Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Divergence

  • adaptive divergence
  • adaptive population divergence
  • allopatric divergence
  • ecological divergence
  • evolutionary divergence
  • functional divergence
  • genetic divergence
  • high divergence
  • high genetic divergence
  • high sequence divergence
  • initial divergence
  • interspecific divergence
  • intraspecific divergence
  • leibler divergence
  • lineage divergence
  • molecular divergence
  • morphological divergence
  • niche divergence
  • nucleotide divergence
  • observed divergence
  • phenotypic divergence
  • phylogenetic divergence
  • population divergence
  • potential divergence
  • rapid divergence
  • recent divergence
  • sequence divergence
  • significant divergence
  • significant genetic divergence
  • species divergence
  • structural divergence
  • trait divergence

  • Terms modified by Divergence

  • divergence angle
  • divergence date
  • divergence estimate
  • divergence event
  • divergence measure
  • divergence rate
  • divergence time
  • divergence time estimate

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2010
    Scott A. Pavey
    Ecological divergence may result when populations experience different selection regimes, but there is considerable discussion about the role of migration at the beginning stages of divergence before reproductive isolating mechanisms have evolved. However, detection of past migration is difficult in current populations and tools to differentiate genetic similarities due to migration versus recent common ancestry are only recently available. Using past volcanic eruption times as a framework, we combine morphological analyses of traits important to reproduction with a coalescent-based genetic analysis of two proximate sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) populations. We find that this is the most recent (,500 years, 100 generations) natural ecological divergence recorded in a fish species, and report that this divergence is occurring despite migration. Although studies of fish divergence following the retreat of glaciers (10,000,15,000 years ago) have contributed extensively to our understanding of speciation, the Aniakchak system of sockeye salmon provides a rare example of the initial stages of ecological divergence following natural colonization. Our results show that even in the face of continued migration, populations may diverge in the absence of a physical barrier. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2009
    Stephanie M. Carlson
    Few studies have determined whether formal estimates of selection explain patterns of trait divergence among populations, yet this is one approach for evaluating whether the populations are in equilibria. If adaptive divergence is complete, directional selection should be absent and stabilizing selection should prevail. We estimated natural selection, due to bear predation, acting on the body size and shape of male salmon in three breeding populations that experience differing predation regimes. Our approach was to (1) estimate selection acting within each population on each trait based on an empirical estimate of reproductive activity, (2) test for trait divergence among populations, and (3) test whether selection coefficients were correlated with trait divergence among populations. Stabilizing selection was never significant, indicating that these populations have yet to attain equilibria. Directional selection varied among populations in a manner consistent with trait divergence, indicating ongoing population differentiation. Specifically, the rank order of the creeks in terms of patterns of selection paralleled the rank order in terms of size and shape. The shortest and least deep-bodied males had the highest reproductive activity in the creek with the most intense predation and longer and deeper-bodied males were favored in the creeks with lower predation risk. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 12 2008
    Lila Fishman
    Conspecific pollen precedence (CPP) is a major component of reproductive isolation between many flowering plant taxa and may reveal mechanisms of gametophytic evolution within species, but little is known about the genetic basis and evolutionary history of CPP. We systematically investigated the genetic architecture of CPP using patterns of transmission ratio distortion (TRD) in F2 and backcross hybrids between closely related species of Mimulus (Phrymaceae) with divergent mating systems. We found that CPP in Mimulus hybrids was polygenic and was the majority source of interspecific TRD genome-wide, with at least eight genomic regions contributing to the transmission advantage of M. guttatus pollen grains on M. guttatus styles. In aggregate, these male-specific transmission ratio distorting loci (TRDLs) were more than sufficient to account for the 100% precedence of pure M. guttatus pollen over M. nasutus pollen in mixed pollinations of M. guttatus. All but one of these pollen TRDLs were style-dependent; that is, we observed pollen TRD in F1 and/or M. guttatus styles, but not in M. nasutus styles. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in pollen tube performance accumulate gradually and may have been driven by coevolution between pollen and style in the predominantly outcrossing M. guttatus. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 8 2008
    Alexander V. Badyaev
    Divergent selection on traits involved in both local adaptation and the production of mating signals can strongly facilitate population differentiation. Because of its links to foraging morphologies and cultural inheritance song of birds can contribute particularly strongly to maintenance of local adaptations. In two adjacent habitats,native Sonoran desert and urban areas,house finches (Carpodacus mexicanus) forage on seeds that are highly distinct in size and shell hardness and require different bite forces and bill morphologies. Here, we first document strong and habitat-specific natural selection on bill traits linked to bite force and find adaptive modifications of bite force and bill morphology and associated divergence in courtship song between the two habitats. Second, we investigate the developmental basis of this divergence and find that early ontogenetic tissue transformation in bill, but not skeletal traits, is accelerated in the urban population and that the mandibular primordia of the large-beaked urban finches express bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) earlier and at higher level than those of the desert finches. Further, we show that despite being geographically adjacent, urban and desert populations are nevertheless genetically distinct corroborating findings of early developmental divergence between them. Taken together, these results suggest that divergent selection on function and development of traits involved in production of mating signals, in combination with localized learning of such signals, can be very effective at maintaining local adaptations, even at small spatial scales and in highly mobile animals. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2008
    Justin Ramsey
    Adaptive evolution is often associated with speciation. In plants, however, ecotypic differentiation is common within widespread species, suggesting that climatic and edaphic specialization can outpace cladogenesis and the evolution of postzygotic reproductive isolation. We used cpDNA sequence (5 noncoding regions, 3.5 kb) and amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs: 4 primer pairs, 1013 loci) to evaluate the history of ecological differentiation in the North American Achillea millefolium, an autopolyploid complex of "ecological races" exhibiting morphological, physiological, and life-history adaptations to diverse environments. Phylogenetic analyses reveal North American A. millefolium to be a monophyletic group distinct from its European and Asian relatives. Based on patterns of sequence divergence, as well as fossil and paleoecological data, colonization of North America appears to have occurred via the Bering Land Bridge during the Pleistocene (1.8 MYA to 11,500 years ago). Population genetic analyses indicate negligible structure within North American A. millefolium associated with varietal identity, geographic distribution, or ploidy level. North American populations, moreover, exhibit the signature of demographic expansion. These results affirm the "ecotype" concept of the North American Achillea advocated by classical research and demonstrate the rapid rate of ecological differentiation that sometimes occurs in plants. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2008
    Rafael L. Rodríguez
    Divergence between populations adapting to different environments may be facilitated when the populations differ in their sexual traits. We tested whether colonizing a novel environment may, through phenotypic plasticity, change sexual traits in a way that could alter the dynamics of sexual selection. This hypothesis has two components: changes in mean phenotypes across environments, and changes in the genetic background of the phenotypes that are produced,or genotype × environment interaction (G × E). We simulated colonization of a novel environment and tested its effect on the mating signals of a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae), a clade that has diverged in a process involving host plant shifts and signal diversification. We found substantial genetic variation and G × E in most signal traits measured, with little or no change in mean signal phenotypes. We suggest that the expression of extant genetic variation across old and novel environments can initiate signal divergence. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2007
    L. Lacey Knowles
    Patterns of genetic variation can provide valuable insights for deciphering the relative roles of different evolutionary processes in species differentiation. However, population-genetic models for studying divergence in geographically structured species are generally lacking. Since these are the biogeographic settings where genetic drift is expected to predominate, not only are population-genetic tests of hypotheses in geographically structured species constrained, but generalizations about the evolutionary processes that promote species divergence may also be potentially biased. Here we estimate a population-divergence model in montane grasshoppers from the sky islands of the Rocky Mountains. Because this region was directly impacted by Pleistocene glaciation, both the displacement into glacial refugia and recolonization of montane habitats may contribute to differentiation. Building on the tradition of using information from the genealogical relationships of alleles to infer the geography of divergence, here the additional consideration of the process of gene-lineage sorting is used to obtain a quantitative estimate of population relationships and historical associations (i.e., a population tree) from the gene trees of five anonymous nuclear loci and one mitochondrial locus in the broadly distributed species Melanoplus oregonensis. Three different approaches are used to estimate a model of population divergence; this comparison allows us to evaluate specific methodological assumptions that influence the estimated history of divergence. A model of population divergence was identified that significantly fits the data better compared to the other approaches, based on per-site likelihood scores of the multiple loci, and that provides clues about how divergence proceeded in M. oregonensis during the dynamic Pleistocene. Unlike the approaches that either considered only the most recent coalescence (i.e., information from a single individual per population) or did not consider the pattern of coalescence in the gene genealogies, the population-divergence model that best fits the data was estimated by considering the pattern of gene lineage coalescence across multiple individuals, as well as loci. These results indicate that sampling of multiple individuals per population is critical to obtaining an accurate estimate of the history of divergence so that the signal of common ancestry can be separated from the confounding influence of gene flow,even though estimates suggest that gene flow is not a predominant factor structuring patterns of genetic variation across these sky island populations. They also suggest that the gene genealogies contain information about population relationships, despite the lack of complete sorting of gene lineages. What emerges from the analyses is a model of population divergence that incorporates both contemporary distributions and historical associations, and shows a latitudinal and regional structuring of populations reminiscent of population displacements into multiple glacial refugia. Because the population-divergence model itself is built upon the specific events shaping the history of M. oregonensis, it provides a framework for estimating additional population-genetic parameters relevant to understanding the processes governing differentiation in geographically structured species and avoids the problems of relying on overly simplified and inaccurate divergence models. The utility of these approaches, as well as the caveats and future improvements, for estimating population relationships and historical associations relevant to genetic analyses of geographically structured species are discussed. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2007
    David W. Pfennig
    Resource competition has long been viewed as a major cause of phenotypic divergence within and between species. Theory predicts that divergence arises because natural selection favors individuals that are phenotypically dissimilar from their competitors. Yet, there are few conclusive tests of this key prediction. Drawing on data from both natural populations and a controlled experiment, this paper presents such a test in tadpoles of two species of spadefoot toads (Spea bombifrons and S. multiplicata). These two species show exaggerated divergence in trophic morphology where they are found together (mixed-species ponds) but not where each is found alone (pure-species ponds), suggesting that they have undergone ecological character displacement. Moreover, in pure-species ponds, both species exhibit resource polymorphism. Using body size as a proxy for fitness, we found that in pure-species ponds disruptive selection favors extreme trophic phenotypes in both species, suggesting that intraspecific competition for food promotes resource polymorphism. In mixed-species ponds, by contrast, we found that trophic morphology was subject to stabilizing selection in S. multiplicata and directional selection in S. bombifrons. A controlled experiment revealed that the more similar an S. multiplicata was to its S. bombifrons tankmate in resource use, the worse was its performance. These results indicate that S. multiplicata individuals that differ from S. bombifrons would be selectively favored in competition. Our data therefore demonstrate how resource competition between phenotypically similar individuals can drive divergence between them. Moreover, our results indicate that how competition contributes to such divergence may be influenced not only by the degree to which competitors overlap in resource use, but also by the abundance and quality of resources. Finally, our finding that competitively mediated disruptive selection may promote resource polymorphism has potentially important implications for understanding how populations evolve in response to heterospecific competitors. In particular, once a population evolves resource polymorphism, it may be more prone to undergo ecological character displacement. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 2 2007
    Andrew B. Munkacsi
    We investigated two alternative hypotheses for the origin of crop pathogen species: that human-mediated agricultural practices drove the divergence of many crop plant pathogen species or that coevolutionary processes in natural populations of the crops' ancestors drove divergence of pathogen species. We distinguished between these two hypotheses by constructing a robust multigene phylogeny and estimating the dates of divergence among four, monophyletic species of smut fungi (Ustilago maydis, U. scitaminea, Sporisorium reilianum, S. sorghi) known to specifically infect maize, sorghum, sugarcane, and their wild ancestors. Without a fossil record for smut fungi, we calibrated the pathogen species' divergence times to their plant host divergence times. Specifically, a calibration date of 10,000 years was employed to test the hypothesis that the fungal species originated at the time of domestication of their current hosts and a calibration date of 50 million years was employed to test the hypothesis that the fungal species originated on wild ancestors of their domesticated hosts. Substitution rates at five protein coding genes were calculated and rates obtained for the 10,000 year calibration date were orders of magnitude faster than those commonly reported for eukaryotes, thus rejecting the hypothesis that these smut pathogen species diverged at the time of domestication. In contrast, substitution rates obtained for the 50 million year calibration were comparable to eukaryotic substitution rates. We used the 50 million year calibration to estimate divergence times of taxa in two datasets, one comprised solely the focal species and one comprised the focal species and additional related taxa. Both datasets indicate that all taxa diverged millions of years ago, strongly supporting the hypothesis that smut species diverged before the time of domestication and modern agriculture. Thus, smut species diverged in the ecological context of natural host plant and fungal populations. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2006
    Stephen R. Proulx
    Abstract One of the striking observations from recent whole-genome comparisons is that changes in the number of specialized genes in existing gene families, as opposed to novel taxon-specific gene families, are responsible for the majority of the difference in genome composition between major taxa. Previous models of duplicate gene evolution focused primarily on the role that neutral processes can play in evolutionary divergence after the duplicates are already fixed in the population. By instead including the entire cycle of duplication and divergence, we show that specialized functions are most likely to evolve through strong selection acting on segregating alleles at a single locus, even before the duplicate arises. We show that the fitness relationships that allow divergent alleles to evolve at a single locus largely overlap with the conditions that allow divergence of previously duplicated genes. Thus, a solution to the paradox of the origin of organismal complexity via the expansion of gene families exists in the form of the deterministic spread of novel duplicates via natural selection. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2006
    Kevin J. Parsons
    Abstract Colonization of a novel environment is expected to result in adaptive divergence from the ancestral population when selection favors a new phenotypic optimum. Local adaptation in the new environment occurs through the accumulation and integration of character states that positively affect fitness. The role played by plastic traits in adaptation to a novel environment has generally been ignored, except for variable environments. We propose that if conditions in a relatively stable but novel environment induce phenotypically plastic responses in many traits, and if genetic variation exists in the form of those responses, then selection may initially favor the accumulation and integration of functionally useful plastic responses. Early divergence between ancestral and colonist forms will then occur with respect to their plastic responses across the gradient bounded by ancestral and novel environmental conditions. To test this, we compared the magnitude, integration, and pattern of plastic character responses in external body form induced by shallow versus open water conditions between two sunfish ecomorphs that coexist in four postglacial lakes. The novel sunfish ecomorph is present in the deeper open water habitat, whereas the ancestral ecomorph inhabits the shallow waters along the lake margin. Plastic responses by open water ecomorphs were more correlated than those of their local shallow water ecomorph in two of the populations, whereas equal levels of correlated plastic character responses occurred between ecomorphs in the other two populations. Small but persistent differences occurred between ecomorph pairs in the pattern of their character responses, suggesting a recent divergence. Open water ecomorphs shared some similarities in the covariance among plastic responses to rearing environment. Replication in the form of correlated plastic responses among populations of open water ecomorphs suggests that plastic character states may evolve under selection. Variation between ecomorphs and among lake populations in the covariance of plastic responses suggests the presence of genetic variation in plastic character responses. In three populations, open water ecomorphs also exhibited larger plastic responses to the environmental gradient than the local shallow water ecomorph. This could account for the greater integration of plastic responses in open water ecomorphs in two of the populations. This suggests that the plastic responses of local sunfish ecomorphs can diverge through changes in the magnitude and coordination of plastic responses. Although these results require further investigation, they suggest that early adaptive evolution in a novel environment can include changes to plastic character states. The genetic assimilation of coordinated plastic responses could result in the further, and possibly rapid, divergence of such populations and could also account for the evolution of genes of major effect that contribute to suites of phenotypic differences between divergent populations. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2005
    Kenneth H. Kozak
    Abstract An important dimension of adaptive radiation is the degree to which diversification rates fluctuate or remain constant through time. Focusing on plethodontid salamanders of the genus Desmognathus, we present a novel synthetic analysis of phylogeographic history, rates of ecomorphological evolution and species accumulation, and community assembly in an adaptive radiation. Dusky salamanders are highly variable in life history, body size, and ecology, with many endemic lineages in the southern Appalachian Highlands of eastern North America. Our results show that lifehistory evolution had important consequences for the buildup of plethodontid-salamander species richness and phenotypic disparity in eastern North America, a global hot spot of salamander biodiversity. The origin of Desmognathus species with aquatic larvae was followed by a high rate of lineage accumulation, which then gradually decreased toward the present time. The peak period of lineage accumulation in the group coincides with evolutionary partitioning of lineages with aquatic larvae into seepage, stream-edge, and stream microhabitats. Phylogenetic simulations demonstrate a strong correlation between morphology and microhabitat ecology independent of phylogenetic effects and suggest that ecomorphological changes are concentrated early in the radiation of Desmognathus. Deep phylogeographic fragmentation within many codistributed ecomorph clades suggests long-term persistence of ecomorphological features and stability of endemic lineages and communities through multiple climatic cycles. Phylogenetic analyses of community structure show that ecomorphological divergence promotes the coexistence of lineages and that repeated, independent evolution of microhabitat-associated ecomorphs has a limited role in the evolutionary assembly of Desmognathus communities. Comparing and contrasting our results to other adaptive radiations having different biogeographic histories, our results suggest that rates of diversification during adaptive radiation are intimately linked to the degree to which community structure persists over evolutionary time. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2005
    Dylan J. Fraser
    Abstract Ecological processes clearly contribute to population divergence, yet how they interact over complex life cycles remains poorly understood. Notably, the evolutionary consequences of migration between breeding and nonbreeding areas have received limited attention. We provide evidence for a negative association between interpopulation differences in migration (between breeding and feeding areas, as well as within each) and the amount of gene flow (m) among three brook charr (Salvelinus fontinalis) populations inhabitingMistassini Lake, Quebec, Canada. Individuals (n=1166) captured throughout lake feeding areas over two consecutive sampling years were genotyped (10 microsatellites) and assigned to one of the three populations. Interpopulation differences in migration were compared based on spatial distribution overlap, habitat selection, migration distance within feeding areas, and morphology. We observed a temporally stable, heterogeneous spatial distribution within feeding areas among populations, with the extent of spatial segregation related to differential habitat selection (represented by littoral zone substrate). Spatial segregation was lowest and gene flow highest (m=0.015) between two populations breeding in separate lake inflows. Segregation was highest and gene flow was lowest (mean m=0.007) between inflow populations and a third population breeding in the outflow. Compared to outflow migrants, inflow migrants showed longer migration distances within feeding areas(64,70 km vs. 22 km). After entering natal rivers to breed, inflow migrants also migrated longer distances (35,75 km) and at greater elevations (50,150 m) to breeding areas than outflow migrants (0,15 km; ,10,0 m). Accordingly, inflow migrants were more streamlined with longer caudal regions, traits known to improve swimming efficiency. There was no association between the geographic distance separating population pairs and the amount of gene flow they exchanged. Collectively, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced gene flow between these brook charr populations results from divergent natural selection leading to interpopulation differences in migration. They also illustrate how phenotypic and genetic differentiation may arise over complex migratory life cycles. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2003
    Lukas Rüber
    Abstract., The American seven-spined gobies (Gobiidae, Gobiosomatini) are highly diverse both in morphology and ecology with many endemics in the Caribbean region. We have reconstructed a molecular phylogeny of 54 Gobio-somatini taxa (65 individuals) based on a 1646-bp region that includes the mitochondrial 12S rRNA, tRNA-Val, and 16S rRNA genes. Our results support the monophyly of the seven-spined gobies and are in agreement with the existence of two major groups within the tribe, the Gobiosoma group and the Microgobius group. However, they reject the monophyly of some of the Gobiosomatini genera. We use the molecular phylogeny to study the dynamics of speciation in the Gobiosomatini by testing for departures from the constant speciation rate model. We observe a burst of speciation in the early evolutionary history of the group and a subsequent slowdown. Our results show a split among clades into coastal-estuarian, deep ocean, and tropical reef habitats. Major habitat shifts account for the early significant acceleration in lineage splitting and speciation rate and the initial divergence of the main Gobiosomatini clades. We found that subsequent diversification is triggered by behavior and niche specializations at least in the reef-associated clades. Overall, our results confirm that the diversity of Gobiosomatini has arisen during episodes of adaptive radiation, and emphasize the importance of ecology in marine speciation. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2003
    Jacintha Ellers
    Abstract Correlated evolution of mate signals and mate preference may be constrained if selection pressures acting on mate preference differ from those acting on mate signals. In particular, opposing selection pressures may act on mate preference and signals when traits have sexual as well as nonsexual functions. In the butterfly Colias philodice eriphyle, divergent selection on wing color across an elevational gradient in response to the thermal environment has led to increasing wing melanization at higher elevations. Wing color is also a long-range signal used by males in mate searching. We conducted experiments to test whether sexual selection on wing melanization via male mate choice acts in the same direction as natural selection on mate signals due to the thermal environment. We performed controlled mate choice experiments in the field over an elevational range of 1500 meters using decoy butterflies with different melanization levels. Also, we obtained a more direct estimate of the relation between wing color and sexual selection by measuring mating success in wild-caught females. Both our experiments showed that wing melanization is an important determinant of female mating success in C. p. eriphyle. However, a lack of elevational variation in male mate preference prevents coevolution of mate signals and mate preference, as males at all elevations prefer less-melanized females. We suggest that this apparently maladaptive mate choice may be maintained by differences in detectability between the morphs or by preservation of species recognition. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2002
    Hans Slabbekoorn
    Abstract., Bird song is a sexual trait important in mate choice and known to be shaped by environmental selection. Here we investigate the ecological factors shaping song variation across a rainforest gradient in central Africa. We show that the little greenbul (Andropadus virens), previously shown to vary morphologically across the gradient in fitness-related characters, also varies with respect to song characteristics. Acoustic features, including minimum and maximum frequency, and delivery rate of song notes showed significant differences between habitats. In contrast, we found dialectal variation independent of habitat in population-typical songtype sequences. This pattern is consistent with ongoing gene flow across habitats and in line with the view that song variation in the order in which songtypes are produced is not dependent on habitat characteristics in the same way physical song characteristics are. Sound transmission characteristics of the two habitats did not vary significantly, but analyses of ambient noise spectra revealed dramatic and consistent habitat-dependent differences. Matching between low ambient noise levels for low frequencies in the rainforest and lower minimal frequencies in greenbul songs in this habitat suggests that part of the song divergence may be driven by habitat-dependent ambient noise patterns. These results suggest that habitat-dependent selection may act simultaneously on traits of ecological importance and those important in prezygotic isolation, leading to an association between morphological and acoustic divergence. Such an association may promote assortative mating and may be a mechanism driving reproductive divergence across ecological gradients. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2000
    Abstract Molecular methods as applied to the biogeography of single species (phylogeography) or multiple codistributed species (comparative phylogeography) have been productively and extensively used to elucidate common historical features in the diversification of the Earth's biota. However, only recently have methods for estimating population divergence times or their confidence limits while taking into account the critical effects of genetic polymorphism in ancestral species become available, and earlier methods for doing so are underutilized. We review models that address the crucial distinction between the gene divergence, the parameter that is typically recovered in molecular phylogeographic studies, and the population divergence, which is in most cases the parameter of interest and will almost always postdate the gene divergence. Assuming that population sizes of ancestral species are distributed similarly to those of extant species, we show that phylogeographic studies in vertebrates suggest that divergence of alleles in ancestral species can comprise from less than 10% to over 50% of the total divergence between sister species, suggesting that the problem of ancestral polymorphism in dating population divergence can be substantial. The variance in the number of substitutions (among loci for a given species or among species for a given gene) resulting from the stochastic nature of DNA change is generally smaller than the variance due to substitutions along allelic lines whose coalescence times vary due to genetic drift in the ancestral population. Whereas the former variance can be reduced by further DNA sequencing at a single locus, the latter cannot. Contrary to phylogeographic intuition, dating population divergence times when allelic lines have achieved reciprocal monophyly is in some ways more challenging than when allelic lines have not achieved monophyly, because in the former case critical data on ancestral population size provided by residual ancestral polymorphism is lost. In the former case differences in coalescence time between species pairs can in principle be explained entirely by differences in ancestral population size without resorting to explanations involving differences in divergence time. Furthermore, the confidence limits on population divergence times are severely underestimated when those for number of substitutions per site in the DNA sequences examined are used as a proxy. This uncertainty highlights the importance of multilocus data in estimating population divergence times; multilocus data can in principle distinguish differences in coalescence time (T) resulting from differences in population divergence time and differences in T due to differences in ancestral population sizes and will reduce the confidence limits on the estimates. We analyze the contribution of ancestral population size (,) to T and the effect of uncertainty in , on estimates of population divergence (,) for single loci under reciprocal monophyly using a simple Bayesian extension of Takahata and Satta's and Yang's recent coalescent methods. The confidence limits on , decrease when the range over which ancestral population size , is assumed to be distributed decreases and when increases; they generally exclude zero when /(4Ne) > 1. We also apply a maximum-likelihood method to several single and multilocus data sets. With multilocus data, the criterion for excluding = 0 is roughly that l/(4Ne)> 1, where l is the number of loci. Our analyses corroborate recent suggestions that increasing the number of loci is critical to decreasing the uncertainty in estimates of population divergence time. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 5 2000
    Patrick D. Danley
    Abstract Within the past two million years, more than 450 species of haplochromine cichlids have diverged from a single common ancestor in Lake Malawi. Several factors have been implicated in the diversification of this monophyletic clade, including changes in lake level and low levels of gene flow across limited geographic scales. The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of recent lake-level fluctuations on patterns of allelic diversity in the genus Metriaclima, to describe the patterns of population structure within this genus, and to identify barriers to migration. This was accomplished through an analysis of allele frequencies at four microsatellite loci. Twelve populations spanning four species within Metriaclima were surveyed. The effect of lake-level fluctuations can be seen in the reduced genetic diversity of the most recently colonized sites; however, genetic diversity is not depressed at the species level. Low levels of population structure exist among populations, yet some gene flow persists across long stretches of inhospitable habitat. No general barrier to migration was identified. The results of this study are interpreted with respect to several speciation models. Divergence via population bottlenecks is unlikely due to the large allelic diversity observed within each species. Genetic drift and microallopatric divergence are also rejected because some gene flow does occur between adjacent populations. However, the reduced levels of gene flow between populations does suggest that minor changes in the selective environment could cause the divergence of populations. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2000
    John Wakeley
    Abstract. An island model of migration is used to study the effects of subdivision within populations and species on sample genealogies and on between-population or between-species measures of genetic variation. The model assumes that the number of demes within each population or species is large. When populations (or species), connected either by gene flow or historical association, are themselves subdivided into demes, changes in the migration rate among demes alter both the structure of genealogies and the time scale of the coalescent process. The time scale of the coalescent is related to the effective size of the population, which depends on the migration rate among demes. When the migration rate among demes within populations is low, isolation (or speciation) events seem more recent and migration rates among populations seem higher because the effective size of each population is increased. This affects the probability of reciprocal monophyly of two samples, the chance that a gene tree of a sample matches the species tree, and relative likelihoods of different types of polymorphic sites. It can also have a profound effect on the estimation of divergence times. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2000
    Thomas P. Quinn
    Abstract. The timing of migration and breeding are key life-history traits; they are not only adaptations of populations to their environments, but can serve to increase reproductive isolation, facilitating further divergence among populations. As part of a study of divergence of chinook salmon, Oncorhynchus tshawytscha, populations, established in New Zealand from a common source in the early 1900s, we tested the hypotheses that the timing of migration and breeding are under genetic control and that the populations genetically differ in these traits despite phenotypic overlap in timing in the wild. Representatives of families from two populations were collected within a day or two of each other, reared in a common environment, and then released to sea from each of two different rivers, while other family representatives were retained in fresh water to maturity. The date of maturation of fish held in fresh water and the dates of return from the ocean and maturation of fish released to sea all showed significant differences between the two populations and among families within populations. The very high heritabilities and genetic correlations estimated for migration and maturation date indicated that these traits would respond rapidly to selection. Combined with the results of related studies on these chinook salmon populations, it appears that spawning time may not only evolve during the initial phases of divergence, but it may play an important role in accelerating divergence in other traits. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2000
    J. Albert C. Uy
    Abstract., Sexual selection driving display trait divergence has been suggested as a cause of rapid speciation, but there is limited supporting evidence for this from natural populations. Where speciation by sexual selection has occurred in newly diverged populations, we expect that there will be significant differences in female preferences and corresponding male display traits in the absence of substantial genetic and other morphological differentiation. Two allopatric populations of the Vogelkop bowerbird, Amblyornis inornatus, show large, qualitative differences in a suite of display traits including bower structure and decorations. We experimentally demonstrate distinct male decoration color preferences within each population, provide direct evidence of female preferences for divergent decoration and bower traits in the population with more elaborate display, and show that there is minimal genetic differentiation between these populations. These results support the speciation by sexual selection hypothesis and are most consistent with the hypothesis that changes in male display have been driven by divergent female choice. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2000
    Kathy Ann Miller
    Pelagophycus porra (Leman) Setchell has a narrow distribution confined to deep water from the Channel Islands off the southern California coast to central Baja California, Mexico. Distinct morphotypes are consistently correlated with distinctive habitats, that is, windward exposures characterized by strong water motion and rocky substrates, and sheltered areas with soft substrates found on the lee sides of the islands. We tested the hypothesis that morphologically and ecologically distinct forms reflect genetically distinct stands. Individuals representing populations from three islands and the mainland were compared using RFLP analyses of the nuclear rDNA internal transcribed spacers (ITS1 and ITS2), chloroplast trnL (UAA) intron sequences, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPDs). No variation was found in a survey of 20 restriction sites of ITS1 (ca. 320 base pair [bp]) and ITS2 (ca. 360 bp) among individuals from six populations. Likewise, comparisons of trnL intron (241 bp) sequences among nine individuals from seven populations were identical with the exception of a CATAGT insert in two adjacent stands. A RAPD analysis of 24 individuals from nine populations (4 windward and 5 leeward) using 16 primers generated 166 bands. Thirty-eight percent of the bands did not vary, 16% were unique to a given individual, and 46% were variable. Neighbor joining analysis produced a well-resolved tree with moderately high bootstrap support in which windward and leeward populations were easily distinguished. The lack of divergence in both the fast evolving nuclear rDNA-ITS and the chloroplast trnL intron does not support the morphotypes as different species. However, the compartmentalized differentiation shown in the RAPD data clearly points to isolation. This, and previous ecological studies that demonstrate habitat specificity suggest that leeward stands probably comprise a species in statu nascendi. [source]

    Seasonal plasticity of brain aromatase mRNA expression in glia: Divergence across sex and vocal phenotypes

    Paul M. Forlano
    Abstract Although teleost fishes have the highest levels of brain aromatase (estrogen synthase) compared to other vertebrates, little is known of its regulation and function in specific brain areas. Previously, we characterized the distribution of aromatase in the brain of midshipman fish, a model system for identifying the neural and endocrine basis of vocal-acoustic communication and alternative male reproductive tactics. Here, we quantified seasonal changes in brain aromatase mRNA expression in the inter- and intrasexually dimorphic sonic motor nucleus (SMN) and in the preoptic area (POA) in males and females in relation to seasonal changes in circulating steroid hormone levels and reproductive behaviors. Aromatase mRNA expression was compared within each sex throughout non-reproductive, pre-nesting, and nesting periods as well as between sexes within each season. Intrasexual (male) differences were also compared within the nesting period. Females had higher mRNA levels in the pre-nesting period when their steroid levels peaked, while acoustically courting (type I) males had highest expression during the nesting period when their steroid levels peaked. Females had significantly higher levels of expression than type I males in all brain areas, but only during the pre-nesting period. During the nesting period, non-courting type II males had significantly higher levels of aromatase mRNA in the SMN but equivalent levels in the POA compared to type I males and females. These results demonstrate seasonal and sex differences in brain aromatase mRNA expression in a teleost fish and suggest a role for aromatase in the expression of vocal-acoustic and alternative male reproductive phenotypes. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Neurobiol, 2005 [source]

    Genetic divergence and ecological specialisation of seed weevils (Exapion spp.) on gorses (Ulex spp.)

    Abstract 1.,Reproductive isolation of sympatric populations may result from divergent selection of populations in different environments, and lead to ecological specialisation. In Brittany (France), the gorse Ulex europaeus (Fabaceae, Genisteae), may be encountered in sympatry with one of the two other gorse species present: U. gallii and U. minor. A recent study based on morphological identification of seed predators of gorse has shown that two weevil species (Curculionoidea, Apionidae) infest gorse pods at different seasons and have different host ranges: Exapion ulicis infests U. europaeus in spring, whereas E. lemovicinum infests U. gallii and U. minor in autumn. Weevil populations may thus have diverged in sympatry. 2.,As morphological identification of weevils is often difficult and some of the characters used may exhibit individual or environmental variation, mitochondrial and nuclear sequences of weevils collected within pods of the three gorse species in 10 populations of Brittany were used to reconstruct their phylogeny. 3.,The results reveal that species differentiation based on morphological characters is confirmed by the two molecular data sets, showing that E. ulicis and E. lemovicinum are distinct species, and suggesting the absence of host races. Finally, E. ulicis was able to use U. gallii and U. minor pods in spring in some years in some populations, which appeared to depend on the availability of pods present during its reproductive period. 4.,Divergence between E. ulicis and E. lemovicinum may have resulted from temporal isolation of reproductive periods of weevil populations followed by specialisation of insects to host phenology. [source]

    Divergence in Female Duetting Signals in the Enchenopa binotata Species Complex of Treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2006
    Rafael L. Rodríguez
    Sexual communication often involves signal exchanges between the sexes, or duetting, in which mate choice is expressed through response signals. With both sexes acting as signalers and receivers, variation in the signals of males and females may be important for mate choice, reproductive isolation, and divergence. In the Enchenopa binotata species complex , a case study of sympatric speciation in which vibrational duetting may have an important role , male signals are species-specific, females choose among males on the basis of signal traits that reflect species and individual differences, and female preferences have exerted divergent selection on male signals. Here, we describe variation in female signals in the E. binotata species complex. We report substantial species differences in the spectral and temporal features of female signals, and in their timing relative to male signals. These differences were similar in range to differences in male signals in the E. binotata complex. We consider processes that might contribute to divergence in female signals, and suggest that signal evolution in the E. binotata complex may be influenced by mate choice in both sexes. [source]

    Population and Species Divergence of Chemical Cues that Influence Male Recognition of Females in Desmognathine Salamanders

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 7 2003
    Paul Verrell
    Growing evidence indicates that males may be more discriminating of mating partners than often has been assumed. In the North American Ocoee dusky salamander, Desmognathus ocoee (Plethodontidae: Desmognathinae), sexual incompatibility among conspecific populations is high in encounters staged in the laboratory, at least in part because males fail to recognize ,other' females as appropriate targets for courtship. I used Y-mazes to test the hypothesis that males of D. ocoee discriminate between substrate-borne chemical cues produced by ,own' (homotypic) and ,other' (heterotypic) females. Males of four populations discriminated in favor of substrates soiled by homotypic females over clean (control) substrates (expt 1), suggesting that females produce chemical cues of sociosexual significance to males. Furthermore, males from these populations discriminated in favor of substrates soiled by homotypic females vs. substrates soiled by heterotypic females (expt 2), both conspecific and heterospecific (D. carolinensis and D. orestes). Thus, differences among populations and species in female chemical cues appear to affect the chemotactic responses of males. I suggest that, together with differences in behavioral signals and responses exhibited during courtship, differences in female chemical cues likely contribute to sexual incompatibility among populations and taxa of desmognathine salamanders. [source]

    Divergence between the Courtship Songs of the Field Crickets Gryllus texensis and Gryllus rubens (Orthoptera, Gryllidae)

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 12 2001
    Mark J. Fitzpatrick
    Acoustic mating signals are often important as both interspecific prezygotic isolating mechanisms and as sexually selected traits in intraspecific mate choice. Here, we investigate the potential for cricket courtship song to act as an isolating mechanism by assessing divergence between the courtship songs of Gryllus texensis and Gryllus rubens, two broadly sympatric cryptic sister species of field crickets with strong prezygotic isolation via the calling song and little or no postzygotic isolation. We found significant species-level differences in the courtship song, but the song has not diverged to the same extent as the calling song, and considerable overlap remains between these two species. Only two related courtship song characters are sufficiently distinct to play a possible role in prezygotic species isolation. [source]

    Divergence of US and Local Returns in the After-market for Equity Issuing ADRs

    Padma Kadiyala
    F30; G12; G14 Abstract We study one-year post-listing prices and returns to equity issuing ADRs that listed in the US between January 1991 and October 2000. ADRs from countries that impose restrictions on capital flows are priced at a premium to their home market ordinaries. While the mean premium for the full sample is statistically indistinguishable from zero, after an adjustment for asynchronous trading, the magnitude of the premium to ADRs from restricted markets is 11.33% at the 300-day post listing interval, which is statistically significant. In the short run (30 days) following listing, the magnitude of the premium is larger for ADRs with larger excess demand from US investors. At the longer 300-day horizon, Nasdaq listed ADRs earn a larger premium than their NYSE/AMEX listed counterparts. Time-series regressions and two-stage cross-sectional regressions establish that the premium to foreign equity issuers is greater if the US listing attracts liquidity and if US returns have a lower correlation with the local country index. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2008
    Rafael L. Rodríguez
    Divergence between populations adapting to different environments may be facilitated when the populations differ in their sexual traits. We tested whether colonizing a novel environment may, through phenotypic plasticity, change sexual traits in a way that could alter the dynamics of sexual selection. This hypothesis has two components: changes in mean phenotypes across environments, and changes in the genetic background of the phenotypes that are produced,or genotype × environment interaction (G × E). We simulated colonization of a novel environment and tested its effect on the mating signals of a member of the Enchenopa binotata species complex of treehoppers (Hemiptera: Membracidae), a clade that has diverged in a process involving host plant shifts and signal diversification. We found substantial genetic variation and G × E in most signal traits measured, with little or no change in mean signal phenotypes. We suggest that the expression of extant genetic variation across old and novel environments can initiate signal divergence. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2007
    R. Brian Langerhans
    Although theory indicates that natural selection can facilitate speciation as a by-product, demonstrating ongoing speciation via this by-product mechanism in nature has proven difficult. We examined morphological, molecular, and behavioral data to investigate ecology's role in incipient speciation for a post-Pleistocene radiation of Bahamas mosquitofish (Gambusia hubbsi) inhabiting blue holes. We show that adaptation to divergent predator regimes is driving ecological speciation as a by-product. Divergence in body shape, coupled with assortative mating for body shape, produces reproductive isolation that is twice as strong between populations inhabiting different predator regimes than between populations that evolved in similar ecological environments. Gathering analogous data on reproductive isolation at the interspecific level in the genus, we find that this mechanism of speciation may have been historically prevalent in Gambusia. These results suggest that speciation in nature can result as a by-product of divergence in ecologically important traits, producing interspecific patterns that persist long after speciation events have completed. [source]