Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Dimorphism

  • gender dimorphism
  • sexual dimorphism
  • sexual size dimorphism
  • size dimorphism
  • wing dimorphism

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 7 2008
    Gabriela Gleiser
    In sexually polymorphic species, the morphs are maintained by frequency-dependent selection through disassortative mating. In heterodichogamous populations in which disassortative mating occurs between the protandrous and protogynous morphs, a decrease in female fitness in one morph is hypothesized to drive sexual specialization in the other morph, resulting in dimorphic populations. We test these ideas in a population of the heterodichogamous species, Acer opalus. We assessed both prospective gender of individuals in terms of their allocations and actual parentage using microsatellites; we found that most matings in A. opalus occur disassortatively. We demonstrate that the protogynous morph is maintained by frequency-dependent selection, but that maintenance of males versus protandrous individuals depends on their relative siring success, which changes yearly. Seeds produced later in the reproductive season were smaller than those produced earlier; this should compromise reproduction through ovules in protandrous individuals, rendering them male biased in gender. Time-dependent gender and paternity analyses indicate that the sexual morphs are specialized in their earlier sexual functions, mediated by the seasonal decrease in seed size. Our results confirm that mating patterns are context-dependent and change seasonally, suggesting that sexual specialization can be driven by seasonal effects on fitness gained through one of the two sexual functions. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2003
    Daniel I. Bolnick
    Abstract Models of adaptive speciation are typically concerned with demonstrating that it is possible for ecologically driven disruptive selection to lead to the evolution of assortative mating and hence speciation. However, disruptive selection could also lead to other forms of evolutionary diversification, including ecological sexual dimorphisms. Using a model of frequency-dependent intraspecific competition, we show analytically that adaptive speciation and dimorphism require identical ecological conditions. Numerical simulations of individual-based models show that a single ecological model can produce either evolutionary outcome, depending on the genetic independence of male and female traits and the potential strength of assortative mating. Speciation is inhibited when the genetic basis of male and female ecological traits allows the sexes to diverge substantially. This is because sexual dimorphism, which can evolve quickly, can eliminate the frequency-dependent disruptive selection that would have provided the impetus for speciation. Conversely, populations with strong assortative mating based on ecological traits are less likely to evolve a sexual dimorphism because females cannot simultaneously prefer males more similar to themselves while still allowing the males to diverge. This conflict between speciation and dimorphism can be circumvented in two ways. First, we find a novel form of speciation via negative assortative mating, leading to two dimorphic daughter species. Second, if assortative mating is based on a neutral marker trait, trophic dimorphism and speciation by positive assortative mating can occur simultaneously. We conclude that while adaptive speciation and ecological sexual dimorphism may occur simultaneously, allowing for sexual dimorphism restricts the likelihood of adaptive speciation. Thus, it is important to recognize that disruptive selection due to frequency-dependent interactions can lead to more than one form of adaptive splitting. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 6 2000

    Abstract Recent colonization of ecologically distinct areas in North America by the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) was accompanied by strong population divergence in sexual size dimorphism. Here we examined whether this divergence was produced by population differences in local selection pressures acting on each sex. In a long-term study of recently established populations in Alabama, Michigan, and Montana, we examined three selection episodes for each sex: selection for pairing success, overwinter survival, and within-season fecundity. Populations varied in intensity of these selection episodes, the contribution of each episode to the net selection, and in the targets of selection. Direction and intensity of selection strongly differed between sexes, and different selection episodes often favored opposite changes in morphological traits. In each population, current net selection for sexual dimorphism was highly concordant with observed sexual dimorphism,in each population, selection for dimorphism was the strongest on the most dimorphic traits. Strong directional selection on sexually dimorphic traits, and similar intensities of selection in both sexes, suggest that in each of the recently established populations, both males and females are far from their local fitness optimum, and that sexual dimorphism has arisen from adaptive responses in both sexes. Population differences in patterns of selection on dimorphism, combined with both low levels of ontogenetic integration in heritable sexually dimorphic traits and sexual dimorphism in growth patterns, may account for the close correspondence between dimorphism in selection and observed dimorphism in morphology across house finch populations. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2000
    Alexander V. Badyaev
    Abstract., Sexual dimorphism is thought to have evolved in response to selection pressures that differ between males and females. Our aim in this study was to determine the role of current net selection in shaping and maintaining contemporary sexual dimorphism in a recently established population of the house finch (Carpodacus mexicanus) in Montana. We found strong differences between sexes in direction of selection on sexually dimorphic traits, significant heritabilities of these traits, and a close congruence between current selection and observed sexual dimorphism in Montana house finches. Strong directional selection on sexually dimorphic traits and similar intensities of selection in each sex suggested that sexual dimorphism arises from adaptive responses in males and females, with both sexes being far from their local fitness optimum. This pattern is expected when a recently established population experiences continuous immigration from ecologically distinct areas of a species range or as a result of widely fluctuating selection pressures, as found in our study. Strong and sexually dimorphic selection pressures on heritable morphological traits, in combination with low phenotypic and genetic covariation among these traits during growth, may have accounted for close congruence between current selection and observed sexual dimorphism in the house finch. This conclusion is consistent with the profound adaptive population divergence in sexual dimorphism that accompanied very successful colonization of most of the North America by the house finch over the last 50 years. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 1 2000
    Marguerite A. Butler
    Abstract., Sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is the evolutionary result of selection operating differently on the body sizes of males and females. Anolis lizard species of the Greater Antilles have been classified into ecomorph classes, largely on the basis of their structural habitat (perch height and diameter). We show that the major ecomorph classes differ in degree of SSD. At least two SSD classes are supported: high SSD (trunk-crown, trunk-ground) and low SSD (trunk, crown-giant, grass-bush, twig). Differences cannot be attributed to an allometric increase of SSD with body size or to a phylogenetic effect. A third explanation, that selective pressures on male and/or female body size vary among habitat types, is examined by evaluating expectations from the major relevant kinds of selective pressures. Although no one kind of selective pressure produces expectations consistent with all of the information, competition with respect to structural habitat and sexual selection pressures are more likely possibilities than competition with respect to prey size or optimal feeding pressures. The existence of habitat-specific sexual dimorphism suggests that adaptation of Anolis species to their environment is more complex than previously appreciated. [source]


    A. R. Martin
    Abstract Measurements and quantitative descriptions of a large sample of live adult botos (Inia geoffrensis) were obtained from the Mamirauá Reserve in the central Amazon. Males were on average 16% longer and weighed 55% more than females, demonstrating that this species is one of the most sexually dimorphic of all cetaceans for size. Males were also pinker than females, more heavily scarred by intraspecific tooth rakes, and had more life-threatening injuries. Some larger males had areas of modified skin that may simply be scar tissue, but may also be a heritable characteristic used as a shield or weapon. As in sperm whales, sexual size dimorphism and male-male aggression appear to be linked in botos, suggesting fierce competition for a resource,probably mating opportunities. The boto is unique among river dolphins in that males are larger than females. This distinction implies long evolutionary separation and fundamental differences in social behavior. [source]


    William F. Perrin
    Abstract Knowledge of geographic variation is important to questions of population assessment and management. Fraser's dolphins have been exploited in two regions in the western Pacific. Analysis of 137 skulls from the Philippines, Japan, Taiwan, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, South Africa, France, the U.S., St. Vincent and the Grenadines, and the eastern tropical Pacific revealed sexual dimorphism in 5 of 26 measurements (difference of 1.9%-5.8% between males and females), similar to levels of cranial dimorphism in other small pelagic delphinids. Males had a larger braincase and temporal fossae and smaller external nares than females. Sexually dimorphic characters were excluded, and male and females samples were pooled to examine geographic differences in the remaining characters. Multivariate analyses yielded significant differences between the Philippine and Japanese series within the North Pacific and between a pooled North Pacific series and a North Atlantic series. The Japanese skulls were on average broader and had a wider rostrum, larger orbit, larger internal nares, and longer braincase than the Philippine skulls. These differences suggest that Fraser's dolphins exploited in Japanese and Philippine waters in directed fisheries or as by catch belong to different populations and should be assessed and managed separately. [source]

    Sexual Dimorphism of Mate Location in the Long-Toed Salamander Ambystoma macrodactylum columbianum

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 8 2001
    Paul Verrell
    In breeding systems characterized by scramble competition among males, theory predicts that the efficient location of mating partners is more important to males than to females as a component of mating success. We experimentally tested in the laboratory the hypothesis that breeding male long-toed salamanders (Ambystomamacrodactylumcolumbianum), which scramble for mating opportunities, are better able to recognize and locate potential mates than are breeding females. Males were more likely to enter traps containing females than empty traps or traps containing males. Traps containing sponges soiled by females were more likely to attract males than traps containing clean (control) sponges, suggesting that chemical cues may be sufficient for mate location by males. Females were no more likely to enter traps containing males than empty traps. Our results are consistent with the theoretical prediction that selection has been stronger on male long-toed salamanders than on females in the context of capacity for recognizing and locating potential mating partners. [source]

    Sexual Dimorphism in America: Geometric Morphometric Analysis of the Craniofacial Region,

    Erin H. Kimmerle Ph.D.
    Abstract:, One of the four pillars of the anthropological protocol is the estimation of sex. The protocol generally consists of linear metric analysis or visually assessing individual skeletal traits on the skull and pelvis based on an ordinal scale of 1,5, ranging from very masculine to very feminine. The morphologic traits are then some how averaged by the investigator to estimate sex. Some skulls may be misclassified because of apparent morphologic features that appear more or less robust due to size differences among individuals. The question of misclassification may be further exemplified in light of comparisons across populations that may differ not only in cranial robusticity but also in stature and general physique. The purpose of this study is to further examine the effect of size and sex on craniofacial shape among American populations to better understand the allometric foundation of skeletal traits currently used for sex estimation. Three-dimensional coordinates of 16 standard craniofacial landmarks were collected using a Microscribe-3DX digitizer. Data were collected for 118 American White and Black males and females from the W.M. Bass Donated Collection and the Forensic Data Bank. The MANCOVA procedure tested shape differences as a function of sex and size. Sex had a significant influence on shape for both American Whites (F = 2.90; d.f. = 19, 39; p > F = 0.0024) and Blacks (F = 2.81; d.f. = 19, 37; p > F = 0.0035), whereas size did not have a significant influence on shape in either Whites (F = 1.69; d.f. = 19, 39; p > F = 0.08) or Blacks (F = 1.09; d.f. = 19, 37; p > F = 0.40). Therefore, for each sex, individuals of various sizes were statistically the same shape. In other words, while significant differences were present between the size of males and females (males on average were larger), there was no size effect beyond that accounted for by sex differences in size. Moreover, the consistency between American groups is interesting as it suggests that population differences in sexual dimorphism may result more from human variation in size than allometric variation in craniofacial morphology. [source]

    Cultural Characterization and Conidial Dimorphism in Colletotrichum sublineolum

    E. A. Souza-Paccola
    Abstract Anthracnose, caused by Colletotrichum sublineolum, is one of the most important diseases of sorghum in Brazil. This fungus showed conidial dimorphism when cultivated on solid or in liquid media. In solid media only falcate conidia were produced, whereas in liquid media the conidia were of variable size, but mostly oval. Wild strains, differentiated by their , and , esterase electrophoretic profiles, were assessed. The effect of different culture media on the production of both conidial types was evaluated. Unlike that of oval conidia, the production of falcate conidia was light-dependent. Some strains failed to produce falcate conidia in solid media, but all produced oval conidia in all the liquid media. The falcate conidia were uninucleate, but oval conidia contained one to three nuclei, although most were uninucleate. Both types of conidia induced symptoms in inoculable sorghum plants under controlled conditions. Both oval and falcate conidia produced mutants after exposure to UV light, and hyphal anastomoses occurred in crosses between mutant conidia carriers of complementary markers. The production of these oval conidia in C. sublineolum is an alternative to pathogenicity tests and genetic studies, especially for strains that sporulate poorly in solid culture media. [source]

    Resistance exercise increases leg muscle protein synthesis and mTOR signalling independent of sex

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    H. C. Dreyer
    Abstract Aim:, Sex differences are evident in human skeletal muscle as the cross-sectional area of individual muscle fibres is greater in men than in women. We have recently shown that resistance exercise stimulates mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling and muscle protein synthesis in humans during early post-exercise recovery. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine if sex influences the muscle protein synthesis response during recovery from resistance exercise. Methods:, Seventeen subjects, nine male and eight female, were studied in the fasted state before, during and for 2 h following a bout of high-intensity leg resistance exercise. Mixed muscle protein fractional synthetic rate was measured using stable isotope techniques and mTOR signalling was assessed by immunoblotting from repeated vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples. Results:, Post-exercise muscle protein synthesis increased by 52% in the men and by 47% in the women (P < 0.05) and was not different between groups (P > 0.05). Akt phosphorylation increased in both groups at 1 h post-exercise (P < 0.05) and returned to baseline during 2 h post-exercise with no differences between groups (P > 0.05). Phosphorylation of mTOR and its downstream effector S6K1 increased significantly and similarly between groups during post-exercise recovery (P < 0.05). eEF2 phosphorylation decreased at 1- and 2 h post-exercise (P < 0.05) to a similar extent in both groups. Conclusion:, The contraction-induced increase in early post-exercise mTOR signalling and muscle protein synthesis is independent of sex and appears to not play a role in the sexual dimorphism of leg skeletal muscle in young men and women. [source]

    Evidence against a sexual dimorphism in glucose and fatty acid metabolism in skeletal muscle cultures from age-matched men and post-menopausal women

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 3 2009
    A. Rune
    Abstract Aim:,In vivo whole body differences in glucose/lipid metabolism exist between men and women. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that intrinsic sex differences exist in skeletal muscle gene expression and glucose/lipid metabolism using cultured myotubes. Methods:, Myotube cultures were prepared for gene expression and metabolic studies from vastus lateralis skeletal muscle biopsies obtained from age-matched men (n = 11; 59 ± 2 years) and post-menopausal women (n = 10; 60 ± 1 years). Results:, mRNA expression of several genes involved in glucose and lipid metabolism was higher in skeletal muscle biopsies from female vs. male donors, but unaltered between the sexes in cultured myotubes. Basal and insulin-stimulated glucose uptake, as well as glucose incorporation into glycogen, was similar in myotube cultures derived from male vs. female donors. In males vs. females, insulin increased glucose uptake (1.3 ± 0.1 vs. 1.5 ± 0.1-fold respectively) and incorporation into glycogen (2.3 ± 0.3 vs. 2.0 ± 0.3-fold respectively) to the same extent. Basal fatty acid oxidation and rate of uptake/accumulation was similar between sexes. In response to the 5,AMP-activated protein kinase activator AICAR, lipid oxidation was increased to the same extent in myotubes established from male vs. female donors (1.6 ± 0.6 vs. 2.0 ± 0.3-fold respectively). Moreover, the AICAR-induced rate of uptake/accumulation was similar between sexes. Conclusion:, Differences in metabolic parameters and gene expression profiles between age-matched men and post-menopausal women noted in vivo are not observed in cultured human skeletal muscle cells. Thus, the sexual dimorphism in glucose and lipid metabolism is likely a consequence of systemic whole body factors, rather than intrinsic differences in the skeletal muscle proper. [source]

    Sexual dimorphism of g-protein subunit Gng13 expression in the cortical region of the developing mouse ovary

    Akihiro Fujino
    Abstract In our search for genes required for the development and function of mouse gonads, we identified Gng13 (guanine nucleotide binding protein 13, gamma), a gene with an embryonic expression pattern highly restricted to the ovary. Based on reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and whole-mount in situ hybridization, Gng13 is expressed in both XX and XY gonads at embryonic day (E) 11.5, but becomes up-regulated in the XX gonad by E12.5. Expression is retained after treatment with busulfan, a chemical known to eliminate germ cells, pointing to the soma as a site of Gng13 transcription. In situ hybridization of embryonic ovarian tissue sections further localized the expression to the cortex of the developing XX gonad. Gng13 expression in the adult is also highly restricted. Northern blot analyses and Genomic Institute of the Novartis Research Foundation expression profiling of adult tissues detected very high expression in the cerebrum and cerebellum, in addition to, a weaker signal in the ovary. Gng13 belongs to a well-known family of signal transduction molecules with functions in many aspects of development and organ physiology. Here, we report that, in the developing mouse embryo, expression of Gng13 mRNA is highly restricted to the cortex of the XX gonad during sexual differentiation, suggesting a role for this gene during ovarian development. Developmental Dynamics 236:1991,1996, 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Sex differences in and hormonal regulation of Kv1 potassium channel gene expression in the electric organ: Molecular control of a social signal

    W. Preston Few
    Abstract Electric fish communicate with electric organ (EO) discharges (EODs) that are sexually dimorphic, hormone-sensitive, and often individually distinct. The cells of the EO (electrocytes) of the weakly electric fish Sternopygus possess delayed rectifying K+ currents that systematically vary in their activation and deactivation kinetics, and this precise variation in K+ current kinetics helps shape sex and individual differences in the EOD. Because members of the Kv1 subfamily produce delayed rectifier currents, we cloned a number of genes in the Kv1 subfamily from the EO of Sternopygus. Using our sequences and those from genome databases, we found that in teleost fish Kv1.1 and Kv1.2 exist as duplicate pairs (Kv1.1a&b, Kv1.2a&b) whereas Kv1.3 does not. Using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we found that Kv1.1a and Kv1.2a, but not Kv1.2b, expression in the EO is higher in high EOD frequency females (which have fast EO K+ currents) than in low EOD frequency males (which have slow EO K+ currents). Systemic treatment with dihydrotestosterone decreased Kv1.1a and Kv1.2a, but not Kv1.2b, expression in the EO, whereas treatment with human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) increased Kv1.2a but not Kv1.1a or Kv1.2b expression in the EO. Thus, systematic variation in the ratios of Kv1 channels expressed in the EO is correlated with individual differences in and sexual dimorphism of a communication signal. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2007 [source]

    Disruption of insulin pathways alters trehalose level and abolishes sexual dimorphism in locomotor activity in Drosophila

    Yesser Hadj Belgacem
    Abstract Insulin signaling pathways are implicated in several physiological processes in invertebrates, including the control of growth and life span; the latter of these has also been correlated with juvenile hormone (JH) deficiency. In turn, JH levels have been correlated with sex-specific differences in locomotor activity. Here, the involvement of the insulin signaling pathway in sex-specific differences in locomotor activity was investigated in Drosophila. Ablation of insulin-producing neurons in the adult pars-intercerebralis was found to increase trehalosemia and to abolish sexual dimorphism relevant to locomotion. Conversely, hyper-insulinemia induced by insulin injection or by over-expression of an insulin-like peptide decreases trehalosemia but does not affect locomotive behavior. Moreover, we also show that in the head of adult flies, the insulin receptor (InR) is expressed only in the fat body surrounding the brain. While both male and female InR mutants are hyper-trehalosemic, they exhibit similar patterns of locomotor activity. Our results indicate that first, insulin controls trehalosemia in adults, and second, like JH, it controls sex-specific differences in the locomotor activity of adult Drosophila in a manner independent of its effect on trehalose metabolism. © 2005 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Neurobiol, 2006 [source]

    Histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and salivary pumps in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2010
    Shuyu Liu
    Abstract Liu, S. and Hua, B. 2009. Histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and salivary pumps in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusa (Mecoptera: Panorpidae). ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 91: 457,465. The morphology, histology and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and salivary pumps in the scorpionfly Panorpa obtusaCheng 1949 were investigated using light microscopy and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The salivary glands display a distinct sexual dimorphism. The female has only two small sac-like glands located in the prothorax, while the male possesses six long tubular glands extending into the sixth abdominal segment. The male salivary glands can be divided into five distinct regions. The apical long, thin secretory region possesses numerous secretory cells containing large secretory vesicles; the salivary reservoir expands in diameter, accumulating and temporarily storing the saliva in addition to secreting saliva; the constricted region contains prismatic cells with complex infolded plasma membrane; the sac has an internal brush border to absorb water and ions; the common salivary duct contains longitudinal muscles in the male, but not in the female. The salivary pump possesses independent strong dorsal muscles and abundant internal palm spines near its orifice. The anatomy and ultrastructure of the salivary glands and the salivary pump of scorpionflies as well as their possible functions are briefly discussed. [source]

    Comparative growth in the postnatal skull of the extant North American turtle Pseudemys texana (Testudinoidea: Emydidae)

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2 2008
    Gabe S. Bever
    Abstract Bever, G.S. 2007. Comparative growth in the postnatal skull of the extant North American turtle Pseudemys texana (Testudinoidea: Emydidae). ,Acta Zoologica (Stockholm) 88: 000,000 Postnatal growth is one of the many aspects of developmental morphology that remains distinctly understudied in reptiles. Variation and ontogenetic scaling within the skull of the extant emydid turtle, Pseudemys texana is described based on 25 continuous characters. Results indicate that skull shape in this species changes little during postnatal growth relative to the only cryptodire taxa for which comparable datasets are available (Apalone ferox and Sternotherus odoratus). This relative lack of change results in the paedomorphic retention of a largely juvenile appearance in the adult form of P. texana. The skulls of males and females, despite the presence of distinct sexual dimorphism in size, grow with similar scaling patterns, and the few observed differences appear to reflect alteration of the male growth trajectory. Comparisons with A. ferox and S. odoratus reveal a number of similarities and differences that are here interpreted within a phylogenetic context. These preliminary hypotheses constitute predictive statements that phylogenetically bracket the majority of extant cryptodire species and provide baseline comparative data that are necessary for the future recognition of apomorphic transformations. Plasticity of ontogenetic scaling as a response to the homeostatic needs and behaviour of individuals commonly is evoked as a limitation of ontogenetic scaling as a means to inform phylogenetic studies. These evocations are largely unfounded considering that variability itself can evolve and thus be phylogenetically informative. [source]

    Morphometry and sexual dimorphism of the coastal spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata graffmani, from Bahía de Banderas, Mexico

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2004
    Laura Sanvicente-Añorve
    Abstract External measurements and size differences between the sexes were examined in the coastal spotted dolphin, Stenella attenuata graffmani, in Bahía de Banderas, on the Mexican Pacific coast. The dolphins were collected by local fishermen and 29 external characteristics were measured by members of the Marine Mammals Laboratory, University of Mexico. The length of each characteristic with respect to total length was analysed through adjustment of the data to a power equation. A stepwise discriminant analysis was applied to the absolute values and to those expressed as proportions to analyse the differences between the sexes. Results indicate that growth in these dolphins is generally negatively allometric, and most of the characteristics measured were, in both absolute and proportional terms, greater in male dolphins than in female dolphins. As found in many species of odontocetes, the discriminant analysis showed that the main differences between the sexes for this coastal subspecies include the relative positions of the umbilicus, the genital aperture and the anus. The morphometric data provided by this study, corresponding to 29 specimens of S. a. graffmani collected in a restricted locality of the Mexican Pacific coast, are particularly interesting to studies documenting latitudinal morphological differences in the coastal spotted dolphin. [source]

    The wing vestiture of the non-ditrysian Lepidoptera (Insecta).

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2001
    Comparative morphology, phylogenetic implications
    Abstract The ultrastructure of the dorsal forewing vestiture in exemplars of all family group taxa of non-ditrysian Lepidoptera is examined, and the evolutionary implications at family level and above are discussed. Wing-scale terminology is reviewed. Three different types of bilayer wing-scale covering are recognized; only a few groups have a single-layer wing-scale covering. The general scale arrangement is random, but a few taxa have clustered scale arrangements and scattered heteroneurans have scales arranged in transverse rows. Cross ribs are present in all taxa, but only as vestiges in eriocraniid cover scales. Ridge dimorphism is widespread in Neolepidoptera. Surprisingly, ridges and cross ribs on the adwing scale surface are of general occurrence in Neopseustidae and Hepialidae, and are even found on parts of the ground scales of many other Neolepidoptera. Morphological evidence strongly indicates that the fused wing-scale types found in non-Coelolepidan Lepidoptera and Neolepidoptera are independently evolved, as evidenced from the presence of vestigial perforations. Absence of perforations is not infallible evidence that a scale is solid. Microtrichia are independently reduced in a number of taxa and probably re-evolved in at least higher nepticulids. Wing vestiture and scale characters indicate that Tischerioidea may be the sister group of Ditrysia. [source]

    The effect of host developmental stage at parasitism on sex-related size differentiation in a larval endoparasitoid

    Abstract. 1For their larval development, parasitoids depend on the quality and quantity of resources provided by a single host. Therefore, a close relationship is predicted between the size of the host at parasitism and the size of the emerging adult wasp. This relationship is less clear for koinobiont than for idiobiont parasitoids. 2As size differentiation in host species exhibiting sexual size dimorphism (SSD) is likely to occur already during larval development, in koinobiont larval endoparasitoids the size of the emerging adult may also be constrained based on the sex of the host caterpillar. 3Sex-specific growth trajectories were compared in unparasitised Plutella xylostella caterpillars and in second and fourth instar hosts that were parasitised by the solitary larval koinobiont endoparasitoid Diadegma semiclausum. Both species exhibit SSD, where females are significantly larger than males. 4Healthy female P. xylostella caterpillars developed significantly faster than their male conspecifics. Host regulation induced by D. semiclausum parasitism depended on the instar attacked. Parasitism in second-instar caterpillars reduced growth compared to healthy unparasitised caterpillars, whereas parasitism in fourth-instar caterpillars arrested development. The reduction in growth was most pronounced in hosts producing male D. semiclausum. 5Parasitism itself had the largest impact on host growth. SSD in the parasitoid is mainly the result of differences in growth rate of the parasitoid,host complex producing male and female wasps and differences in exploitation of the host resources. Female wasps converted host biomass more efficiently into adult biomass than males. [source]

    Correlated morphological and colour differences among females of the damselfly Ischnura elegans

    Abstract 1.,The female-limited colour polymorphic damselfly Ischnura elegans has proven to be an interesting study organism both as an example of female sexual polymorphism, and in the context of the evolution of colour polymorphism, as a model of speciation processes. 2.,Previous research suggests the existence of correlations between colour morph and other phenotypic traits, and the different female morphs in I. elegans may be pursuing alternative phenotypically integrated strategies. However, previous research on morphological differences in southern Swedish individuals of this species was only carried out on laboratory-raised offspring from a single population, leaving open the question of how widespread such differences are. 3.,The present study therefore analysed multi-generational data from 12 populations, investigating morphological differences between the female morphs in the field, differences in the pattern of phenotypic integration between morphs, and quantified selection on morphological traits. 4.,It was found that consistent morphological differences indeed existed between the morphs across populations, confirming that the previously observed differences were not simply a laboratory artefact. It was also found, somewhat surprisingly, that despite the existence of sexual dimorphism in body size and shape, patterns of phenotypic integration differed most between the morphs and not between the sexes. Finally, linear selection gradients showed that female morphology affected fecundity differently between the morphs. 5.,We discuss the relevance of these results to the male mimicry hypothesis and to the existence of potential ecological differences between the morphs. [source]

    Achieving high sexual size dimorphism in insects: females add instars

    Abstract 1.,In arthropods, the evolution of sexual size dimorphism (SSD) may be constrained by a physiological limit on growth within each particular larval instar. A high SSD could, however, be attained if the larvae of the larger sex pass through a higher number of larval instars. 2.,Based on a survey of published case studies, the present review shows that sex-related difference in the number of instars is a widespread phenomenon among insects. In the great majority of species with a sexually dimorphic instar number, females develop through a higher number of instars than males. 3.,Female-biased sexual dimorphism in final sizes in species with sexually dimorphic instar number was found to considerably exceed a previously estimated median value of SSD for insects in general. This suggests a causal connection between high female-biased SSD, and additional instars in females. Adding an extra instar to larval development allows an insect to increase its adult size at the expense of prolonged larval development. 4.,As in the case of additional instars, SSD is fully formed late in ontogeny, larval growth schedules and imaginal sizes can be optimised independently. No conflict between selective pressures operating in juvenile and adult stages is therefore expected. 5.,In most species considered, the number of instars also varied within the sexes. Phenotypic plasticity in instar number may thus be a precondition for a sexual difference in instar number to evolve. [source]

    Male-biased size dimorphism in ichneumonine wasps (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) , the role of sexual selection for large male size

    Tiit Teder
    Abstract., 1.,Sexual differences in body size are expected to evolve when selection on female and male sizes favours different optima. 2.,Insects have typically female-biased size dimorphism that is usually explained by the strong fecundity advantage of larger size in females. However, numerous exceptions to this general pattern have led to the search for selective pressures favouring larger size in males. 3.,In this study, the benefits of large size were investigated in males of four species of ichneumonine wasps, a species-rich group of parasitoids, many representatives of which exhibit male-biased size dimorphism. 4.,Mating behaviour of all ichneumonine wasps are characterised by pre-copulatory struggles, in the course of which males attempt to override female reluctance to mate. A series of laboratory trials was conducted to study the determinants of male mating success. 5.,A tendency was found for larger males as well as those in better condition to be more successful in achieving copulations. Size dimorphism of the species studied, mostly male-biased in hind tibia length but female-biased in body weight, indicates that sexual selection in males favours longer bodies and appendages rather than larger weight. 6.,The qualitative similarity of the mating patterns suggests that sexual selection cannot completely explain the considerable among-species differences in sexual size dimorphism. 7.,The present study cautions against using various size indices as equivalents for calculating sexual size dimorphism. 8.,It is suggested that female reluctance in ichneumonine wasps functions as a mechanism of female mate assessment. [source]

    Sexual size dimorphism in the two spot ladybird beetle Adalia bipunctata: developmental mechanism and its consequences for mating

    Hironori Yasuda
    Abstract ,1. The literature on ladybirds indicates that males are consistently smaller than females but take the same length of time to complete their development. Rearing Adalia bipunctata at 20 and 25 °C confirmed that protandry cannot account for sexual size dimorphism in this species, nor can a difference in egg size. 2. Female larvae consumed more food and had a higher relative growth rate in the fourth instar than did male larvae. 3. When food is limited, small males appear to be more successful at mating than are large males. 4. To account for these results, it is hypothesised that the gonads of male larvae compete more strongly with the soma for resources and that this reduces the growth potential of the soma of male larvae relative to that of female larvae. The greater mating success of small males when food is limited supports the eat or mate hypothesis, which predicts that when food is limited small males will spend less time feeding and more time mating than will large males. [source]

    Gamete production and sexual size dimorphism in an insect (Orchesella cincta) with indeterminate growth

    G. Ernsting
    Abstract 1. The relationship of growth and body size with reproductive effort in animal species has been studied much less for males than for females. This imbalance applies to Orchesella cincta (L.) (Collembola), an insect with indeterminate growth, in which egg production is related positively to body size and negatively to growth. 2. To allow a comparison of the reproductive effort of male and female O. cincta, development and growth in immature stages of both sexes, and growth and spermatophore production for adult males were studied. 3. Embryonic development time and hatchling size did not differ between prospective males and females, but from hatching on the trajectories diverged, with males growing more slowly and maturing earlier and at a much smaller body size than females. 4. Neither the number of spermatophores deposited in the first adult instar (= inter-moult period) nor the total number of spermatophores deposited during seven instars was related to body size or growth. 5. Differences in growth rate between instars with and without spermatophore deposition indicated that the physiology of spermatophore production inhibits growth, which, however, was compensated for during the next instar. 6. The difference in the relationship of gamete production with body size and growth between males and females explains the divergence of their size at maturity. [source]

    Darwin's cross-promotion hypothesis and the evolution of stylar polymorphism

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 12 2004
    Adeline C. Cesaro
    Abstract There is growing appreciation that the ecological factors which impact on rates of pollen transfer can contribute significantly to reproductive trait evolution in plants. In heterostylous species, several studies support Darwin's claim that the reciprocal positions of stigmas and anthers enhance inter-morph mating in comparison to intra-morph mating and thus the maintenance of the polymorphism. In this study, we evaluate the relative importance of intra-morph and inter-morph pollen transfers in Narcissus assoanus, a species with dimorphic variation in style length but non-reciprocity of anther positions. This stigma-height dimorphism represents a transitional stage in theoretical models of the evolution of distyly. Seed set variation on recipient plants with donor plants of a single morph in experimental arrays in a natural population illustrate that inter-morph cross-pollination is more efficient that intra-morph cross-pollination as a result of high rates of pollen transfer from long-styled to short-styled plants. The observed rates of pollen transfer satisfy the theoretical conditions for the establishment of a stigma-height dimorphism in an ancestral monomorphic long-styled population in pollen-limited situations. These results provide experimental evidence for the Darwinian hypothesis that enhanced inter-morph cross-pollination facilitates not only the maintenance of heterostyly but also the establishment of transitional forms implicated in the evolution of this polymorphism. [source]

    No evidence that sexual selection is an ,engine of speciation' in birds

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 3 2003
    Edward H. Morrow
    Abstract Sexual selection has been implicated as having a role in promoting speciation, as it should increase the rate of evolution of reproductive isolation, and there is some comparative evidence that sexual selection may be related to imbalances in clade size seen in resolved phylogenies. By employing a new comparative method we are able to investigate the role of sexual selection in explaining the patterns of species richness across birds. We used data for testes size as an index of post-mating sexual selection, and sexual size dimorphism and sexual dichromatism as indices of pre-mating sexual selection. These measures were obtained for 1031 species representing 467 genera. None of the variables investigated explained the patterns of species richness. As sexual selection may also increase extinction rates, the net effect on species richness in any given clade will depend on the balancing effects of sexual selection upon speciation and extinction rates. We suggest that variance across clades in this balance may have resulted in the lack of a relationship between species richness and sexual selection seen in birds. [source]

    Taxonomic Notes on Myllocerus malignus Faust (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Entiminae)

    Kyungduk HAN
    ABSTRACT ABSTRACT Myllocerus malignus Faust was described new to science from Korea in 1887. Since then, the species collected from Korea and Far-east Russia has been misidentified as Eumyllocerus gratiosus Sharp, E. filicornis (Reitter), or E. longulus Egorov et Zherikhin. A taxonomic review of Myllocerus malignus Faust (1887) with its synonymy and the clarification of sexual dimorphism is presented. As a results, Myllocerus viridiaureus Suvorov (1915) and Eumyllocerus longulus Egorov et Zherikhin (1990) are synonymized with Myllocerus malignus. [source]

    Interpopulation differences in the mandible size of the coastal tiger beetle Lophyridia angulata associated with different sympatric species

    Aya SATOH
    Abstract The coastal tiger beetle Lophyridia angulata (Fabricius) co-occurs with one or two tiger beetle species at any one locality (in a sandy beach habitat) along the Japan Sea coast of Honshu, from eastern to southern Kyushu, and on Tanega-shima, an island south of Kyushu, in Japan. Lophyridia angulata displays sexual dimorphism in mandible length (the mandible is longer in females), and shows large interpopulation differences in mandible size. We analyzed variation in mandible length between L. angulata populations associated with three different sympatric species, and examined morphological differences that may have resulted from interaction with these other species. Lophyridia angulata showed a significant size shift towards larger mandibles in a population that co-occurred with Cicindela lewisii, which has a similar mandible length to that of L. angulata, as compared to a neighboring population of L. angulata that co-occurred with another species. This pattern may be interpreted as a type of character displacement associated with food resource competition. Males in L. angulata populations co-occurring with Chaetodera laetescripta showed little variation in mandible length, as compared to other populations. These males may experience some pressure from C. laetescripta and from conspecific females. We found no significant changes in mandible length or in size variation of L. angulata before and 20 years after the extinction of Abroscelis anchoralis at one site historically co-inhabited by both species; that is, we did not detect a character release over the 20 years. [source]

    Offspring production and development in the parasitoid wasp Melittobia clavicornis (Cameron) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Japan

    Jorge M. GONZÁLEZ
    Abstract The development time, sex ratio and offspring production of Melittobia clavicornis reared with wild, facultative and factitious hosts are presented. Known hosts and different biological aspects presented in previously published reports are summarized and clarified. Immature development time was equivalent or slightly longer than that of other Melittobia species, and the sex ratio was approximately 97% female. Total offspring numbers were considerably lower than that of other Melittobia species using the same hosts. We report female dimorphism in this species for the first time. The number and relative proportion of brachypterous morph females produced was higher than that in other species of the genus. [source]