Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Diet

  • Atkin diet
  • acid diet
  • adult diet
  • algal diet
  • animal diet
  • appropriate diet
  • artificial diet
  • atherogenic diet
  • balanced diet
  • basal diet
  • broiler diet
  • broodstock diet
  • c diet
  • calorie diet
  • carbohydrate diet
  • casein diet
  • chick diet
  • children diet
  • cholesterol diet
  • cholesterol-containing diet
  • choline-deficient diet
  • chow diet
  • commercial diet
  • containing diet
  • control diet
  • cp diet
  • daily diet
  • deficient diet
  • different diet
  • diverse diet
  • dry diet
  • elemental diet
  • elimination diet
  • ethanol diet
  • ethanol-containing diet
  • experimental diet
  • fat diet
  • fat-rich diet
  • fed diet
  • fibre diet
  • finishing diet
  • fish diet
  • fish meal diet
  • fish-fed diet
  • formulated diet
  • g diet
  • gluten-free diet
  • good diet
  • healthy diet
  • hf diet
  • high cholesterol diet
  • high fat diet
  • high lipid diet
  • high protein diet
  • high salt diet
  • high-carbohydrate diet
  • high-cholesterol diet
  • high-energy diet
  • high-fat diet
  • high-fiber diet
  • high-fibre diet
  • high-protein diet
  • high-salt diet
  • human diet
  • inert diet
  • invertebrate diet
  • isocaloric diet
  • isocaloric liquid diet
  • isoenergetic diet
  • isonitrogenou diet
  • ketogenic diet
  • kg diet
  • l diet
  • larval diet
  • lieber-decarli diet
  • lipid diet
  • liquid diet
  • low calorie diet
  • low fat diet
  • low protein diet
  • low-carbohydrate diet
  • low-fat diet
  • low-protein diet
  • low-sodium diet
  • maternal diet
  • mcd diet
  • meal diet
  • mediterranean diet
  • microalgal diet
  • microbound diet
  • mixed diet
  • modified Atkin diet
  • natural diet
  • new diet
  • normal diet
  • nutritious diet
  • oil diet
  • oral diet
  • other diet
  • owl diet
  • pellet diet
  • pelleted diet
  • pig diet
  • plant diet
  • pollen diet
  • poor diet
  • practical diet
  • prepared diet
  • primate diet
  • protein diet
  • purified diet
  • quality diet
  • rainbow trout diet
  • rat diet
  • reference diet
  • regular diet
  • respective diet
  • rich diet
  • ruminant diet
  • salmon diet
  • salmonid diet
  • salt diet
  • same diet
  • semi-purified diet
  • semipurified diet
  • similar diet
  • sodium diet
  • soft diet
  • solid diet
  • standard diet
  • suboptimal diet
  • supplemented diet
  • test diet
  • tilapia diet
  • trout diet
  • unbalanced diet
  • usual diet
  • varied diet
  • various diet
  • vegan diet
  • vegetarian diet
  • western diet

  • Terms modified by Diet

  • diet ad libitum
  • diet alone
  • diet analysis
  • diet b
  • diet breadth
  • diet c
  • diet change
  • diet choice
  • diet composition
  • diet consisting
  • diet consumption
  • diet containing
  • diet containing ethanol
  • diet control
  • diet difference
  • diet digestibility
  • diet formulations
  • diet group
  • diet groups
  • diet high
  • diet item
  • diet lead
  • diet low
  • diet only
  • diet quality
  • diet rich
  • diet selection
  • diet shift
  • diet studies
  • diet supplementation
  • diet therapy
  • diet treatment
  • diet used

  • Selected Abstracts

    Tunable scheduling in a GridRPC framework

    A. Amar
    Abstract Among existing grid middleware approaches, one simple, powerful, and flexible approach consists of using servers available in different administrative domains through the classic client,server or remote procedure call paradigm. Network Enabled Servers (NES) implement this model, also called GridRPC. Clients submit computation requests to a scheduler, whose goal is to find a server available on the grid using some performance metric. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of a NES middleware developed in the GRAAL team called distributed interactive engineering toolbox (DIET) and to describe recent developments around plug-in schedulers, workflow management, and tools. DIET is a hierarchical set of components used for the development of applications based on computational servers on the grid. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


    Joris I. Rotmans MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Francesco Panza MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    ABSTRACT Male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: control diet group and high-fat diet group (HFD). Both groups were divided into four subgroups, each consisted of 10 animals, and the diets were supplemented with the following ingredients for 10 weeks: (1) 1% carboxymethyl cellulose; (2) 10 mg carbimazole (CM)/kg body weight; (3) 10 mg CM + 40 mg piperine/kg body weight; and (4) 10 mg CM + 2 mg atorvastatin/kg body weight. Feeding HFD to rats significantly (P < 0.05) elevated plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, phospholipids, free fatty acids, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and the activity of 3-hydroxy 3-methyl glutaryl coenzyme A (HMG CoA) reductase in the liver, heart and aorta, while the activities of plasma and tissue lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and plasma lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase (LCAT) and high-density lipoprotein were significantly (P < 0.05) lowered compared to control rats. Supplementing piperine with HFD significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the levels of plasma total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL tissue HMG CoA reductase and significantly (P < 0.05) elevated the levels of LPL and LCAT compared to rats that did not receive piperine. Fecal bile acids and neutral sterols were also elevated in HFD-fed rats as compared to control animals, while simultaneous supplementation of piperine significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced further excretion of bile acids and neutral sterols. The results indicate that piperine can prevent the accumulation of plasma lipids and lipoproteins significantly by modulating the enzymes of lipid metabolism. [source]


    Fiona Symes BSc (Hons)
    SUMMARY Increased collaboration between the vascular specialities is clearly leading to increased understanding of the interrelationships between the different disease states and how each impacts and influences the other. This advantage will be reflected in improved patient care if the practical outputs of this growing knowledge are carefully implemented at service level. This article outlines how the aspects of diet and lifestyle associated with vascular-related disease complement, contrast and in some cases contradict each other. It gives information and guidelines as to how the expertise of dietitians working in the different specialist areas might usefully be shared to be of maximum advantage to all patients. [source]


    Patrik Börjesson
    Abstract Stomach contents of 112 bycaught harbor porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) collected between 1989 and 1996 in the Kattegat and Skagerrak seas were analyzed to describe diet composition and estimate prey size, to examine sample size requirements, and to compare juvenile and adult diets. Although porpoises preyed on a variety of species, only a few contributed substantially to the diet. Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) was the dominating prey species for both juveniles and adults. Our results, in combination with those from previous studies, suggest that where herring is a dominant food source, porpoises prey primarily on size classes containing mature or maturing individuals. Further, we also show that Atlantic hagfish (Myxine glutinosa) may be an important food resource, at least for adult porpoises. Examination of sample size requirement showed that, depending on the taxonomic level used to describe the diet, a minimum of 35,71 stomachs are needed to be confident that all common prey species will be found. [source]


    Meike Holst
    Abstract In conjunction with the International North Water Polynya Study (NOW) in northern Baffin Bay, we examined the diets of ringed seals (Phoca hispida)1 on the west (Grise Fiord, Nunavut) and east (Qaanaaq, Greenland) sides of the polynya, using conventional stomach content analysis, as well as inferences from stable isotope ratios in seal muscle. Between May and July 1998, stomach and muscle tissue samples were collected from 99 ringed seals taken near Grise Fiord and 100 taken near Qaanaaq. The amphipod Themisto libellula was the dominant prey type in the diet of immature ringed seals from Grise Fiord, whereas arctic cod (Boreogadus saida) and polar cod (Arctogadus glacialis) predominated in the diet of adults. Both immature and adult seals collected near Qaanaaq fed predominantly on arctic cod. Overall, seals collected near Grise Fiord had significantly higher ,13C values than those collected near Qaanaaq (P < 0.001), but there was no statistical separation in ,15N values between the two samples (P= 0.06). Differences in diets of ringed seals from the east and west sides of the North Water Polynya may be due to differences in prey distribution and/or differences in biological productivity and fish biomass within the polynya. [source]


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    M.A. Zimanyi


    ABSTRACT Aronia melanocarpa fruit juice (AMFJ) is very rich in phenolic antioxidants, mainly flavonoids from the subclass anthocyanins. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of AMFJ on body and liver mass, plasma lipids and lipoprotein profiles, and the histopathology of liver and aorta in rats fed with cholesterol diets. AMFJ was applied orally for 30 days at doses of 5, 10 and 20 mL/kg. In rats fed the cholesterol-containing diets, AMFJ significantly hindered an increase in plasma lipids (total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides) because of cholesterol feeding. Body weight gains, liver weights, and liver and aorta histopathology were not influenced either by high-cholesterol diets or by AMFJ treatment. In conclusion, AMFJ showed lipid-lowering effects in rats with experimentally induced hyperlipidemia, and could be valuable in reducing lipidemia as a factor of cardiovascular risk. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Hyperlipidemia characterized by an increase in low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and a decrease in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is one of the major risk factors for atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Plant foods with high contents of phenolic phytochemicals are reported to be inversely correlated with plasma total cholesterol (TC) and LDL cholesterol. Aronia melanocarpa fruits are remarkably rich in phenolic substances. They are used for human consumption as juice, syrup, jam and wine. Our research demonstrated that A. melanocarpa fruit juice hindered the dietary-induced elevation of plasma TC, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides in rats. In view of the results from our experiment, we can suppose that the juice may be further tested for reducing hyperlipidemia in humans and possibly approved a valuable dietary supplement. [source]


    Article first published online: 24 SEP 200
    Pérez-Estrada, C. J.1,2, Serviere-Zaragoza, E.1, Mazariegos-Villareal, A.1, Reynoso-Granados, T.1 & Monsalvo-Spencer, P.1 1Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas del Noroeste (CIBNOR). P.O. Box 128, La Paz, Baja California Sur. 23000. México; 2Universidad Autónoma de Baja California Sur. Carretera al Sur km. 5.5 o 23080 o La Paz, B. C. S. Algal diets have been evaluated and used extensively for the aquaculture of abalone, especially in Japan. In other areas little is known about the nutritional value of the algae that the local abalone consume. In Mexico, regional hatcheries use Macrocystis pyrifera as a main source of natural food. Kelp availability, year round, has not generally been a problem for abalone aquaculturists. Most difficulties occur during severe storms, which may prevent access to kelp beds. El Niño also caused widespread destruction of M. pyrifera. In this study, growth rates of juvenile green abalone Haliotis fulgens, 31.7 " 1.5 mm shell length and 2.5 " 0.2 g body weight were evaluated during 136 days. Juveniles were fed with some of the algae used in regional hatcheries, Macrocystis pyrifera, Egregia menziesii, Eisenia arborea, Porphyra sp. and Ulva sp. Shell length growth rates varied between 2 mm day-1 for Ulva sp. and 18 mm day-1 for M. pyrifera. Body weight rates ranged from no growth for Ulva sp. to 14 mg day-1for E. menziesii. The percent of survival was between 46 and 75 %. Ulva sp. showed the lowest protein content followed by E. menziesii, E. arborea, M. pyrifera and Porphyra sp. [source]

    Insulin resistance, diabetes and cardiovascular risk: approaches to treatment

    Daniel E. Rosenberg
    Abstract:, The prevalence of diabetes is increasing worldwide. Insulin resistance and diabetes mellitus are major predictors of cardiovascular ischaemic disease. Other risk factors for cardiovascular death including hypertension, dyslipidaemia, smoking and visceral obesity are especially lethal in diabetics. C-reactive protein, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1, matrix metalloproteinases and other emerging risk factors and their roles are continually being researched and discovered. Treatment of this syndrome must be aimed at lifestyle modification, glycaemic control and management of concomitant risk factors. Diet and exercise play a vital role in the treatment of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Weight reduction and increased physical activity will improve insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. Hypertension management has been shown to be especially important in diabetics to prevent cardiovascular events. Likewise, multiple clinical trials show that reduction of cholesterol is even more vital in diabetics than the general population for risk reduction of coronary disease. There is a great deal of evidence that tight control of glycaemia is essential to treatment of this condition. There are a variety of available pharmacological agents available including metformin, insulin secretagogues, alpha-glucosidase inhibitors, thiazolidinediones and insulin. The mechanisms and side effects of these medications are discussed. As macrovascular disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality, an early, aggressive, multi-factorial approach to treatment of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes is vital to prevent adverse cardiac outcomes. [source]

    Interactive effect of retinopathy and macroalbuminuria on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular and renal end points in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 7 2007
    P. C. Y. Tong
    Abstract Aims To examine the effect of albuminuria and retinopathy on the risk of cardiovascular and renal events, and all-cause mortality in patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods A post-hoc analysis of 4416 Chinese patients without macrovascular complications at baseline (age 57.6 ± 13.3 years). Glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was estimated by the abbreviated Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group Formula, further adjusted for Chinese ethnicity. Clinical end points were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular events (heart failure or angina, myocardial infarction, lower limb amputation, re-vascularization procedures and stroke) and renal end points (reduction in eGFR by more than 50% or eGFR < 15 ml/min/1.73 m2 or death as a result of renal causes or need for dialysis). Results Compared with individuals without complications, subjects with retinopathy and macroalbuminuria had higher rates of cardiovascular events (14.1 vs. 2.4%), renal events (40.0 vs. 0.8%) and death (9.3 vs. 1.7%, P < 0.001). For composite event of death, cardiovascular and renal events, the presence of retinopathy, microalbuminuria alone, macroalbuminuria alone, retinopathy with microalbuminuria or retinopathy with macroalbuminuria increased the risk [hazard ratio (95% CI)] by 1.61 (1.05 to 2.47; P = 0.04), 1.93 (1.38 to 2.69; P < 0.001), 4.34 (3.02 to 6.22; P < 0.001), 2.59 [1.76 to 3.81; P < 0.001) and 6.83 (4.89 to 9.55; P < 0.001) fold, respectively. The relative excess risk as a result of interaction between retinopathy and macroalbuminuria was 15.31, implying biological interaction in the development of renal events. Conclusions In Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes, retinopathy interacts with macroalbuminuria to increase the risk of composite cardio-renal events. [source]

    Comparison between repaglinide and glipizide in Type 2 diabetes mellitus: a 1-year multicentre study

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 5 2001
    S. Madsbad
    Abstract Aims To evaluate the long-term effectiveness and safety of repaglinide, a novel prandial glucose regulator, in comparison with glipizide in the treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes. Methods Diet or tablet-treated patients with Type 2 diabetes (n = 256; age 40,75 years, body mass index (BMI) 20,35 kg/m2, HbA1c 4.2,12.8%), without signs of severe microvascular or macrovascular complications, were included in this double-blind, multicentre, parallel-group comparative trial. Patients were randomized at a 2:1 ratio to repaglinide, 1,4 mg at mealtimes, or glipizide, 5,15 mg daily. Results Changes in fasting blood glucose (FBG) and HbA1c during the 12 months of treatment showed a significant difference in favour of repaglinide. In oral hypoglycaemic agents (OHA)-naive patients, HbA1c decreased in the repaglinide and glipizide groups by 1.5% and 0.3%, respectively (P < 0.05 between groups). Fasting blood glucose decreased in the repaglinide group by 2.4 mmol/l and increased in the glipizide group by 1.0 mmol/l (P < 0.05 between groups). In the study population as a whole, repaglinide was able to maintain glycaemic control (HbA1c level) during the 1-year study period, whereas control deteriorated significantly with glipizide. Change in HbA1c from baseline was significantly better with repaglinide than with glipizide after 12 months (P < 0.05). In addition, FBG deteriorated significantly in the glipizide group compared with the repaglinide group (P < 0.05). No patients in either group experienced a major hypoglycaemic event; the number of patients experiencing minor hypoglycaemia was similar in the repaglinide and glipizide groups (15% and 19%, respectively). Conclusions Repaglinide, given as a prandial glucose regulator, is shown to be an effective and safe treatment of patients with Type 2 diabetes, and is better than glipizide in controlling HbA1c and FBG levels, overall, and in OHA-naive patients. Diabet. Med. 18, 395,401 (2001) [source]

    Feeding ecology and habitat of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus microcephalus, in a remnant population of northwestern Baja California, México

    S. Sánchez-Gonzáles
    Abstract , The feeding ecology and habitat of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus microcephalus Girard, 1854) was studied from November 1996 to May 1997 in a remnant population of northwestern Baja California, México. The analysis of the stomach content of 179 individuals (25 to 56 mm standard length [SL]) showed a diet dominated by cyclopoid copepods (43.8%) and chironomid larvae (39.1%). Diet in relation to size and sex of the fish was dominated by copepods in autumn and winter and by chironomid larvae during spring. Diet overlap (Schoener's index) was significant (,60%) between fish size-classes in January, March and April and between sexes for most sampling months. The average size of prey consumed was independent of fish mouth size. The feeding strategy of the threespine stickleback shifted from opportunist in winter to specialist in spring., [source]

    The Modified Atkins Diet

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2008
    Eric H. Kossoff
    Summary In 2003, a case series was published describing the benefits of a less restrictive ketogenic diet (KD) started as an outpatient without a fast and without any restrictions on calories, fluids, or protein. This "Modified Atkins Diet" (MAD) restricts carbohydrates to 10 g/day (15 g/day in adults) while encouraging high fat foods. Now 5 years later, there have been eight prospective and retrospective studies published on this alternative dietary therapy, both in children as well as adults. In these reports, 45 (45%) have had 50,90% seizure reduction, and 28 (28%) >90% seizure reduction, which is remarkably similar to the traditional KD. This review will discuss basics and tips to best provide the MAD, evidence for its efficacy, suggestions about the role of ketosis in dietary treatment efficacy, and its side effect profile. Lastly, the possible future benefits of this treatment for new-onset seizures, adults, neurologic conditions other than epilepsy, and developing countries of the world will be discussed. [source]

    Efficacy and Tolerability of the Ketogenic Diet According to Lipid:Nonlipid Ratios,Comparison of 3:1 with 4:1 Diet

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2007
    Joo Hee Seo
    Summary:,Purpose: The ketogenic diet (KD) has been considered a highly potent antiepileptic treatment for intractable childhood epilepsy. In this study, we compared the antiepileptic efficacy and diet tolerability of two different diets with lipid:nonlipid ratios of 3:1 and 4:1. Methods: Seventy-six patients with refractory childhood epilepsy were randomly placed into two groups and were started on KD diets with nonlipid:lipid ratios of either 3:1 or 4:1. Antiepileptic efficacy and diet tolerability were evaluated 3 months after initiating the diet. Patients showing seizure-free outcome with the 4:1 diet were changed to the 3:1 diet, and those without a seizure-free outcome on the 3:1 diet were changed to the 4:1 diet, for three more months, after which time their progress was monitored. Results: (1) Antiepileptic efficacy was higher for the 4:1 than the 3:1 diet (p < 0.05). Twenty-two (55.0%) of 40 patients on the 4:1 diet and 11 (30.5%) of 36 patients on the 3:1 diet became seizure free. Seizure reduction of over 90% was observed in 2 (5.0%) patients on the 4:1 diet, and 2 (5.6%) on the 3:1 diet. (2) Dietary tolerability was better for the 3:1 than the 4:1 diet. Gastrointestinal symptoms were observed in 5 (13.9%) patients with the 3:1 diet and 14 (35.0%) patients with the 4:1 diet (p < 0.05). (3) For seizure-free patients who started on the 4:1 diet, antiepileptic efficacy was maintained after changing to the 3:1 diet, while 10 (83.3%) of 12 patients who were not seizure free with the 3:1 diet showed increased seizure reduction after changing to the 4:1 diet. (4) Complications from the KD and laboratory data were not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusions: The 4:1 KD showed greater antiepileptic efficacy than the 3:1 diet with higher seizure-free outcome. In most cases, seizure free outcome was maintained even after changing the ratio to 3:1. Dietary tolerability was better in the 3:1 diet than the 4:1 with less frequent gastrointestinal symptoms. [source]

    Combined Ketogenic Diet and Vagus Nerve Stimulation: Rational Polytherapy?

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2007
    Eric H. Kossoff
    Summary:,Objective: The concept of "rational polypharmacy" has been associated with anticonvulsant management for decades, but the term has not been applied to nonpharmacologic therapies. Methods: We conducted a multicenter, retrospective study of children who received concurrent diet (ketogenic or modified Atkins) and vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) treatment for medically intractable epilepsy. Results: Thirty children in total from six epilepsy centers were treated over a 6-yr period. The median age at the initiation of combination therapy was 10 yr (range, 4,24 yr). Sixteen (53%) received dietary therapy followed by VNS; no differences were noted between centers. After 3 months, 21 (70%) had seizure reduced by >50% over the previous single nonpharmacologic treatment, of whom 13 (62%) had improvement within the first month. A 5-min VNS off-time correlated with >90% seizure reduction (p = 0.02). The median duration of nonpharmacologic polytherapy was 12 months (range, 0.5,96 months); 17 (57%) remain on dual therapy at this time. No side effects were noted. Most patients who discontinued combination therapy did so because of a lack of efficacy rather than restrictiveness. Conclusions: In this small group, the combined use of diet and VNS appeared synergistic and yielded rapid benefits. It may be more effective with longer VNS off-times. Further prospective studies of this combination in refractory pediatric epilepsy are needed to help guide optimal use. [source]

    A Modified Atkins Diet Is Effective for the Treatment of Intractable Pediatric Epilepsy

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 2 2006
    Eric H. Kossoff
    Summary:,Purpose: The Atkins diet may induce ketosis as does the ketogenic diet, without restrictions on calories, fluids, protein, or need for an inpatient fast and admission. Our objective was to evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of a modified Atkins diet for intractable childhood epilepsy. Methods: Twenty children were treated prospectively in a hospital-based ambulatory clinic from September 2003 to May 2005. Children aged 3,18 years, with at least three seizures per week, who had been treated with at least two anticonvulsants, were enrolled and received the diet over a 6-month period. Carbohydrates were initially limited to 10 g/day, and fats were encouraged. Parents measured urinary ketones semiweekly and recorded seizures daily. All children received vitamin and calcium supplementation. Results: In all children, at least moderate urinary ketosis developed within 4 days (mean, 1.9). Sixteen (80%) completed the 6-month study; 14 chose to remain on the diet afterward. At 6 months, 13 (65%) had >50% improvement, and seven (35%) had >90% improvement (four were seizure free). Mean seizure frequency after 6 months was 40 per week (p = 0.005). Over a 6-month period, mean serum blood urea nitrogen increased from 12 to 17 mg/dl (p = 0.01); creatinine was unchanged. Cholesterol increased from 192 to 221 mg/dl, (p = 0.06). Weight did not change significantly (34.0,33.7 kg); only six children lost weight. A stable body mass index over time correlated with >90% improvement (p = 0.004). Conclusions: A modified Atkins diet is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for intractable pediatric epilepsy. [source]

    Selenium Deficiency Associated with Cardiomyopathy: A Complication of the Ketogenic Diet

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 4 2003
    A. G. Christina Bergqvist
    Summary: ,Purpose: The ketogenic diet (KD) is an efficacious treatment for intractable epilepsy, associated with infrequent side effects. The KD is known to be deficient in most vitamins and minerals and may be deficient in trace minerals. We report biochemical selenium deficiency in nine patients on the KD, including one who developed cardiomyopathy. Methods: A whole-blood selenium level was obtained on the symptomatic patient after noting the patient's poor appearance on physical examination. Children already treated and children beginning the KD were then evaluated prospectively for selenium status by measuring whole-blood or serum selenium as part of routine laboratory evaluation every 3 months. Results: The index case had no detectable whole-blood selenium. Cardiac physical examination and ECG were normal, but the echocardiogram revealed cardiomyopathy. Thirty-nine additional children had the selenium status evaluated. Eight had selenium levels below the normal range (six initially, and two developed low selenium levels on serial testing). They were referred for cardiology evaluations, which were normal. Selenium supplementation improved levels in all children. Low levels were seen in some children after only a few months of treatment. Conclusions: The nutrient adequacy of the currently used KD has not been fully evaluated. The nutrient content of KD with usual supplements may not meet Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDA) for selenium and may not provide other trace minerals in adequate amounts. At our center, selenium deficiency was found in 20% of the patients evaluated. Screening for selenium deficiency is suggested if the patient KD regimen does not meet ,75% of the RDA or if the child is symptomatic. Nutrient supplementation should provide adequate trace elements for children treated with the KD. The KD requires close monitoring of the overall nutritional status. [source]

    On the Anticonvulsant Effect of Acetone and the Ketogenic Diet

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2002
    Sergei S. Likhodii
    First page of article [source]

    General Anesthesia and the Ketogenic Diet: Clinical Experience in Nine Patients

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2002
    Ignacio Valencia
    Summary: ,Purpose: To determine if children actively on the ketogenic diet (KD) can safely undergo general anesthesia (GA) for surgical procedures. Methods: The records of children treated with the KD at Children's Hospital (Boston, Massachusetts) from 1995 to the present were reviewed. The charts of children who had received GA while on the diet were evaluated with regard to demographics, procedure information, anesthesia records, blood chemistries, and perioperative course. Of 71 children on the KD during the period of the study, nine (12.7%) had procedures requiring GA while on the diet. Results: Nine children received GA for surgical procedures ranging from central line placement to hemispherectomy while on the KD. At the time of GA, the children ranged from age 1 to 6 years, and had been on the KD for 2,60 months. The patients received carbohydrate-free intravenous solutions perioperatively. Anesthesia duration ranged from 20 min to 11.5 h; for longer procedures, serum pH, glucose, and electrolyte levels were monitored. Serum glucose levels remained stable in all patients, but serum pH typically decreased; the largest reduction was to 7.16. In three procedures, patients received intravenous bicarbonate because of level of acidosis. There were no perioperative complications. Conclusions: Children on the KD can safely undergo GA for surgical procedures. Although serum glucose levels appear to remain stable, serum pH or bicarbonate levels should be monitored because of the risk of metabolic acidosis. [source]

    Taking an Undergraduate Nutrition Course Results in Favorable Attitudes Toward a Healthful Diet and Improved Intake of Several Key Nutrients

    Roman Pawlak
    The purpose of this research was to assess the impact of introductory undergraduate nutrition course on students' attitudes toward healthy diet and on students' intake of nutrients. A pre and post-test design was used to assess changes in self-reported nutrient intake. Open-ended questions were asked to elicit responses about how/whether the course had any impact on their attitudes toward foods and dietary behavior. A statistically significant increase in fiber, folate, potassium, and calcium intake were observed, comparing post to pre-test. A decrease in saturated fat intake in terms of energy percentage was observed. Increased awareness of the impact of diet on health was reported by students. A desire to increase intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, and to decrease intake of fat and sugar was also reported. Students reported a willingness to eat less fast food and candies as well as drink fewer sodas. Thus, in this study a college nutrition course did effectively increase awareness of a healthy diet as well as change in attitude and modify dietary behavior. [source]

    Maintenance and Change in the Diet of Hispanic Immigrants in Eastern North Carolina

    Laura H. McArthur
    The objectives of this descriptive, exploratory study were to assess maintenance and change in the food consumption, preparation, and purchasing practices of Hispanic immigrants currently residing in eastern North Carolina who had lived in the United States for no more than 10 years, and to identify underlying ecological factors and perceptions about food quality that shape their postmigrational food habits. The participants were 33 Hispanic immigrants: 8 males and 25 females. Qualitative data were collected using individual interviews and a focus group session. Findings suggest that these Hispanic immigrants struggle to retain their cultural food traditions and are consuming more high-fat, high-sugar foods than they did in their home countries. Improved economic status and school food service offerings are examples of factors that promote dietary change among children and families. These influences and identified misconceptions about food safety and freshness are important topics for culturally sensitive nutrition education for this population. [source]

    Diel interactions between prey behaviour and feeding in an invasive fish, the round goby, in a North American river

    FRESHWATER BIOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
    Summary 1. We studied the diet of the invasive round goby (Neogobius melanostomus) on a diel basis in the Flint River, a warmwater stream in Michigan, U.S.A. Diet and available prey samples were collected seven times over a 24 h period in four consecutive months. The section of river studied lacked zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha), the primary prey of adult round gobies elsewhere in the Great Lakes region. 2. Diet changed on a diel basis with hydropsychid caddisfly and chironomid larvae predominating during the day, chironomid pupae dominating in the evening and heptageniid mayflies dominating at night. Simultaneous study of macroinvertebrate drift suggested that caddisfly and chironomid larvae were most likely picked from submerged rocks, chironomid pupae were most likely taken during their emergent ascent and mayflies were either captured from the drift or picked from rocks. 3. The Flint River lacks a diverse darter (Family: Percidae) and sculpin (Family: Cottidae) fauna and it appears that the round goby has occupied a generalised darter/sculpin niche. Our results indicate that round gobies have the potential to invade successfully riverine systems, particularly those lacking a diverse benthic fish assemblage. [source]

    Disease control, survival, and functional outcome after multimodal treatment for advanced-stage tongue base cancer

    James P. Malone MD
    Abstract Background. Surgical resection and postoperative radiation for advanced-stage malignancies of the oral cavity, oropharynx, and hypopharynx result in a dismal overall survival of 38%. Patients with carcinoma of the tongue base frequently have advanced disease at the time of presentation, and combined-modality therapy is usually required to achieve cure. Because of the poor survival rates with advanced malignancies with standard therapy, new and innovative approaches continue to be developed in an attempt to have a greater impact on disease control, patient survival, and functional outcome after therapy. This study examines functional outcome, survival, and disease control in patients receiving an intensified treatment regimen with concomitant chemoradiotherapy, surgery, and intraoperative radiotherapy for previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the tongue base. Methods. Forty patients with previously untreated, resectable, stage III and IV squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue base were treated in one of three sequential phase II intensification regimens (IRs). Treatment consisted of perioperative, hyperfractionated radiotherapy (9.1 Gy) with concurrent cisplatin followed by surgical resection with intraoperative radiotherapy boost (7.5 Gy). Postoperative treatment involved concurrent chemoradiotherapy (40 Gy to the primary site and upper neck and 45 Gy to the supraclavicular areas) with cisplatin with or without paclitaxel. Locoregional and distant disease control, 2-year overall, and disease-specific survival rates were calculated. The Performance Status Scale (PSS) for Head and Neck Cancer Patients was administered to 25 of the surviving patients. The effects of the method of surgical reconstruction, surgery involving the mandible and/or larynx, and early versus advanced T stage on PSS score were evaluated with the Wilcoxon rank-sum test. Results. Median follow-up in months for IR1, IR2, and IR3 were 83.6, 75.2, and 26.8. The locoregional control rate was 100%, and the rate of distant metastases was 7.5% for all patients. Two-year overall and disease-specific survival rates for the entire study population were 74.7% and 93.6%, respectively. Mean PSS scores by subscales Eating in Public, Understandability of Speech, and Normalcy of Diet were 55 (range, 0,100), 73 (range, 25,100), and 49 (range, 0,100), respectively. PSS scores were significantly higher in patients with primary closure of the surgical defect, no mandibular surgery, and early T-stage lesions. Conclusions. Although functional outcome may be decreased by certain surgical interventions and advanced T stage, the high rate of locoregional and distant disease control and excellent 2-year disease-specific survival supports an aggressive treatment regimen for advanced tongue base cancer. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck26: 561,572, 2004 [source]

    The kidney disease wasting: Inflammation, oxidative stress, and diet-gene interaction

    Abstract The 350,000 maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients in the United States have an unacceptably high mortality rate of >20%/year. Almost half of all deaths are assumed to be cardiovascular. Markers of kidney disease wasting (KDW) such as hypoalbuminemia, anorexia, body weight and fat loss, rather than traditional cardiovascular risk factors, appear to be the strongest predictors of early death in these patients. The KDW is closely related to oxidative stress (SOX). Such SOX markers as serum myeloperoxidase are associated with pro-inflammatory cytokines and poor survival in MHD patients. Identifying the conditions that modulate the KDW/SOX-axis may be the key to improving outcomes in MHD patients. Dysfunctional lipoproteins such as a higher ratio of the high-density lipoprotein inflammatory index (HII) may engender or aggravate the KDW, whereas functionally intact or larger lipoprotein pools, as in hypercholesterolemia and obesity, may mitigate the KDW in MHD patients. Hence, a reverse epidemiology or "bad-gone-good" phenomenon may be observed. Diet and gene and their complex interaction may lead to higher proportions of pro-inflammatory or oxidative lipoproteins such as HII, resulting in the aggravation of the SOX and inflammatory processes, endothelial dysfunction, and subsequent atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and death in MHD patients. Understanding the factors that modulate the KDW/SOX complex and their associations with genetic polymorphism, nutrition, and outcomes in MHD patients may lead to developing more effective strategies to improve outcomes in this and the 20 to 30 million Americans with chronic disease states such as individuals with chronic heart failure, advanced age, malignancies, AIDS, or cachexia. [source]

    Diet and food preferences of the endangered Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus: a basis for their conservation

    IBIS, Issue 2 2009
    The Bearded Vulture Gypaetus barbatus population in the Pyrenees is managed using feeding stations to increase breeding success and reduce mortality in the pre-adult population. Nevertheless, very little quantitative and qualitative information has been published on such basic aspects of the species' ecology as feeding habits and dietary preferences. This study investigated both aspects through direct and unbiased observation of breeding Bearded Vultures during the chick-rearing period. Bearded Vulture diet comprises mammals (93%), birds (6%) and reptiles (1%), with medium-sized ungulates (mainly sheep/goats) the most important species in the diet (61%, n = 677). Prey items were not selected in proportion to their availability, with the remains of larger species (cows and horses) being avoided, probably due to the variable cost/benefit ratios in handling efficiency, ingestion process and transport. There is no relationship between the proportion of sheep limbs in the diet and the proximity of feeding stations, suggesting that these sites are probably less important for breeding adults than for the pre-adult population. On the other hand, diet specificity seems related to productivity, with territories with greater trophic breadth being those with higher fecundity. Bearded Vultures prefer to eat limbs, although meat remains (provided principally by small mammals) can play an important role in guaranteeing breeding success during the first few weeks after hatching. The management of carrion provided by animals that die naturally in extensive livestock practices and the remains of wild ungulates which have died naturally or by human hunting, are important conservation tools for the Bearded Vulture and other carrion-eating species. [source]

    Costs and benefits of breeding in human-altered landscapes for the Eagle Owl Bubo bubo

    IBIS, Issue 4 2002
    Luigi Marchesi
    We studied a population of 23,25 Eagle Owl Bubo bubo pairs between 1994 and 2000 in a 1330-km2 study plot in the central-eastern Italian Alps. Compared to random sites, territories were located at lower elevation and closer to intensively cultivated-urbanized valley floors. Early laying was associated with low elevation and negatively affected productivity. Diet was dominated by rats, hedgehogs and dormice (n = 978 prey items), all of them typical of low-elevation habitats. Higher productivity was associated with a higher proportion of rats in the diet of individual pairs. Low availability of rats resulted in a more diverse diet, in turn associated with low productivity. Territories were occupied every year in a non-random fashion, and those most occupied were characterized by higher productivity and higher occurrence of the favoured prey types in the diet, suggesting they were of superior quality. Eagle Owls also paid a cost associated with nesting near human-altered habitats: the main cause of mortality reported to local authorities was electrocution. This is an increasing cause of death for many European populations and may be a cause for conservation concern. Human persecution is also an important cause of mortality in some parts of the European range. Apart from such costs, the study population appeared to have adapted well to the proximity of humans: estimates of density and productivity were comparable to those recorded elsewhere in Europe. The pattern found in our population also held at higher spatial scales: data from 17 European populations showed density to be highest in low-elevation, human-altered landscapes. [source]

    Serum levels of vitamin D, PTH and calcium and breast cancer risk,a prospective nested case,control study

    Martin Almquist
    Abstract Previous studies indicate that calcium and its regulating hormones, i.e., parathyroid hormone (PTH) and vitamin D, might affect breast cancer risk. Evidence also suggests that this relationship could be influenced by menopausal status and BMI. We examined breast cancer risk related to prediagnostic serum levels of vitamin D (25OHD2 and 25OHD3), PTH and calcium using a nested case,control design within the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study. There were 764 incident breast cancer cases, and 764 controls were selected by incidence density matching, using age as the underlying time scale, matching on calendar time at inclusion, menopausal status and age at inclusion. Using logistic regression analysis, odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals were calculated for breast cancer risk in different quartiles of the analyzed factors. All analyses were adjusted for risk factors for breast cancer, and for levels of albumin, creatinine and phosphate. Analyses were repeated stratified for BMI and menopausal status, and for low vs. high levels of 25OHD3, PTH and calcium. There was a weak, nonsignificant inverse association between breast cancer risk and 25OHD3, and the OR for the 2nd, 3rd and 4th quartiles, as compared to the first, were 0.84 (0.60,1.15), 0.84 (0.60,1.17) and 0.93 (0.66,1.33). Serum calcium was positively associated with breast cancer in premenopausal women (OR for the 4th quartile = 3.10:1.33,7.22 and p for quartile trend = 0.04), and in women with BMI > 25 (OR for the 4th quartile = 1.94:1.12,3.37 and p for trend < 0.01). There was no association between baseline serum PTH and breast cancer risk. [source]

    HMG-CoA reductase expression in breast cancer is associated with a less aggressive phenotype and influenced by anthropometric factors

    Signe Borgquist
    Abstract Although several studies have reported on the anti-tumoural properties exerted by 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMG-CoAR) inhibitors (statins), the in vivo expression of HMG-CoAR in human cancer has been considerably less investigated. In our study, we examined the immunohistochemical expression of HMG-CoAR in 511 incident breast cancers within the Malmö Diet and Cancer Study in order to explore its relationship to established clinicopathological and tumour biological parameters. Furthermore, the potential influence of estrogen exposure on HMG-CoAR expression was assessed by performing Cox's proportional hazards analyses of the relationship between the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), obesity (waist circumference) and tumour-cell specific HMG-CoAR expression. We found that HMG-CoAR was present in various fractions and intensities in the cytoplasm, sometimes with a membranous pattern, but not in the tumour cell nuclei. The expression of HMG-CoAR was associated with a smaller tumour size (p = 0.02), low histological grade (p = 0.001), low Ki67 index (p = 0.004), ER,+ (p = 0.02), ER,+ (p = 0.005), and high p27 expression (p = <0.001). The incidence of tumours with a high HMG-CoAR-expression was increased among HRT-users, although this was not statistically significant in a heterogeneity analysis. Obesity was significantly associated with a high HMG-CoAR expression assessed both as a high (>50%) fraction of positive cells (relative risk: 2.06; 95% confidence interval: 1.20,3.51), and a strong staining intensity (2.33: 1.08,5.02). In summary, we demonstrate that HMG-CoAR is differentially expressed in breast cancer and that a high expression is associated with prognostically favourable tumour parameters. Moreover, estrogen related life-style and anthropometric factors might indeed regulate HMG-CoAR expression. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]