Dark Matter (dark + matter)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Dark Matter

  • cold dark matter

  • Terms modified by Dark Matter

  • dark matter halo
  • dark matter particle

  • Selected Abstracts

    Peculiar relics from Primordial Black Holes in the inflationary paradigm

    ANNALEN DER PHYSIK, Issue 3 2004
    A. Barrau
    Abstract Depending on various assumptions on the energy scale of inflation and assuming a primordial power spectrum of a step-like structure, we explore new possibilities for Primordial Black Holes (PBH) and Planck relics to contribute substantially to Cold Dark Matter in the Universe. A recently proposed possibility to produce Planck relics in four-dimensional string gravity is considered in this framework. Possible experimental detection of PBHs through gravitational waves is also explored. We stress that inflation with a low energy scale, and also possibly when Planck relics are produced, leads unavoidably to relics originating from PBHs that are not effectively classical during their formation, rendering the usual formalism inadequate for them. [source]

    A Strange Alchemy: Cornelia Parker

    ART HISTORY, Issue 3 2003
    Lisa Tickner
    Cornelia Parker was nominated for the Turner Prize in 1997 and has exhibited widely in Britain, Europe and America, including a solo exhibition at the Serpentine Gallery in 1998. In conversation with Lisa Tickner, she discusses the impact of her early training and explores in detail sculptures and installations produced and exhibited since 1989. These include Thirty Pieces of Silver (1998), Cold Dark Matter: An Exploded View (1991) and The Maybe (1995). Parker discusses these works with reference to her fascination with particular materials, working processes and sculptural transformations. [source]

    Galactic Sun's motion in the cold dark matter, MOdified Newtonian Dynamics and modified gravity scenarios

    L. Iorio
    Abstract We numerically integrate the equations of motion of the Sun in Galactocentric Cartesian rectangular coordinates for ,4.5 Gyr , t , 0 in Newtonian mechanics with two different models for the Cold Dark Matter (CDM) halo, in MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and in MOdified Gravity (MOG) without resorting to CDM. The initial conditions used come from the latest kinematical determination of the 3D Sun's motion in the Milky Way (MW) by assuming for the rotation speed of the Local Standard of Rest (LSR) the recent value ,0 = 268 km s,1 and the IAU recommended value ,0 = 220 km s,1; the Sun is assumed located at 8.5 kpc from the Galactic Center (GC). For ,0 = 268 km s,1 the birth of the Sun, 4.5 Gyr ago, would have occurred at large Galactocentric distances (12,27 kpc depending on the model used), while for ,0 = 220 km s,1 it would have occurred at about 8.8,9.3 kpc for almost all the models used. The integrated trajectories are far from being circular, especially for ,0 = 268 km s,1, and differ each other with the CDM models yielding the widest spatial extensions for the Sun's orbital path (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    ,Dark Matter': Institutional Constraints and the Failure of Party-based Euroscepticism in Germany

    POLITICAL STUDIES, Issue 2 2002
    Charles Lees
    The article is built on four propositions. First, there is a latent potential within the German polity for the mobilisation of what remains a significant level of popular unease about aspects of the ongoing process of European integration. Second, at present this potential is unfulfilled and, as a result, Euroscepticism remains the ,dark matter' of German politics. Third, the absence of a clearly stated Eurosceptical agenda is not due to the inherent ,enlightenment' of the German political class about the European project, but rather is the result of systemic disincentives shaping the preferences of rational acting politicians. Finally, these systemic disincentives are to be found within the formal institutions of the German polity. The key ideas here are of ,hard' versus ,soft' Eurosceptical narratives, sustained versus heresthetic agendas, and ,polis constraining' versus ,polis shaping' strategies for their promotion. Political agents' choice of strategy depends on the nature of the institutional setting within which they are operating. The institutional configuration of the Federal Republic provides poor returns for party-based Euroscepticism. The mobilisation of popular unease about aspects of European integration remains an unattractive option for rational acting political agents. [source]

    Surrealistic Exuberance , Dark Matters

    Neil Spiller
    Abstract For Neil Spiller, there is a current vacuum in much of contemporary parametric design. It is devoid of embodied cultural experience and character. Much can be learnt by rediscovering the dark matter of Baroque and Surrealistic art and architecture, which through repressed eroticism optimised on the simultaneous presence of the secular and the profane - the heaving physicality of the everyday world and the repressed strictures of the Catholic church. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The missing dark matter in the wealth of nations and its implications for global imbalances

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 51 2007
    Ricardo Hausmann
    SUMMARY Dark matter and international imbalances Current account statistics may not be good indicators of the evolution of a country's net foreign assets and of its external position's sustainability. The value of existing assets may vary independently of current account flows, so-called ,return privileges' may allow some countries to obtain abnormal returns, and mismeasurement of FDI, unreported trade of insurance or liquidity services, and debt relief may also play a role. We analyse the relevant evidence in a large set of countries and periods, and examine measures of net foreign assets obtained by capitalizing the net investment income and then estimating the current account from the changes in this stock of foreign assets. We call dark matter the difference between our measure of net foreign assets and that measured by official statistics. We find it to be important for many countries, analyse its relationship with theoretically relevant factors, and note that the resulting perspective tends to make global net asset positions appear relatively stable. , Ricardo Hausmann and Federico Sturzenegger [source]

    Dark matter behaves itself in galaxy clusters

    ASTRONOMY & GEOPHYSICS, Issue 3 2010
    Article first published online: 24 MAY 2010
    While the nature of dark matter is proving elusive, its location is becoming ever more precisely known thanks to more sophisticated means of measuring its gravitational effects. [source]

    The missing dark matter in the wealth of nations and its implications for global imbalances

    ECONOMIC POLICY, Issue 51 2007
    Ricardo Hausmann
    SUMMARY Dark matter and international imbalances Current account statistics may not be good indicators of the evolution of a country's net foreign assets and of its external position's sustainability. The value of existing assets may vary independently of current account flows, so-called ,return privileges' may allow some countries to obtain abnormal returns, and mismeasurement of FDI, unreported trade of insurance or liquidity services, and debt relief may also play a role. We analyse the relevant evidence in a large set of countries and periods, and examine measures of net foreign assets obtained by capitalizing the net investment income and then estimating the current account from the changes in this stock of foreign assets. We call dark matter the difference between our measure of net foreign assets and that measured by official statistics. We find it to be important for many countries, analyse its relationship with theoretically relevant factors, and note that the resulting perspective tends to make global net asset positions appear relatively stable. , Ricardo Hausmann and Federico Sturzenegger [source]

    Raman scattering from double-walled carbon nanotubes

    H. Kuzmany
    Abstract Raman scattering from double-walled carbon nanotubes is reported with particular emphasis on the response from the radial breathing mode (RBM) of the inner-shell tubes. The unexpected large number of very narrow lines observed is explained by the growth of one and the same inner tube type in different outer tubes in a highly shielded environment. The response of the RBM and of the G-line is used to analyze the transition from peapods to double-walled carbon nanotubes. During the transformation process the Raman response disappears for a short time, indicating the existence of some Raman dark matter. By preparing the starting peapods from heterofullerenes such as (C59N)2 or 13C-substituted fullerenes, hetero-nanotubes can be grown where nitrogen or the 13C atoms are incorporated into the inner tube wall. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cosmic flows on 100 h,1 Mpc scales: standardized minimum variance bulk flow, shear and octupole moments

    Hume A. Feldman
    ABSTRACT The low-order moments, such as the bulk flow and shear, of the large-scale peculiar velocity field are sensitive probes of the matter density fluctuations on very large scales. In practice, however, peculiar velocity surveys are usually sparse and noisy, which can lead to the aliasing of small-scale power into what is meant to be a probe of the largest scales. Previously, we developed an optimal ,minimum variance' (MV) weighting scheme, designed to overcome this problem by minimizing the difference between the measured bulk flow (BF) and that which would be measured by an ideal survey. Here we extend this MV analysis to include the shear and octupole moments, which are designed to have almost no correlations between them so that they are virtually orthogonal. We apply this MV analysis to a compilation of all major peculiar velocity surveys, consisting of 4536 measurements. Our estimate of the BF on scales of ,100 h,1 Mpc has a magnitude of |v| = 416 ± 78 km s ,1 towards Galactic l= 282°± 11° and b= 6°± 6°. This result is in disagreement with , cold dark matter with Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe 5 (WMAP5) cosmological parameters at a high confidence level, but is in good agreement with our previous MV result without an orthogonality constraint, showing that the shear and octupole moments did not contaminate the previous BF measurement. The shear and octupole moments are consistent with WMAP5 power spectrum, although the measurement noise is larger for these moments than for the BF. The relatively low shear moments suggest that the sources responsible for the BF are at large distances. [source]

    Abundances, masses and weak-lensing mass profiles of galaxy clusters as a function of richness and luminosity in ,CDM cosmologies

    Stefan Hilbert
    ABSTRACT We test the concordance , cold dark matter (,CDM) cosmology by comparing predictions for the mean properties of galaxy clusters to observations. We use high-resolution N -body simulations of cosmic structure formation and semi-analytic models of galaxy formation to compute the abundance, mean density profile and mass of galaxy clusters as a function of richness and luminosity, and we compare these predictions to observations of clusters in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) maxBCG catalogue. We discuss the scatter in the mass,richness relation, the reconstruction of the cluster mass function from the mass,richness relation and fits to the weak-lensing cluster mass profiles. The impact of cosmological parameters on the predictions is investigated by comparing results from galaxy models based on the Millennium Simulation (MS) and the WMAP1 simulation to those from the WMAP3 simulation. We find that the simulated weak-lensing mass profiles and the observed profiles of the SDSS maxBCG clusters agree well in shape and amplitude. The mass,richness relations in the simulations are close to the observed relation, with differences ,30 per cent. The MS and WMAP1 simulations yield cluster abundances similar to those observed, whereas abundances in the WMAP3 simulation are two to three times lower. The differences in cluster abundance, mass and density amplitude between the simulations and the observations can be attributed to differences in the underlying cosmological parameters, in particular the power spectrum normalization ,8. Better agreement between predictions and observations should be reached with a normalization 0.722 < ,8 < 0.9 (probably closer to the upper value), i.e. between the values underlying the two simulation sets. [source]

    Hydrodynamical N -body simulations of coupled dark energy cosmologies

    Marco Baldi
    ABSTRACT If the accelerated expansion of the Universe at the present epoch is driven by a dark energy scalar field, there may well be a non-trivial coupling between the dark energy and the cold dark matter (CDM) fluid. Such interactions give rise to new features in cosmological structure growth, like an additional long-range attractive force between CDM particles, or variations of the dark matter particle mass with time. We have implemented these effects in the N -body code gadget-2 and present results of a series of high-resolution N -body simulations where the dark energy component is directly interacting with the CDM. As a consequence of the new physics, CDM and baryon distributions evolve differently both in the linear and in the non-linear regime of structure formation. Already on large scales, a linear bias develops between these two components, which is further enhanced by the non-linear evolution. We also find, in contrast with previous work, that the density profiles of CDM haloes are less concentrated in coupled dark energy cosmologies compared with ,CDM, and that this feature does not depend on the initial conditions setup, but is a specific consequence of the extra physics induced by the coupling. Also, the baryon fraction in haloes in the coupled models is significantly reduced below the universal baryon fraction. These features alleviate tensions between observations and the ,CDM model on small scales. Our methodology is ideally suited to explore the predictions of coupled dark energy models in the fully non-linear regime, which can provide powerful constraints for the viable parameter space of such scenarios. [source]

    Cosmology and cluster halo scaling relations

    Pablo A. Araya-Melo
    ABSTRACT We explore the effects of dark matter and dark energy on the dynamical scaling properties of galaxy clusters. We investigate the cluster Faber,Jackson (FJ), Kormendy and Fundamental Plane (FP) relations between the mass, radius and velocity dispersion of cluster-sized haloes in cosmological N -body simulations. The simulations span a wide range of cosmological parameters, representing open, flat and closed Universes. Independently of the cosmology, we find that the simulated clusters are close to a perfect virial state and do indeed define an FP. The fitted parameters of the FJ, Kormendy and FP relationships do not show any significant dependence on ,m and/or ,,. One outstanding effect is the influence of ,m on the thickness of the FP. Following the time evolution of our models, we find slight changes of FJ and Kormendy parameters in high-,m universe, along with a slight decrease of FP fitting parameters. We also see an initial increase of the FP thickness followed by a convergence to a nearly constant value. The epoch of convergence is later for higher values of ,m, while the thickness remains constant in the low- ,m , models. We also find a continuous increase of the FP thickness in the standard cold dark matter cosmology. There is no evidence that these differences are due to the different power spectrum slopes at cluster scales. From the point of view of the FP, there is little difference between clusters that quietly accreted their mass and those that underwent massive mergers. The principal effect of strong mergers is to significantly change the ratio of the half-mass radius rhalf to the harmonic mean radius rh. [source]

    Constraints on modified gravity from the observed X-ray luminosity function of galaxy clusters

    David Rapetti
    ABSTRACT We use measurements of the growth of cosmic structure, as inferred from the observed evolution of the X-ray luminosity function (XLF) of galaxy clusters, to constrain departures from general relativity (GR) on cosmological scales. We employ the popular growth rate parameterization, ,m(z),, for which GR predicts a growth index ,, 0.55. We use observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), type Ia supernovae (SNIa) and X-ray cluster gas mass fractions (fgas), to simultaneously constrain the expansion history and energy content of the Universe, as described by the background model parameters: ,m, w and ,k, i.e. the mean matter density, the dark energy equation of state parameter and the mean curvature, respectively. Using conservative allowances for systematic uncertainties, in particular for the evolution of the mass,luminosity scaling relation in the XLF analysis, we find ,= 0.51+0.16,0.15 and ,m= 0.27 ± 0.02 (68.3 per cent confidence limits), for a flat cosmological constant, cold dark matter (,CDM) background model. Allowing w to be a free parameter, we find ,= 0.44+0.17,0.15. Relaxing the flatness prior in the ,CDM model, we obtain ,= 0.51+0.19,0.16. When in addition to the XLF data we use the CMB data to constrain , through the ISW effect, we obtain a combined constraint of ,= 0.45+0.14,0.12 for the flat ,CDM model. Our analysis provides the tightest constraints to date on the growth index. We find no evidence for departures from GR on cosmological scales. [source]

    New multiply-lensed galaxies identified in ACS/NIC3 observations of Cl0024+1654 using an improved mass model

    Adi Zitrin
    ABSTRACT We present an improved strong-lensing analysis of Cl0024+1654 (z= 0.39) using deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS)/NIC3 images, based on 33 multiply-lensed images of 11 background galaxies. These are found with a model that assumes mass approximately traces light, with a low-order expansion to allow for flexibility on large scales. The model is constrained initially by the well-known five-image system (z= 1.675) and refined as new multiply-lensed systems are identified using the model. Photometric redshifts of these new systems are then used to constrain better the mass profile by adopting the standard cosmological relation between redshift and lensing distance. Our model requires only six free parameters to describe well all positional and redshift data. The resulting inner mass profile has a slope of d log M/d log r,,0.55, consistent with new weak-lensing measurements where the data overlap, at r, 200 kpc/h70. The combined profile is well fitted by a high-concentration Navarro, Frenk & White (NFW) mass profile, Cvir, 8.6 ± 1.6, similar to other well-studied clusters, but larger than predicted with standard , cold dark matter (,CDM). A well-defined radial critical curve is generated by the model and is clearly observed at r, 12 arcsec, outlined by elongated images pointing towards the centre of mass. The relative fluxes of the multiply-lensed images are found to agree well with the modelled magnifications, providing an independent consistency check. [source]

    Halo stochasticity in global clustering analysis

    S. Bonoli
    ABSTRACT Galaxy clustering and cosmic magnification can be used to estimate the dark matter power spectrum if the theoretical relation between the distribution of galaxies and the distribution of dark matter is precisely known. In the present work, we study the statistics of haloes, which in the halo model determines the distribution of galaxies. Haloes are known to be biased tracer of dark matter, and at large scales it is usually assumed there is no intrinsic stochasticity between the two field (i.e. r= 1). Following the work of Seljak & Warren, we explore how correct this assumption is and, moving a step further, we try to qualify the nature of stochasticity. We use principal component analysis applied to the outputs of a cosmological N -body simulation as a function of mass to: (i) explore the behaviour of stochasticity in the correlation between haloes of different masses; and (ii) explore the behaviour of stochasticity in the correlation between haloes and dark matter. We show results obtained using a catalogue with 2.1 million haloes, from a pmfast simulation with box size of 1000 h,1 Mpc and with about four billion particles. In the relation between different populations of haloes, we find that stochasticity is not negligible even at large scales. In agreement with the conclusions of Tegmark & Bromley, who studied the correlations of different galaxy populations, we found that the shot noise subtracted stochasticity is qualitatively different from ,enhanced' shot noise and, specifically, it is dominated by a single stochastic eigenvalue. We call this the ,minimally stochastic' scenario, as opposed to shot noise-like stochasticity which is ,maximally stochastic'. In the correlation between haloes and dark matter, we find that the stochasticity is minimized, as expected, near the dark matter peak (k, 0.02 h Mpc,1 for a , cold dark matter cosmology), and, even at large scales, it is of the order of 15 per cent above the shot noise. Moreover, we find that the reconstruction of the dark matter distribution is improved when we use the principal component eigenvectors as tracers of the bias, but still the reconstruction is not perfect, due to stochasticity. [source]

    Are fossil groups a challenge of the cold dark matter paradigm?

    Stefano Zibetti
    ABSTRACT We study six groups and clusters of galaxies suggested in the literature to be ,fossil' systems (i.e. to have luminous diffuse X-ray emission and a magnitude gap of at least 2 mag R between the first and the second ranked member within half of the virial radius), each having good quality X-ray data and Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) spectroscopic or photometric coverage out to the virial radius. The poor cluster AWM 4 is clearly established as a fossil system, and we confirm the fossil nature of four other systems (RX J1331.5+1108, RX J1340.6+4018, RX J1256.0+2556 and RX J1416.4+2315), while the cluster RX J1552.2+2013 is disqualified as fossil system. For all systems, we present the luminosity functions within 0.5 and 1 virial radius that are consistent, within the uncertainties, with the universal luminosity function of clusters. For the five bona fide fossil systems, having a mass range 2 × 1013,3 × 1014 M,, we compute accurate cumulative substructure distribution functions (CSDFs) and compare them with the CSDFs of observed and simulated groups/clusters available in the literature. We demonstrate that the CSDFs of fossil systems are consistent with those of normal observed clusters and do not lack any substructure with respect to simulated galaxy systems in the cosmological , cold dark matter (,CDM) framework. In particular, this holds for the archetype fossil group RX J1340.6+4018 as well, contrary to earlier claims. [source]

    Effects of galaxy-halo alignment and adiabatic contraction on gravitational lens statistics

    Quinn E. Minor
    ABSTRACT We study the strong gravitational lens statistics of triaxial cold dark matter haloes occupied by central early-type galaxies. We calculate the image separation distribution for double, cusp and quad configurations. The ratios of image multiplicities at large separations are consistent with the triaxial NFW model, and at small separations are consistent with the singular isothermal ellipsoid model. At all the separations, the total lensing probability is enhanced by adiabatic contraction. If no adiabatic contraction is assumed, naked cusp configurations become dominant at ,2.5 arcsec, which is inconsistent with the data. We also show that at small-to-moderate separations (,5 arcsec) the image multiplicities depend sensitively on the alignment of the shapes of the luminous and dark matter projected density profiles. In contrast to other properties that affect these ratios, the degree of alignment does not have a significant effect on the total lensing probability. These correlations may therefore be constrained by comparing the theoretical image separation distribution to a sufficiently large lens sample from future wide and deep sky surveys such as Pan-Stars, LSST and JDEM. Understanding the correlations in the shapes of galaxies and their dark matter halo is important for future weak lensing surveys. [source]

    The evolution of the galaxy red sequence in simulated clusters and groups

    A. D. Romeo
    ABSTRACT N -body/hydrodynamical simulations of the formation and evolution of galaxy groups and clusters in a , cold dark matter (,CDM) cosmology are used in order to follow the building-up of the colour,magnitude relation in two clusters and in 12 groups. We have found that galaxies, starting from the more massive, move to the red sequence (RS) as they get aged over times and eventually set upon a ,dead sequence' (DS) once they have stopped their bulk star formation activity. Fainter galaxies keep having significant star formation out to very recent epochs and lie broader around the RS. Environment plays a role as galaxies in groups and cluster outskirts hold star formation activity longer than the central cluster regions. However, galaxies experiencing infall from the outskirts to the central parts keep star formation on until they settle on to the DS of the core galaxies. Merging contributes to mass assembly until z, 1, after which major events only involve the brightest cluster galaxies. The emerging scenario is that the evolution of the colour,magnitude properties of galaxies within the hierarchical framework is mainly driven by star formation activity during dark matter haloes assembly. Galaxies progressively quenching their star formation settle to a very sharp ,red and dead' sequence, which turns out to be universal, its slope and scatter being almost independent of the redshift (since at least z, 1.5) and environment. Differently from the DS, the operatively defined RS evolves more evidently with z, the epoch when it changes its slope being closely corresponding to that at which the passive galaxies population takes over the star-forming one: this goes from z, 1 in clusters down to 0.4 in normal groups. [source]

    Dynamical response to supernova-induced gas removal in spiral galaxies with dark matter halo

    Hiroko Koyama
    ABSTRACT We investigate the dynamical response, in terms of disc size and rotation velocity, to mass loss by supernovae in the evolution of spiral galaxies. A thin baryonic disc having the Kuzmin density profile embedded in a spherical dark matter halo having a density profile proposed by Navarro, Frenk & White is considered. For the purpose of comparison, we also consider the homogeneous and r,1 profiles for dark matter in a truncated spherical halo. Assuming for simplicity that the dark matter distribution is not affected by mass-loss from discs and the change of baryonic disc matter distribution is homologous, we evaluate the effects of dynamical response in the resulting discs. We found that the dynamical response only for an adiabatic approximation of mass-loss can simultaneously account for the rotation velocity and disc size as observed particularly in dwarf spiral galaxies, thus reproducing the Tully,Fisher relation and the size versus magnitude relation over the full range of magnitude. Furthermore, we found that the mean specific angular momentum in discs after the mass-loss becomes larger than that before the mass-loss, suggesting that the mass-loss would most likely occur from the central disc region where the specific angular momentum is low. [source]

    MOND plus classical neutrinos are not enough for cluster lensing

    Priyamvada Natarajan
    ABSTRACT Clusters of galaxies offer a robust test bed for probing the nature of dark matter that is insensitive to the assumption of the gravity theories. Both Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) and General Relativity (GR) would require similar amounts of non-baryonic matter in clusters as MOND boosts the gravity only mildly on cluster scales. Gravitational lensing allows us to estimate the enclosed mass in clusters on small (,20,50 kpc) and large (,several 100 kpc) scales independent of the assumptions of equilibrium. Here, we show for the first time that a combination of strong and weak gravitational lensing effects can set interesting limits on the phase-space density of dark matter in the centres of clusters. The phase-space densities derived from lensing observations are inconsistent with neutrino masses ranging from 2,7 eV, and hence do not support the 2 eV-range particles required by MOND. To survive, the most plausible modification for MOND may be an additional degree of dynamical freedom in a covariant incarnation. [source]

    Understanding the halo-mass and galaxy-mass cross-correlation functions

    Eric Hayashi
    ABSTRACT We use the Millennium Simulation (MS) to measure the cross-correlation between halo centres and mass (or equivalently the average density profiles of dark haloes) in a Lambda cold dark matter (,CDM) cosmology. We present results for radii in the range 10 h,1 kpc < r < 30 h,1 Mpc and for halo masses in the range 4 × 1010 < M200 < 4 × 1014 h,1 M,. Both at z= 0 and at z= 0.76 these cross-correlations are surprisingly well fitted if the inner region is approximated by a density profile of NFW or Einasto form, the outer region by a biased version of the linear mass autocorrelation function, and the maximum of the two is adopted where they are comparable. We use a simulation of galaxy formation within the MS to explore how these results are reflected in cross-correlations between galaxies and mass. These are directly observable through galaxy,galaxy lensing. Here also we find that simple models can represent the simulation results remarkably well, typically to ,10 per cent. Such models can be used to extend our results to other redshifts, to cosmologies with other parameters, and to other assumptions about how galaxies populate dark haloes. Our galaxy formation simulation already reproduces current galaxy,galaxy lensing data quite well. The characteristic features predicted in the galaxy,galaxy lensing signal should provide a strong test of the ,CDM cosmology as well as a route to understanding how galaxies form within it. [source]

    Constraints on decaying dark matter from XMM,Newton observations of M31

    Alexey Boyarsky
    ABSTRACT We derive constraints on the parameters of the radiatively decaying dark matter (DM) particle, using the XMM,Newton EPIC spectra of the Andromeda galaxy (M31). Using the observations of the outer (5,13 arcmin) parts of M31, we improve the existing constraints. For the case of sterile neutrino DM, combining our constraints with the latest computation of abundances of sterile neutrinos in the Dodelson,Widrow (DW) scenario, we obtain the lower mass limit ms < 4 keV, which is stronger than the previous one ms < 6 keV, obtained recently by Asaka, Laine & Shaposhnikov. Comparing this limit with the most recent results on Lyman , forest analysis of Viel et al. (ms > 5.6 keV), we argue that the scenario in which all the DM is produced via the DW mechanism is ruled out. We discuss, however, other production mechanisms and note that the sterile neutrino remains a viable candidate for DM, either warm or cold. [source]

    Alignment of voids in the cosmic web

    Erwin Platen
    ABSTRACT We investigate the shapes and mutual alignment of voids in the large-scale matter distribution of a , cold dark matter (,CDM) cosmology simulation. The voids are identified using the novel watershed void finder (WVF) technique. The identified voids are quite non-spherical and slightly prolate, with axis ratios in the order of c : b : a, 0.5 : 0.7 : 1. Their orientations are strongly correlated with significant alignments spanning scales >30 h,1 Mpc. We also find an intimate link between the cosmic tidal field and the void orientations. Over a very wide range of scales we find a coherent and strong alignment of the voids with the tidal field computed from the smoothed density distribution. This orientation,tide alignment remains significant on scales exceeding twice the typical void size, which shows that the long-range external field is responsible for the alignment of the voids. This confirms the view that the large-scale tidal force field is the main agent for the large-scale spatial organization of the cosmic web. [source]

    Perturbation theory and excursion set estimates of the probability distribution function of dark matter, and a method for reconstructing the initial distribution function

    Tsz Yan Lam
    ABSTRACT Non-linear evolution is sometimes modelled by assuming there is a deterministic mapping from initial to final values of the locally smoothed overdensity. However, if an underdense region is embedded in a denser one, then it is possible that its evolution is determined by its surroundings, so the mapping between initial and final overdensities is not as ,local' as one might have assumed. If this source of non-locality is not accounted for, then it appears as stochasticity in the mapping between initial and final densities. Perturbation theory methods ignore this ,cloud-in-cloud' effect, whereas methods based on the excursion set approach do account for it; as a result, one may expect the two approaches to provide different estimates of the shape of the non-linear counts in cells distribution. We show that, on scales where the rms fluctuation is small, this source of non-locality has only a small effect, so the predictions of the two approaches differ only on the small scales on which perturbation theory is no longer expected to be valid anyway. We illustrate our results by comparing the predictions of these approaches when the initial,final mapping is given by the spherical collapse model. Both are in reasonably good agreement with measurements in numerical simulations on scales where the rms fluctuation is of the order of unity or smaller. If the deterministic mapping from initial conditions to final density depends on quantities other than the initial density, then this will also manifest as stochasticity in the mapping from initial density to final. For example, the Zeldovich approximation and the ellipsoidal collapse model both assume that the initial shear field plays an important role in determining the evolution. We compare the predictions of these approximations with simulations, both before and after accounting for the ,cloud-in-cloud' effect. Our analysis accounts approximately for the fact that the shape of a cell at the present time is different from its initial shape; ignoring this makes a noticeable difference on scales where the rms fluctuation in a cell is of the order of unity or larger. On scales where the rms fluctuation is 2 or less, methods based on the spherical model are sufficiently accurate to permit a rather accurate reconstruction of the shape of the initial distribution from the non-linear one. This can be used as the basis for a method for constraining the statistical properties of the initial fluctuation field from the present-day field, under the hypothesis that the evolution was purely gravitational. We illustrate by showing how the highly non-Gaussian non-linear density field in a numerical simulation can be transformed to provide an accurate estimate of the initial Gaussian distribution from which it evolved. [source]

    Is the sky falling?

    RAVE surveys, Searching for stellar streams in the local Milky Way disc in the CORAVEL
    ABSTRACT We have searched for in-falling stellar streams on to the local Milky Way disc in the CORrelation RAdial VELocities (CORAVEL) and RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) surveys. The CORAVEL survey consists of local dwarf stars (Nördstrom et al. Geneva,Copenhagen survey) and local Famaey et al. giant stars. We select RAVE stars with radial velocities that are sensitive to the Galactic vertical space velocity (Galactic latitude b < ,45°). Kuiper statistics have been employed to test the symmetry of the Galactic vertical velocity distribution functions in these samples for evidence of a net vertical flow that could be associated with a (tidal?) stream of stars with vertically coherent kinematics. In contrast to the ,Field of Streams' found in the outer halo, we find that the local volumes of the solar neighbourhood sampled by the CORAVEL dwarfs (complete within ,3 × 10,4 kpc3), CORAVEL giants (complete within ,5 × 10,2 kpc3) and RAVE (5,15 per cent complete within ,8 kpc3) are devoid of any vertically coherent streams containing hundreds of stars. This is sufficiently sensitive to allow our RAVE sample to rule out the passing of the tidal stream of the disrupting Sagittarius (Sgr) dwarf galaxy through the solar neighbourhood. This agrees with the most-recent determinations of its orbit and dissociates it from the Helmi et al. halo stream. Our constraints on the absence of the Sgr stream near the Sun could prove a useful tool for discriminating between Galactic potential models. The lack of a net vertical flow through the solar neighbourhood in the CORAVEL giants and RAVE samples argues against the Virgo overdensity crossing the disc near the Sun. There are no vertical streams in the CORAVEL giants and RAVE samples with stellar densities ,1.6 × 104 and 1.5 × 103 stars kpc,3, respectively, and therefore no evidence for locally enhanced dark matter. [source]

    Reionization bias in high-redshift quasar near-zones

    J. Stuart B. Wyithe
    ABSTRACT Absorption spectra of high-redshift quasars exhibit an increasingly thick Ly, forest, suggesting that the fraction of neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) is increasing towards z, 6. However, the interpretation of these spectra is complicated by the fact that the Ly, optical depth is already large for neutral hydrogen fractions in excess of 10,4, and also because quasars are expected to reside in dense regions of the IGM. We present a model for the evolution of the ionization state of the IGM which is applicable to the dense, biased regions around high-redshift quasars as well as more typical regions in the IGM. We employ a cold dark matter based model in which the ionizing photons for reionization are produced by star formation in dark matter haloes spanning a wide range of masses, combined with numerical radiative transfer simulations which model the resulting opacity distribution in quasar absorption spectra. With an appropriate choice for the parameter which controls the star formation efficiency, our model is able to simultaneously reproduce the observed Ly, forest opacity at 4 < z < 6, the ionizing photon mean-free-path at z, 4 and the rapid evolution of highly ionized near-zone sizes around high-redshift quasars at 5.8 < z < 6.4. In our model, reionization extends over a wide redshift range, starting at z, 10 and completing as H ii regions overlap at z, 6,7. We find that within 5 physical Mpc of a high-redshift quasar, the evolution of the ionization state of the IGM precedes that in more typical regions by around 0.3 redshift units. More importantly, when combined with the rapid increase in the ionizing photon mean-free-path expected shortly after overlap, this offset results in an ionizing background near the quasar which exceeds the value in the rest of the IGM by a factor of ,2,3. We further find that in the post-overlap phase of reionization the size of the observed quasar near-zones is not directly sensitive to the neutral hydrogen fraction of the IGM. Instead, these sizes probe the level of the background ionization rate and the temperature of the surrounding IGM. The observed rapid evolution of the quasar near-zone sizes at 5.8 < z < 6.4 can thus be explained by the rapid evolution of the ionizing background, which in our model is caused by the completion of overlap at the end of reionization by 6 ,z, 7. [source]

    Dynamical modelling of luminous and dark matter in 17 Coma early-type galaxies

    J. Thomas
    ABSTRACT Dynamical models for 17 early-type galaxies in the Coma cluster are presented. The galaxy sample consists of flattened, rotating as well as non-rotating early-types including cD and S0 galaxies with luminosities between MB=,18.79 and ,22.56. Kinematical long-slit observations cover at least the major-axis and minor-axis and extend to 1,4reff. Axisymmetric Schwarzschild models are used to derive stellar mass-to-light ratios and dark halo parameters. In every galaxy, the best fit with dark matter matches the data better than the best fit without. The statistical significance is over 95 per cent for eight galaxies, around 90 per cent for five galaxies and for four galaxies it is not significant. For the highly significant cases, systematic deviations between models without dark matter and the observed kinematics are clearly seen; for the remaining galaxies, differences are more statistical in nature. Best-fitting models contain 10,50 per cent dark matter inside the half-light radius. The central dark matter density is at least one order of magnitude lower than the luminous mass density, independent of the assumed dark matter density profile. The central phase-space density of dark matter is often orders of magnitude lower than that in the luminous component, especially when the halo core radius is large. The orbital system of the stars along the major-axis is slightly dominated by radial motions. Some galaxies show tangential anisotropy along the minor-axis, which is correlated with the minor-axis Gauss,Hermite coefficient H4. Changing the balance between data-fit and regularization constraints does not change the reconstructed mass structure significantly: model anisotropies tend to strengthen if the weight on regularization is reduced, but the general property of a galaxy to be radially or tangentially anisotropic does not change. This paper is aimed to set the basis for a subsequent detailed analysis of luminous and dark matter scaling relations, orbital dynamics and stellar populations. [source]

    Probing dark matter substructure with pulsar timing

    E. R. Siegel
    ABSTRACT We demonstrate that pulsar timing measurements may potentially be able to detect the presence of dark matter substructure within our own Galaxy. As dark matter substructure transits near the line of sight between a pulsar and an observer, the change in the gravitational field will result in a delay of the light travel-time of photons. We calculate the effect of this delay due to transiting dark matter substructure and find that the effect on pulsar timing ought to be observable over decadal time-scales for a wide range of substructure masses and density profiles. We find that transiting dark matter substructure with masses above 10,2 M, ought to be detectable at present by these means. With improved measurements, this method may be able to distinguish between baryonic, thermal non-baryonic, and non-thermal non-baryonic types of dark matter. Additionally, information about structure formation on small scales and the density profiles of Galactic dark matter substructure can be extracted via this method. [source]

    The Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 evidence shows modified gravity in the absence of dark matter

    J. R. Brownstein
    ABSTRACT A detailed analysis of the 2006 November 15 data release X-ray surface density ,-map and the strong and weak gravitational lensing convergence ,-map for the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 is performed and the results are compared with the predictions of a modified gravity (MOG) and dark matter. Our surface density ,-model is computed using a King ,-model density, and a mass profile of the main cluster and an isothermal temperature profile are determined by the MOG. We find that the main cluster thermal profile is nearly isothermal. The MOG prediction of the isothermal temperature of the main cluster is T= 15.5 ± 3.9 keV, in good agreement with the experimental value T= 14.8+2.0,1.7 keV. Excellent fits to the 2D convergence ,-map data are obtained without non-baryonic dark matter, accounting for the 8, spatial offset between the ,-map and the ,-map reported in Clowe et al. The MOG prediction for the ,-map results in two baryonic components distributed across the Bullet Cluster 1E0657-558 with averaged mass fraction of 83 per cent intracluster medium (ICM) gas and 17 per cent galaxies. Conversely, the Newtonian dark matter ,-model has on average 76 per cent dark matter (neglecting the indeterminant contribution due to the galaxies) and 24 per cent ICM gas for a baryon to dark matter mass fraction of 0.32, a statistically significant result when compared to the predicted ,-cold dark matter cosmological baryon mass fraction of 0.176+0.019,0.012. [source]