommunicable diseases (NR-NCDs). It examines the speed of these changes, summarises dietary and physical activity changes, and provides some sense of the health effects and economic costs. The focus is on the lower- and middle-income countries of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Latin America. The article shows that changes are occurring at great speed and at earlier stages of countries' economic and social development. The burden of disease from NR-NCDs is shifting towards the poor and the costs are also becoming greater than those for under-nutrition. Policy options are identified. [source]

    Schizophrenia and weight management: a systematic review of interventions to control weight

    G. Faulkner
    Objective: Weight gain is a frequent side effect of antipsychotic medication which has serious implications for a patient's health and well being. This study systematically reviews the literature on the effectiveness of interventions designed to control weight gain in schizophrenia. Method: A systematic search strategy was conducted of major databases in addition to citation searches. Study quality was rated. Results: Sixteen studies met the inclusion criteria. Five of eight pharmacological intervention studies reported small reductions in weight (<5% baseline body weight). All behavioural (including diet and/or exercise) interventions reported small reductions in, or maintenance of, weight. Conclusion: Weight loss may be difficult but it is not impossible. Given the inconsistent results, the widespread use of pharmacological interventions cannot be recommended. Both dietary and exercise counselling set within a behavioural modification programme is necessary for sustained weight control. [source]

    Stream habitat use and diet of juvenile (0+) brown trout and grayling in sympatry

    E. Degerman
    Abstract , Electrofishing survey data and experiments carried out in a semi-natural stream were used to test the hypothesis that interactions between underyearling (0+) trout and grayling during their first summer affect habitat use and diet. The survey data revealed a general difference in habitat use, with 0+ grayling being more common than 0+ trout in large streams and deeper sections. It was also found that in the presence of trout, finer substrate and shallower sections were utilised more by grayling. Field experiments were carried out with three treatments; trout alone, grayling alone and the two species together. In both the July and September experiments grayling tended to occupy deeper sections than trout. Trout abundance was higher in shallow areas in sympatry, while no such difference was found in allopatry. The rate of disappearance of grayling from the study sections was significantly higher in sympatry in July, while no difference was found in September. In July the size difference between species and the degree of dietary overlap were small and non-significant, respectively, indicating that the two species were strongly competing., [source]

    Direct Electrochemical Sensing and Detection of Natural Antioxidants and Antioxidant Capacity in Vitro Systems

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 22 2007
    Antonio, Javier Blasco
    Abstract This review highlights the role of electrochemical approaches in the sensing of antioxidants and their antioxidant capacity with especial attention to the analytical possibilities of electrochemistry in the direct evaluation of antioxidant capacity exhibited by food and biological samples due to the termed dietary, natural or biological antioxidants (mainly polyphenols, and vitamins C and E). The analytical potency of the electrochemistry is comprehensively stated and the selected results found in the literature are summarized and discussed critically. The main electrochemical approaches used have been cyclic voltammetry (CV) and flow injection analysis with amperometric detection (FIA-ED). In addition, miniaturization is going to break new frontiers in the evaluation of antioxidant activity. [source]

    Folate, colorectal carcinogenesis, and DNA methylation: Lessons from animal studies

    Young-In Kim
    Abstract Folate, a water-soluble B vitamin and cofactor in one-carbon transfer, is an important nutritional factor that may modulate the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). Epidemiologic and clinical studies indicate that dietary folate intake and blood folate levels are inversely associated with CRC risk. Collectively, these studies suggest an , 40% reduction in the risk of CRC in individuals with the highest dietary folate intake compared with those with the lowest intake. Animal studies using chemical and genetically predisposed rodent models have provided considerable support for a causal relationship between folate depletion and colorectal carcinogenesis as well as a dose-dependent protective effect of folate supplementation. However, animal studies also have shown that the dose and timing of folate intervention are critical in providing safe and effective chemoprevention; exceptionally high supplemental folate levels and folate intervention after microscopic neoplastic foci are established in the colorectal mucosa promote, rather than suppress, colorectal carcinogenesis. These animal studies, in conjunction with clinical observations, suggest that folate possesses dual modulatory effects on carcinogenesis depending on the timing and dose of folate intervention. Folate deficiency has an inhibitory effect, whereas folate supplementation has a promoting effect on the progression of established neoplasms. In contrast, folate deficiency in normal epithelial tissues appears to predispose them to neoplastic transformation, and modest levels of folate supplementation suppress the development of tumors in normal tissues. Notwithstanding the limitations associated with animal models, these studies suggest that the optimal timing and dose of folate intervention must be established for safe and effective chemoprevention in humans. Folate is an important factor in DNA synthesis, stability, and integrity, the repair aberrations of which have been implicated in colorectal carcinogenesis. Folate may also modulate DNA methylation, which is an important epigenetic determinant in gene expression (an inverse relationship), in the maintenance of DNA integrity and stability, in chromosomal modifications, and in the development of mutations. A mechanistic understanding of how folate status modulates colorectal carcinogenesis further strengthens the case for a causal relationship and provides insight into a possible chemopreventive role of folate. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 44:10,25, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Influence of dietary 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene exposure in the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus)

    Robert M. Gogal Jr.
    Abstract The risk to wildlife from exposure to the explosive, 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) has been a concern at numerous military installations where it has been found in the soil. To date, no published data are available describing effects of TNT exposure in an avian species. Subchronic dietary exposure to TNT was therefore evaluated in a species of management concern at military installations, the northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus). Adult male and female quail (n = 5/sex/dose) were given commercial feed containing 3,000, 1,500, 750, and 100 mg/kg TNT for 90 d following the determination of an acute lethal dose and a 14-d range finding study. Dietary TNT intake caused a dose-dependent decrease in total red blood cell counts, packed cell volume, total plasma protein, blood prolymphocytes, and blood lymphocytes. An increased trend in late apoptotic/necrotic blood leukocytic cells was also observed in TNT-exposed birds, as was hemosiderosis in the liver. With the exception of hemosiderosis, these trends were statistically significant yet of questionable biological significance. Since treatment-related responses in this preliminary study were variable, a conservative interpretation is suggested. However, since these treatments had concentrations that were a log-fold or more than doses in similar studies using mammals, these data suggest that northern bobwhite are less sensitive to oral exposures of TNT than mammals. [source]

    Nutritional supplements, foods, and epilepsy: Is there a relationship?

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2008
    Ali A. Asadi-Pooya
    Summary Anecdotal reports suggest that certain foods and dietary contents might influence the occurrence of seizures. However, the existing data are scanty and sometimes controversial. Some studies have found that the supplementation with individual nutrients reduced seizure frequency or improved other aspects of health in patients with epilepsy, while other studies have failed to confirm those findings. Nutrient supplementation may be necessary to prevent or reverse the effects of certain deficiencies that frequently result from the use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). However, the potential benefits of nutrient supplementation in patients with epilepsy must be weighed against reports that large doses of certain nutrients can interfere with the action of some AEDs. This paper reviews dietary and nutritional considerations in patients with epilepsy and also the relationship between foods, dietary elements, and seizures. [source]

    The effect of metformin on measurements of insulin sensitivity and , cell response in 18 horses and ponies with insulin resistance

    A. E. Durham
    Summary Reasons for performing study: Laminitis in equids is a very common debilitating disease, and insulin resistance (IR) and hyperinsulinaemia are increasingly recognised as important predisposing factors. Pharmacological modification of IR and hyperinsulinaemia might reduce the risk of laminitis. Hypothesis: Metformin, a drug commonly prescribed for treatment of human IR, may also decrease IR in equids. Methods: Eighteen horses and ponies with IR and recurrent laminitis were treated with 15 mg/kg bwt metformin per os q. 12 h. Each animal served as its own control by comparing pre- and post treatment proxies for IR, insulin sensitivity (IS) and pancreatic , cell function while controlling for possible dietary and managemental influences on IR. Results: Evidence of significantly improved IS and decreased pancreatic , cell secretion was found following metformin treatment. The magnitude of effect was greater at earlier resampling (6,14 days) than at later times (23,220 days). Apparent subjective clinical benefits were good but less favourable than effects on IR. Conclusions: Metformin is safe and appears to increase IS in equids. Potential relevance: Metformin may be indicated as a treatment for IR in equids. Further studies are required to define appropriate selection of subjects warranting therapy, dosing schedule and pharmacokinetics. [source]

    Effects of routine education on people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes

    A Clarke SRN, PhD Health Promotion & Research Manager
    Abstract Background: In Ireland, there is limited knowledge about the perceptions or behaviours of people newly diagnosed with diabetes and, due to the lack of a national register, poor knowledge of their demographic profile. Aim: To add to the body of knowledge about diabetes, to obtain perceptions of people newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes who attend group diabetes education, and to examine their relationships with the adoption of diabetes self-management behaviours. Method: A correlational study was conducted among people attending routine group diabetes education at three diabetes clinics during 2006/7, from which a convenience sample of 168 (38%) participants were recruited. Results: Men newly diagnosed with diabetes were younger, waited less time to attend group diabetes education, had a more positive diabetes attitude and perceived themselves to have more social support than women. Women had better diabetes self-management dietary and medication adherence behaviours prior to attending group diabetes education than the men. Conclusion: People newly diagnosed with diabetes differ in their attitude, perceived support and self-efficacy to adopt dietary and exercise behaviours and have different behaviour change needs at diagnosis. Post-attendance at diabetes education, they adopt behaviours at variable rates and may not sustain the change. The study findings indicate that healthcare professionals should monitor continually the need for behavioural change, in particular physical exercise behaviours in women and dietary and medication adherence in men. They should also continuously assess the maintenance of diabetes self-management behaviours of all people with diabetes, while promoting confidence in achieving desired outcomes. Copyright © 2009 FEND [source]

    The role of colonic metabolism in lactose intolerance

    T. He
    ABSTRACT Lactose maldigestion and intolerance affect a large part of the world population. The underlying factors of lactose intolerance are not fully understood. In this review, the role of colonic metabolism is discussed, i.e. fermentation of lactose by the colonic microbiota, colonic processing of the fermentation metabolites and how these processes would play a role in the pathophysiology of lactose intolerance. We suggest that the balance between the removal and production rate of osmotic,active components (lactose, and intermediate metabolites, e.g. lactate, succinate, etc.) in the colon is a key factor in the development of symptoms. The involvement of the colon may provide the basis for designing new targeted strategies for dietary and clinical management of lactose intolerance. [source]

    Importance of arterial stiffness as cardiovascular risk factor for future development of new type of drugs

    Pierre Boutouyrie
    Abstract Cardiovascular risk prediction relies on classical risk factors such as age, gender, lipids, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. Although the value of such scales of risk is high for populations, its value for individual is reduced and too much influenced by non-modifiable risk factors (age and gender). Biomarkers of risk have been deceiving and genome wide scan approach is too recent. Target organ damage may help in selecting patients at high risk and in determining intervention. Aortic pulse wave velocity, an index of aortic stiffness, has been widely validated as providing additional risk predictions beyond and above classical risk factors, and has now entered into official guidelines. Many interventions (dietary, behaviour, drug treatment) were shown to influence arterial stiffness positively, but little evidence of a direct effect of intervention on arterial stiffness independent of blood pressure is available. New pharmacological targets and new drugs need to be identified. To become a surrogate endpoint for drug development, there is a need to demonstrate that regression arterial stiffness is associated with improved outcome. In parallel to this demonstration, points to be improved are the homogenization and spreading of the technique of measurement, the establishment of a reference value database. [source]