Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Dyslexia

  • developmental dyslexia

  • Selected Abstracts

    Effects of dyslexia on postural control in adults

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2010
    M. Patel
    Abstract Dyslexia has been shown to affect postural control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the difference in postural stability measured as torque variance in an adult dyslexic group (n=14, determined using the Adult Dyslexia Checklist (ADCL) and nonsense word repetition test) and an adult non-dyslexic group (n=39) on a firm surface and on a foam block and with eyes open and eyes closed. Another aim was to investigate the correlation between ADCL scores and postural stability. Findings showed that ADCL scores correlated with torque variance in the anteroposterior direction on foam with eyes closed (p=0.001) and in the lateral direction on the foam surface with eyes closed (p=0.040) and open (p=0.010). General Linear Model analysis showed that high dyslexia scores were associated with increased torque variance (p<0.001). However, we found no significant difference between dyslexics and non-dyslexics, though there were indications of larger torque variance in the dyslexics. The findings suggest that adults with high dyslexic ADCL scores may experience sub-clinical balance deficits. Hence, assessing motor ability and postural control in those with high ADCL scores is motivated. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dyslexia and psycho-social functioning: an exploratory study of the role of self-esteem and understanding

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 4 2009
    Melody M. Terras
    Abstract Individuals with dyslexia may have lower self-esteem and exhibit more emotional and behavioural difficulties than those without reading problems. However, the nature of any relationship between self-esteem and psychopathology remains unknown. This exploratory study assessed levels of self-esteem using the Self-Perception Profile for Children (Manual for the Self-Perception Profile for Children. University of Denver, CO: Denver; 1985) and psycho-social adjustment using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (J. Child Psychol. Psychiatry, 1997; 38: 581,586) and examined child and parent understanding, attitudes and the perceived impact of reading difficulties on daily life. Sixty-eight children assessed as dyslexic on the basis of discrepancy scores (mean age 11.2 years; 44 male), and their parents, participated. No global self-esteem deficit was found, but the mean score for both child and parent-rated scholastic competence was significantly lower than that of the general population. Rates of social, emotional and behavioural difficulties were significantly higher than in the general population and were correlated with self-esteem. For children who had high global self-worth, both children and their parents had more positive attitudes towards their reading difficulties and were less likely to perceive a negative impact on relationships. The association between academic self-esteem and emotional symptoms is consistent with the proposed link between dyslexia and internalizing difficulties. Good self-esteem and a good understanding of dyslexia may help children avoid some of these difficulties. Further research with larger more representative samples is necessary as understanding the factors that promote successful psycho-social adjustment is essential to the development of effective prevention and intervention strategies. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dichotic listening and school performance in dyslexia

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2008
    Turid Helland
    Abstract This study focused on the relationship between school performance and performance on a dichotic listening (DL) task in dyslexic children. Dyslexia is associated with impaired phonological processing, related to functions in the left temporal lobe. DL is a frequently used task to assess functions of the left temporal lobe. Due to the predominance of the contralateral neuronal pathways, a right ear advantage in the DL task reflects the superior processing capacity for the right ear stimulus in the left hemisphere (Kimura, 1963). Previous studies using DL in dyslexia are, however, inconclusive, and may reflect degree of severity of dyslexia. The aim of the present study was therefore to investigate lateralized processing in two sub-groups of dyslexia, differing in symptom severity. Two groups of dyslexic 12-year-old children and an age-matched control group were tested with a consonant,vowel DL task. The two dyslexia groups differed in severity through how they responded to training efforts being made in their schools, while otherwise being matched for age, IQ and diagnosis. The D1 (respondent group) group showed a DL performance pattern similar to the control group, i.e. a right ear advantage, while the D2 (non-respondent) group failed to show a right ear advantage on the DL task. The performance on the DL task by the two dyslexia groups may provide better insight as to the degree of reading and writing impairment in dyslexia. ,Cracking the code' and acquiring automatized literacy skills may seem harder for the D2 group children compared to the D1 children. Also, the present study points to the use of DL as a valid assessment tool in clinical work to improve differential diagnoses, particularly in relation to measures of school performance. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Test,retest effects in treatment studies of reading disability: the devil is in the detail

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 4 2007
    Genevieve McArthur
    Abstract Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 78,96) claim to show that the ,dyslexia dyspraxia attention-deficit treatment' (DDAT) benefits children with reading difficulties. However, Rack, Snowling, Hulme, and Gibbs (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 97,104) argue that because this study did not include an untrained control group then ,all that needs to be postulated to explain the results reported is that children improve their scores on the DST screening tests simply as a result of repeated testing on the same activities' (p. 102). How likely is it that the linguistic gains reported by Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 78,96) are due to test,retest effects? The results of previous exercise- and auditory-based treatment studies that included an untrained control group suggest that test,retest effects explain gains on around 50% of real-word reading tests, 33% of phonological recoding tests, 33% of phonological awareness tests, 17,25% of spoken language tests, and 15% of spelling tests. In addition, longer periods of time between test and retest sessions are associated with test,retest effects on measures of reading but not spoken language. These findings suggest that two of the four linguistic gains reported by Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 78,96) are due to test,retest effects (phonemic segmentation and working memory). The remaining two tests are measures of spoken language and not reading. Hence, the data reported by Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 78,96) are not sufficient to support DDAT as an effective treatment for children with reading difficulties. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Follow-up of an exercise-based treatment for children with reading difficulties

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 2 2007
    David Reynolds
    Abstract This study reports the results of a long-term follow-up of an exercise-based approach to dyslexia-related disorders (Reynolds, Nicolson, & Hambly, Dyslexia, 2003; 9(1): 48,71). In the initial study, children at risk of dyslexia were identified in 3 years of a junior school. One half then undertook a 6 month, home-based exercise programme. Evaluation after 6 months indicated that the exercise group improved significantly more than the controls on a range of cognitive and motor skills. Critics had suggested that the improvement might be attributable to artifactual issues including Hawthorne effects; an initial literacy imbalance between the groups; and inclusion of non-dyslexic participants. The present study evaluated the issue of whether the gains were maintained over the following 18 months, and whether they were in some sense artifactual as postulated by critics of the original study. Comparison of (age-adjusted) initial and follow-up performance indicated significant gains in motor skill, speech/language fluency, phonology, and working memory. Both dyslexic and non-dyslexic low achieving children benefited. There was also a highly significant reduction in the incidence of symptoms of inattention. Interestingly there were no significant changes in speeded tests of reading and spelling, but there was a significant improvement in (age-adjusted) reading (NFER). It is concluded that the gains were indeed long-lasting, and that the alternative hypotheses based on potential artifacts were untenable, and that the exercise treatment therefore achieved its applied purpose. Further research is needed to determine the underlying reasons for the benefits. Possible (and potentially synergistic) explanations include: improved cerebellar function (neural level); improved learning ability and/or attentional ability (cognitive level); improved self-esteem and self-efficacy (affective level); and improved parental/familial support (social level). Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dyslexia in English as a second language

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2005
    Turid Helland
    Abstract This study focused on English as L2 in a group of Norwegian dyslexic 12 year olds, compared to an age and gender matched control group. Norwegian school children learn English from the first grades on. The subjects were assessed with a test battery of verbal and written tasks. First, they were given a comprehension task; second, a model sentence task; third, two pragmatic tasks, and fourth, three tasks of literacy. The verbal tasks were scored according to comprehension, morphology, syntax and semantics, while the literacy tasks were scored by spelling, translation and reading skills. It was hypothesized that the results of the control group and the dyslexia group would differ on all tasks, but that subgrouping the dyslexia group by comprehension skills would show heterogeneity within the dyslexia group. The data analyses confirmed these hypotheses. Significant differences were seen between the dyslexia group and the control group. However, the subgrouping revealed minor differences between the control group and the subgroup with good comprehension skills, and major differences between the control group and the subgroup with poor comprehension skills. Especially morphology and spelling were difficult for the dyslexia group. The results were tentatively discussed within the framework of biological and cognitive models of how to interpret L2 performance in dyslexia, underlining the importance of further research in L2 acquisition in dyslexia. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Time reproduction in finger tapping tasks by children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and/or dyslexia

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 4 2004
    Margaret C. Tiffin-Richards
    Abstract Aim: Deficits in timing and sequencing behaviour in children with dyslexia and with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder have already been identified. However many studies have not controlled for comorbidity between dyslexia and ADHD. This study investigated timing performance of children with either dyslexia or ADHD, or ADHD + dyslexia or unaffected children using a finger-tapping paradigm. Method: Four groups of children (ADHD × Dyslexia) with a total of 68 children were compared using a four factorial design with two between-subject factors (ADHD (yes/no), dyslexia (yes/no)) and two within-subject factors, inter-stimulus interval (263, 500, 625, 750, 875 and 1000 ms) and tapping condition (free tapping, synchronous tapping, and unpaced tapping). In addition the complexity of rhythm reproduction pattern (unpaced tapping) was varied (simple/complex). Results: No significant differences were found either in the ability of the ADHD or the dyslexia groups to sustain a self-chosen free tapping rate or to generate a stable inter-response interval either by synchronising to a signal or in reproducing a given interval without the previous pacing signal. Response averages showed the expected asynchrony and variability. In rhythm pattern reproduction the groups did not differ significantly in their ability to reproduce rhythms. However, a significant two way interaction effect between dyslexia and complexity was apparent indicating that the difference in levels of performance for simple versus complex rhythms was more pronounced for dyslexia than for the two other groups. Conclusion: The results indicate that motor timing ability in the millisecond range below 1000 ms in children with ADHD and/or dyslexia is intact. The performance of the comorbid group was revealed to be similar to the performance of the single disorder groups, but both the dyslexic groups were relatively worse than either the ADHD-only or the unimpaired group at reproducing complex versus simple rhythms. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Early development of children at familial risk for Dyslexia,follow-up from birth to school age

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 3 2004
    H. Lyytinen
    Abstract We review the main findings of the Jyväskylä of Dyslexia (JLD) which follows the development of children at familial risk for dyslexia (N = 107) and their controls (N = 93). We will illustrate the development of these two groups of children at ages from birth to school entry in the skill domains that have been connected to reading and reading disability in the prior literature. At school entry, the highest score on the decoding task among the poorer half (median) of the at risk children,i.e. of those presumably being most likely genetically affected,is 1 SD below the mean of the control group. Thus, the familial risk for dyslexia shows expected consequences. Among the earliest measures in which group differences as well as significant predictive associations with the first steps in reading have emerged, are indices of speech processing in infancy. Likewise, various measures of early language including pronunciation accuracy, phonological, and morphological skills (but not performance IQ) show both group differences and predictive correlations, the majority of which become stronger as the reliability of the measures increases by age. Predictive relationships tend to be strong in general but higher in the at risk group because of its larger variance in both the predictor variables and in the dependent measures, such as early acquisition of reading. The results are thus promising in increasing our understanding needed for early identification and prevention of dyslexia. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Reading intervention: A ,conventional' and successful approach to helping dyslexic children acquire literacy

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 3 2003
    Peter J. Hatcher
    Abstract The effectiveness of the ,conventional' approach to helping children with dyslexia to acquire literacy has been questioned by Reynolds et al. (Dyslexia 2003). Data are presented in this reply to support the effectiveness of Reading Intervention, a conventional approach to teaching reading delayed children. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Monitoring dyslexics' intelligence and attainments: A follow-up study

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2003
    Michael Thomson
    Abstract Intelligence (Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children R and III, 1992) and written language attainment (BAS Word Reading, Neale Analysis of Reading, Vernon Graded Word Spelling) data for around 250 children attending a specialist school for dyslexics are presented. The Wechsler scales data show some evidence for ,ACID' and ,SCAD' profile effects on the subtests, with specifically weak Index scores on Freedom from Distractibility and Processing Speed. The relationship between intelligence and reading development is also examined, with evidence for significant correlations between intelligence and written language and a longitudinal study showing that there is no ,Matthew' or drop-off effect in intelligence. The attainments tests demonstrate that the widening gap between a dyslexic's chronological age and his/her attainments can be closed, and how attainments may be monitored within the context of ,growth curves'. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports (e.g. B.P.S. on Dyslexia, Literacy and Psychological Assessment) on the relationship between intelligence and attainments and it is concluded that this report could be seriously misleading for practising educational psychologists. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dyslexia and music: measuring musical timing skills

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2003
    Katie Overy
    Abstract Over the last few decades, a growing amount of research has suggested that dyslexics have particular difficulties with skills involving accurate or rapid timing, including musical timing skills. It has been hypothesised that music training may be able to remediate such timing difficulties, and have a positive effect on fundamental perceptual skills that are important in the development of language and literacy skills (Overy, 2000). In order to explore this hypothesis further, the nature and extent of dyslexics' musical difficulties need to be examined in more detail. In the present study, a collection of musical aptitude tests (MATs) were designed specifically for dyslexic children, in order to distinguish between a variety of musical skills and sub-skills. 15 dyslexic children (age 7,11, mean age 9.0) and 11 control children (age 7,10, mean age 8.9) were tested on the MATs, and their scores were compared. Results showed that the dyslexic group scored higher than the control group on 3 tests of pitch skills (possibly attributable to slightly greater musical experience), but lower than the control group on 7 out of 9 tests of timing skills. Particular difficulties were noted on one of the tests involving rapid temporal processing, in which a subgroup of 5 of the dyslexic children (33%) (mean age 8.4) was found to account for all the significant error. Also, an interesting correlation was found between spelling ability and the skill of tapping out the rhythm of a song, which both involve the skill of syllable segmentation. These results support suggestions that timing is a difficulty area for dyslexic children, and suggest that rhythm skills and rapid skills may need particular attention in any form of musical training with dyslexics. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comments on ,the dyslexia ecosystem': a reply to Nicolson

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 4 2002
    Ian L. Richards
    Abstract The central issue facing the dyslexia community, and the underlying theme of Nicolson's ,The Dyslexia Ecosystem' (Nicolson, 2002, Dyslexia, 8, 55,66), is how we can best translate what we know about this particular developmental disorder into practice to give each child the greatest opportunity of acquiring the enabling skill of literacy. To achieve this, and notwithstanding Nicolson's caveat on this point, we have to consider how we can best move from our sphere of expertise to a greater sphere of influence, both as individuals and as a community of research practitioners. In our response, we first consider aspects of Nicolson's general analysis of ,The Dyslexia Ecosystem' and then examine some of the specific objectives that have been proposed. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Dyslexia: nature and nurture,

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 3 2002
    Richard K. Olson
    Abstract This paper explores the balance of genetic and environmental influences on dyslexia in generally supportive educational environments. Evidence from family studies suggests and research with identical and fraternal twins confirms the presence of strong genetic influences on dyslexia, though the way dyslexia is defined influences the degree of genetic influence. The behavioural genetic evidence is supported with molecular genetic evidence from DNA analyses suggesting regions on several different chromosomes where genes related to dyslexia are likely to be found. The behavioural and molecular genetic analyses are also applied to different component word reading skills (orthographic coding and phonological decoding) as well as to related language skills (phoneme awareness) to better understand the genetic and cognitive pathways to dyslexia. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The prevalence of Dyslexia among art students

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 1 2002
    Ulrika Wolff
    Abstract It is widely held opinion that dyslexia is associated with remarkably artistic creativity. Speculations on different brain structures and brain functions have been proposed as an explanation. Very few objective studies have been reported that confirm the conjectures on the relationship between dyslexia and artistic creativity. Two studies are reported on the prevalence of dyslexia among university students,one group of art students and one group of students from non-art disciplines. The admission to the art schools were extremely demanding, possibly implying that the students were genuinely talented, and that their choice of training did not reflect a compensation for failure in conventional academic fields. Art academy students reported significantly more signs of dyslexia than non-art university students. Objective testing showed that art students had significantly poorer phonological skills than non-art students. Thus, according to self-reports combined with objective testing, the incidence of dyslexia was far higher among art students. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The significance of dyslexia screening for the assessment of dementia in older people

    Claudia Metzler-Baddeley
    Abstract Dyslexia and Dementia are disorders that share cognitive impairments in attention, language, and working memory. It is therefore possible that the presence of dyslexia may influence the assessment of the severity of dementia and potentially lead to the development of atypical forms of dementia. The present study investigated the prevalence of problems suggestive of dyslexia with a brief self-report questionnaire in a sample of 195 older adults referred to a Memory Clinic for dementia assessment. Ten percent reported problems suggestive of dyslexia consistent with the estimated prevalence in the general population. This group performed significantly lower in a number of attention and language related tests but not in other cognitive domains. These results highlight the importance of dyslexia screening for the assessment of dementia, not least because the choice of treatment is guided by the outcome of the assessment of the severity and the type of dementia. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A survey-based exploration of the impact of dyslexia on career progression of UK registered nurses

    Aim, To explore the effects of dyslexia on the practice and career progression of UK registered nurses (RN). Background, Literature suggests dyslexia can have a negative impact in the workplace and may pose particular difficulties for nurses, where accuracy in information processing activities is essential for practice. Methods, A questionnaire was used to survey RNs with dyslexia (n = 116) and results analysed using content analysis. Findings, Dyslexia provided a challenge to the everyday work of RNs, which was often met successfully using a range of individualized strategies. Career progression was achievable but compared with peers, was perceived to take longer. Disclosure of dyslexia to work-colleagues was selective and dependent on the perceived benefits. Informal support mechanisms were commonly utilized with formal management support less well defined. Conclusion, Dyslexia appears to have a negative impact on working practices and career progression, but remains a poorly understood and often hidden disability. [source]

    Dyslexia and oral reading errors

    Chris Singleton
    Thomson was the first of very few researchers to have studied oral reading errors as a means of addressing the question: Are dyslexic readers different to other readers? Using the Neale Analysis of Reading Ability and Goodman's taxonomy of oral reading errors, Thomson concluded that dyslexic readers are different, but he found that they do not resemble beginning readers. Thomson's study and his use of miscue analysis is re-evaluated, both in relation to the educational and political climate of the time , which was hostile to the concept of dyslexia , and in the light of research and social developments since then. The study of oral reading still has value today, both for the teacher and the researcher, provided its limitations as a technique are fully appreciated. [source]

    Genetics and Neuroscience in Dyslexia: Perspectives for Education and Remediation

    MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION, Issue 4 2007
    Gerd Schulte-Körne
    ABSTRACT , Our understanding of the causes of a developmental disorder like dyslexia has received recent input from both neuroscience and genetics. The discovery of 4 candidate genes for dyslexia and the identification of neuronal networks engaged when children read and spell are the basis for introducing this knowledge into education. However, the input from educational practitioners as well as empirical knowledge from research on learning also contribute significantly to our understanding of how children acquire the basic skills for learning to read and spell. It is imperative to merge the knowledge acquired from research in the fields of neuroscience, genetics, and empirical education, as well as to understand how the learning brain and instruction interact. Doing so can be seen as a major step in attaining an optimal approach for teaching, reading, and spelling and for finding the best suited and most effective treatment concepts for dyslexic children and adolescents. [source]

    Visual Learning and the Brain: Implications for Dyslexia

    MIND, BRAIN, AND EDUCATION, Issue 3 2007
    Matthew H. Schneps
    ABSTRACT, The central and peripheral visual fields are structurally segregated in the brain and are differentiated by their anatomical and functional characteristics. While the central field appears well suited for tasks such as visual search, the periphery is optimized for rapid processing over broad regions. People vary in their abilities to make use of information in the center versus the periphery, and we propose that this bias leads to a trade-off between abilities for sequential search versus contemporaneous comparisons. The parameter of periphery-to-center ratio (PCR) describes the degree of peripheral bias, which evidence suggests is high in many people with dyslexia. That is, many dyslexics favor the peripheral visual field over the center, which results in not only search deficits but also (more surprisingly) talents for visual comparison. The PCR framework offers a coherent explanation for these seemingly contradictory observations of both deficit and talent in visual processing. The framework has potential implications for instructional support in visually intensive domains such as science and mathematics. [source]

    Book Reviews: The Psychology of Dyslexia: a handbook for teachers with case studies , By Michael Thomson

    Jane Mott
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Book Reviews: Spelling, Handwriting and Dyslexia: overcoming barriers to learning , By Diane Montgomery

    Mary E. Chambers
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Book Review: The Routledge Companion to Dyslexia , Edited by Gavin Reid

    Tony Cline
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Early Reading Development and Dyslexia

    Peter J. Hatcher
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Dyslexia: A Psychological Perspective

    Angela Fawcett
    First page of article [source]

    Dyslexia: a review of two theories

    Krithika Nandakumar BSOptom
    Optometrists will frequently see patients, who may have a diagnosis or a suspected diagnosis of dyslexia (specific reading disorder) and will need to manage and counsel such patients. There are many propounded theories on the cause(s) of dyslexia. Although most professionals in this area consider that dyslexia is chiefly a linguistic disorder, the possibility of a visual component is contentious. This article is a selective review of two commonly discussed theories that suggest a visual component in dyslexia; the magnocellular deficit theory and Meares-Irlen syndrome. [source]

    Identification, assessment and intervention,implications of an audit on dyslexia policy and practice in Scotland

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 3 2005
    Gavin Reid
    Abstract This article reports on research commissioned by the Scottish Executive Education Department (SEED). It aimed to establish the range and extent of policy and provision in the area of specific learning difficulties (SpLD) and dyslexia throughout Scotland. The research was conducted between January and June 2004 by a team from the University of Edinburgh. The information was gathered from a questionnaire sent to all education authorities (100% response rate was achieved). Additional information was also obtained from supplementary interviews and additional materials provided by education authorities. The results indicated that nine education authorities in Scotland (out of 32) have explicit policies on dyslexia and eight authorities have policies on SpLD. It was noted however that most authorities catered for dyslexia and SpLD within a more generic policy framework covering aspects of Special Educational Needs or within documentation on ,effective learning'. In relation to identification thirty-six specific tests, or procedures, were mentioned. Classroom observation, as a procedure was rated high by most authorities. Eleven authorities operated a formal staged process combining identification and intervention. Generally, authorities supported a broader understanding of the role of identification and assessment and the use of standardized tests was only part of a wider assessment process. It was however noted that good practice in identification and intervention was not necessarily dependent on the existence of a dedicated policy on SpLD/dyslexia. Over fifty different intervention strategies/programmes were noted in the responses. Twenty-four authorities indicated that they had developed examples of good practice. The results have implications for teachers and parents as well as those involved in staff development. Pointers are provided for effective practice and the results reflect some of the issues on the current debate on dyslexia particularly relating to early identification. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Levels of literacy among juvenile offenders: the incidence of specific reading difficulties

    Margaret J. Snowling
    Introduction Academic achievement is low among offenders. Yet there is little evidence that prisoners are less literate than the general population. Do they have more dyslexia? This paper considers three definitions of dyslexia to see whether they relate to young offenders' literacy difficulties. Method The reading and spelling skills of 91 15- to 17-year-old male juvenile offenders who were incarcerated are reported, together with assessments of their vocabulary and non-verbal (spatial) skills. Estimates of the prevalence of reading disability are considered in relation to different definitions of dyslexia. Results The regression of literacy skills on non-verbal ability yielded an estimated prevalence of 57% while a more conservative estimate of 43% followed from the regression of literacy skill on verbal ability, and 38% of the sample had specific phonological deficits. Many of the offenders had experienced social and family adversity and reported poor school attendance. Discussion It is proposed that as a group, juvenile offenders are best described as having general verbal deficits encompassing problems of language and literacy. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Neurophysiologic evaluation of early cognitive development in high-risk infants and toddlers

    Raye-Ann deRegnier
    Abstract New knowledge of the perceptual, discriminative, and memory capabilities of very young infants has opened the door to further evaluation of these abilities in infants who have risk factors for cognitive impairments. A neurophysiologic technique that has been very useful in this regard is the recording of event-related potentials (ERPs). The event-related potential (ERP) technique is widely used by cognitive neuroscientists to study cognitive abilities such as discrimination, attention, and memory. This method has many attractive attributes for use in infants and children as it is relatively inexpensive, does not require sedation, has excellent temporal resolution, and can be used to evaluate early cognitive development in preverbal infants with limited behavioral repertories. In healthy infants and children, ERPs have been used to gain a further understanding of early cognitive development and the effect of experience on brain function. Recently, ERPs have been used to elucidate atypical memory development in infants of diabetic mothers, difficulties with perception and discrimination of speech sounds in infants at risk for dyslexia, and multiple areas of cognitive differences in extremely premature infants. Atypical findings seen in high-risk infants have correlated with later cognitive outcomes, but the sensitivity and specificity of the technique has not been studied, and thus evaluation of individual infants is not possible at this time. With further research, this technique may be very useful in identifying children with cognitive deficits during infancy. Because even young infants can be examined with ERPs, this technique is likely to be helpful in the development of focused early intervention programs used to improve cognitive function in high-risk infants and toddlers. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:317,324. [source]

    Familial dyslexia: neurocognitive and genetic correlation in a large Finnish family

    Jaana Nopola-Hemmi MD
    Neuropsychological findings of individuals with dyslexia (n=24) from a large, three-generation Finnish family are presented. We have previously performed whole genome linkage scanning in this family and found that dyslexia in this kindred segregates with a single locus in the pericentromeric area of chromosome 3. Those included in the analyses were carefully evaluated for general cognitive ability, reading and spelling skills, and reading-related neurocognitive skills. The neurocognitive type of dyslexia segregating in this family consisted of deficits in phonological awareness, verbal short-term memory, and rapid naming. Severe dyslexia also seemed to be connected with a general language difficulty and was most common in the eldest generation. [source]

    Rapid processing of letters, digits and symbols: what purely visual-attentional deficit in developmental dyslexia?

    Johannes C. Ziegler
    Visual-attentional theories of dyslexia predict deficits for dyslexic children not only for the perception of letter strings but also for non-alphanumeric symbol strings. This prediction was tested in a two-alternative forced-choice paradigm with letters, digits, and symbols. Children with dyslexia showed significant deficits for letter and digit strings but not for symbol strings. This finding is difficult to explain for visual-attentional theories of dyslexia which postulate identical deficits for letters, digits and symbols. Moreover, dyslexics showed normal W-shaped serial position functions for letter and digit strings, which suggests that their deficit is not due to an abnormally small attentional window. Finally, the size of the deficit was identical for letters and digits, which suggests that poor letter perception is not just a consequence of the lack of reading. Together then, our results show that symbols that map onto phonological codes are impaired (i.e. letters and digits), whereas symbols that do not map onto phonological codes are not impaired. This dissociation suggests that impaired symbol-sound mapping rather than impaired visual-attentional processing is the key to understanding dyslexia. [source]