Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Dysfunction

  • airway dysfunction
  • allograft dysfunction
  • attentional dysfunction
  • autonomic dysfunction
  • autonomic nervous system dysfunction
  • barrier dysfunction
  • behavioral dysfunction
  • bladder dysfunction
  • bone marrow dysfunction
  • bowel dysfunction
  • brain barrier dysfunction
  • brain dysfunction
  • bulbar dysfunction
  • cardiac autonomic dysfunction
  • cardiac diastolic dysfunction
  • cardiac dysfunction
  • cardiovascular dysfunction
  • cell dysfunction
  • cellular dysfunction
  • cerebellar dysfunction
  • cerebral dysfunction
  • chronic allograft dysfunction
  • chronic renal dysfunction
  • cognitive dysfunction
  • common male sexual dysfunction
  • contractile dysfunction
  • cord dysfunction
  • cortical dysfunction
  • diastolic dysfunction
  • dopamine dysfunction
  • dopaminergic dysfunction
  • early graft dysfunction
  • ejaculatory dysfunction
  • end-organ dysfunction
  • endocrine dysfunction
  • endothelial cell dysfunction
  • endothelial dysfunction
  • epc dysfunction
  • erectile dysfunction
  • executive dysfunction
  • family dysfunction
  • female sexual dysfunction
  • floor dysfunction
  • frontal lobe dysfunction
  • gait dysfunction
  • gastrointestinal dysfunction
  • gland dysfunction
  • glutamatergic dysfunction
  • graft dysfunction
  • heart dysfunction
  • hepatic dysfunction
  • hepatocellular dysfunction
  • hypothalamic dysfunction
  • immune dysfunction
  • intermedia dysfunction
  • kidney dysfunction
  • leave ventricular dysfunction
  • leave ventricular systolic dysfunction
  • liver dysfunction
  • lobe dysfunction
  • local dysfunction
  • lower urinary tract dysfunction
  • lv diastolic dysfunction
  • lv dysfunction
  • male erectile dysfunction
  • male sexual dysfunction
  • marrow dysfunction
  • mechanical dysfunction
  • meibomian gland dysfunction
  • memory dysfunction
  • menstrual dysfunction
  • metabolic dysfunction
  • microcirculatory dysfunction
  • microvascular dysfunction
  • minor neurological dysfunction
  • mitochondrial dysfunction
  • motor dysfunction
  • motor neuron dysfunction
  • multiorgan dysfunction
  • multiple organ dysfunction
  • muscle dysfunction
  • myocardial dysfunction
  • nerve dysfunction
  • nervous system dysfunction
  • neural dysfunction
  • neurocognitive dysfunction
  • neurologic dysfunction
  • neurological dysfunction
  • neuron dysfunction
  • neuronal dysfunction
  • neurophysiological dysfunction
  • neuropsychological dysfunction
  • neutrophil dysfunction
  • node dysfunction
  • oculomotor dysfunction
  • oddi dysfunction
  • olfactory dysfunction
  • organ dysfunction
  • pathway dysfunction
  • pelvic floor dysfunction
  • pituitary dysfunction
  • placental dysfunction
  • platelet dysfunction
  • postoperative cognitive dysfunction
  • proteasome dysfunction
  • psychiatric dysfunction
  • psychological dysfunction
  • pulmonary dysfunction
  • renal allograft dysfunction
  • renal dysfunction
  • reproductive dysfunction
  • respiratory dysfunction
  • right ventricular dysfunction
  • rv dysfunction
  • salivary dysfunction
  • sensory dysfunction
  • severe lv dysfunction
  • severe renal dysfunction
  • sexual dysfunction
  • sinus node dysfunction
  • social dysfunction
  • sphincter dysfunction
  • surfactant dysfunction
  • swallowing dysfunction
  • sympathetic dysfunction
  • synaptic dysfunction
  • system dysfunction
  • systolic dysfunction
  • telomere dysfunction
  • thyroid dysfunction
  • tract dysfunction
  • transplant dysfunction
  • tubular dysfunction
  • urinary dysfunction
  • urinary tract dysfunction
  • vagal dysfunction
  • valve dysfunction
  • valvular dysfunction
  • vascular dysfunction
  • ventricular diastolic dysfunction
  • ventricular dysfunction
  • ventricular systolic dysfunction
  • vestibular dysfunction
  • visual dysfunction
  • vocal cord dysfunction
  • voiding dysfunction

  • Terms modified by Dysfunction

  • dysfunction early
  • dysfunction inventory
  • dysfunction lead
  • dysfunction leading
  • dysfunction rate
  • dysfunction secondary
  • dysfunction syndrome

  • Selected Abstracts


    László Madácsy
    Introduction:, The aim of the present study was to reduce post-endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) complications with a combination of early needle-knife access fistulotomy and prophylactic pancreatic stenting in selected high-risk sphincter of Oddi dysfunction (SOD) patients with difficult cannulation. Methods:, Prophylactic pancreatic stent insertion was attempted in 22 consecutive patients with definite SOD and difficult cannulation. After 10 min of failed selective common bile duct cannulation, but repeated (>5×) pancreatic duct contrast filling, a prophylactic small calibre (3,5 Fr) pancreatic stent was inserted, followed by fistulotomy with a standard needle-knife, then a standard complete biliary sphincterotomy followed. The success and complication rates were compared retrospectively with a cohort of 35 patients, in which we persisted with the application of standard methods of cannulation without pre-cutting methods. Results:, Prophylactic pancreatic stenting followed by needle-knife fistulotomy was successfully carried out in all 22 consecutive patients, and selective biliary cannulation and complete endoscopic sphincterotomy were achieved in all but two cases. In this group, not a single case of post-ERCP pancreatitis was observed, in contrast with a control group of three mild, 10 moderate and two severe post-ERCP pancreatitis cases. The frequency of post-ERCP pancreatitis was significantly different: 0% versus 43%, as were the post-procedure (24 h mean) amylase levels: 206 U/L versus 1959 U/L, respectively. Conclusions:, In selected, high-risk, SOD patients, early, prophylactic pancreas stent insertion followed by needle-knife fistulotomy seems a safe and effective procedure with no or only minimal risk of post-ERCP pancreatitis. However, prospective, randomized studies are awaited to lend to support to our approach. [source]


    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 5 2004
    S. Nadar
    Objectives: To assess the severity of diastolic dysfunction in hypertensive patients as compared to normal controls and correlate it with plasma matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). Methods: 52 patients with controlled hypertension (HT) (38 male, age 57+ 11 yrs) and 24 normotensive controls 15 male, mean age 53+ 12 years) had tissue doppler echocardiography to assess diastolic dysfunction (e, and e,/e ratios). They also had plasma MMP-9 and TIMP-1 measured. Results: The HT patients had significantly lower e, and higher e,/e ratios as compared to normotensive controls. They also had higher MMP-9 and TIMP-1 values. There was a significant inverese correlation between MMP-9 and TIMP-1 with e, and a significant positive correlation between the MMPs and e,/e ratio. THe e/a ratios as assessed by pulse wave doppler were also higher in the controls than the hypertensive patients suggesting abnormal diastolic function. Conclusions: There is significant diastolic dysfunction even in controlled hypertensives which can be assessed by tissue doppler. This newer technique compares favourably with established methods such as e/a ratio. The tissue doppler indices also correlate well with abnormalities in the matrix metalloproteinases suggesting that abnormal matrix turnover is responsible for the diastolic dysfunction. [source]


    AI Vinik
    OBJECTIVE: To review evidence for a relationship between dermal neurovascular dysfunction and other components of the metabolic syndrome of type 2 diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: We review and present data supporting concepts relating dermal neurovascular function to prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome. Skin blood flow can be easily measured by laser Doppler techniques. RESULTS: Heat and gravity have been shown to have specific neural, nitrergic, and independent mediators to regulate skin blood flow. We describe data showing that this new tool identifies dermal neurovascular dysfunction in the majority of type 2 diabetic patients. The defect in skin vasodilation is detectable before the development of diabetes and is partially correctable with insulin sensitizers. This defect is associated with C-fiber dysfunction (i.e., the dermal neurovascular unit) and coexists with variables of the insulin resistance syndrome. The defect most likely results from an imbalance among the endogenous vasodilator compound nitric oxide, the vasodilator neuropeptides substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, and the vasoconstrictors angiotensin 11 and endothelin. Hypertension per se increases skin vasodilation and does not impair the responses to gravity, which is opposite to that of diabetes, suggesting that the effects of diabetes override and counteract those of hypertension. CONCLUSIONS: These observations suggest that dermal neurovascular function is largely regulated by peripheral C-fiber neurons and that dysregulation may be a component of the metabolic syndrome associated with type 2 diabetes. [source]


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 2 2008

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION: Independent Determinants of Coronary Artery Disease in Erectile Dysfunction Patients

    Shih-Tai Chang MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., There is growing evidence of a link between erectile dysfunction (ED) and coronary artery disease (CAD). Aims., The purpose of this study was to explore the independent determinants of CAD in ED outpatients. Methods., This study enrolled 243 patients, ranging in age from 21 to 81 years old, suffering from ED as diagnosed by the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) scores. All patients underwent exercise stress tests or thallium-201 single-photon emission computed tomography perfusion imagings. Based on examination results, patients were divided into study (22 patients with a positive finding) and control groups (221 patients with a negative finding). Main Outcome Measures., The differences of demographic characteristics, biochemical profiles, pro-inflammatory and inflammatory markers, and echocardiographic characteristics between study and control group were compared. Results., The age, presence of DM and current smoking status were significant high in the study group. A significant lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol level, a higher percentage of HDL cholesterol level < 40 mg/dL, and a higher apo-lipoprotein B/A1, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and homocysteine found in the study group. The Framingham cardiac risk scores, the ratio of mitral inflow velocity to early diastolic velocity in the annulus derived by tissue Doppler imaging (E/Et), the ratio of E/Et , 15, the value of carotid intima-media thickness (IMT), and IMT , 1 mm were higher in study group than in the control group. In stepwise multiple logistic regression analysis, a high waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), high IMT, high E/Et, hs-CRP levels, LDL cholesterol , 130 mg/dL, smoking status, and the presence of DM and metabolic syndrome (MS) were independent determinants of CAD in ED patients. Conclusions., This study first shows the independent determinants of CAD in ED outpatients. This novel finding may improve the screening of low-risk ED patients for CAD. Chang S-T, Chu C-M, Hsu J-T, Hsiao J-F, Chung C-M, Ho C, Peng Y-S, Chen P-Y, and Shee J-J. Independent determinants of coronary artery disease in erectile dysfunction patients. J Sex Med 2010;7:1478,1487. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION: Baseline Prevalence of Erectile Dysfunction in a Prostate Cancer Screening Population

    Jochen Walz MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., Erectile dysfunction (ED) is common in older men and can be worsened by prostate cancer (PCa) treatment. True ED rates before PCa treatment are mandatory, in order to assess the rate of ED attributable to PCa treatment. Data derived from population-based studies or from patients surveyed after PCa diagnosis, as well as just prior to treatment may not represent a valid benchmark, as health profiles of the general population might be different to those undergoing PCa screening or as anxiety may worsen existent ED. Aim., To circumvent these limitations, we assessed the baseline rate of ED in PCa diagnosis-free men participating in a PCa awareness event. Methods., ED was classified according to the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) score as absent (IIEF: 25,30), mild (22,24), mild to moderate (17,21), moderate (11,16), or severe (,10). Analyses were adjusted according to age and socioeconomic status. Main Outcome Measures., Of 1,273 asymptomatic men who participated in the event, 1,134 (89.1%) completed the IIEF score. Results., Mean age was 57.6 years (range 40,89 years). Of all participating men, 50.0% (N = 566) were potent, 8.8% (N = 100) reported mild, 10.4% (N = 118) mild to moderate, 9.4% (N = 107) moderate, and 21.4% (N = 243) severe ED. Men with ED were significantly older (P < 0.001), had no stable partner (P < 0.001), lower education (P < 0.001), and lower annual income (P < 0.001) than men without ED. Conclusions., One in two men who participated in this PCa awareness event is affected by ED, independent of PCa diagnosis or treatment. Such high prevalence of baseline ED in a PCa screening cohort suggests that in patients treated for PCa, ED may represent a common disorder already present prior to treatment. Moreover, socioeconomic variables were seen to have an important influence on erectile function in this patient cohort. Walz J, Perrotte P, Suardi N, Hutterer G, Jeldres C, Bénard F, Valiquette L, Graefen M, Montorsi F, and Karakiewicz PI. Baseline prevalence of erectile dysfunction in a prostate cancer screening population. J Sex Med 2008;5:428,435. [source]

    ORIGINAL RESEARCH,ERECTILE DYSFUNCTION: Journey into the Realm of Requests for Help Presented to Sexual Medicine Specialists: Introducing Male Sexual Distress

    Edoardo S. Pescatori MD
    ABSTRACT Introduction., The recent availability of noninvasive pharmacological remedies for male sexual function triggered an exponential increase in the number of men requesting help in the sexuality area. Aim., The Italian Society of Andrology explored requests for help, not included in formerly established clinical categories of sexual medicine. Methods., A central board of 67 andrologists identified new areas of requests for help, instrumental for a web-based questionnaire, forwarded to 912 members of the Italian Society of Andrology. Results were submitted to an independent consensus development panel. Main Outcome Measures., A questionnaire response rate of 30.8% was considered acceptable according to standard response rates of medical specialist samples. Results., The Central Board interaction identified two new domains of requests for help: sexual distress and unconventional requests for pro-erectile medications. Web-based questionnaire results suggested that such domains account for 29% and 9% respectively of all requests for help already presented by male patients at sexual medicine clinics. The Independent Consensus Development Panel issued a final consensus document; herewith, the statement defining male sexual distress: A non-transitory condition and/or feeling of inadequacy such as to impair "sexual health" (WHO working definition). Inadequacy can originate both from physiological modifications of male sexual functions, and from diseases, dysfunctions, dysfunctional symptoms and dysmorphisms, both of andrological and non-andrological origin, which do not relate to "erectile dysfunction" (NIH Consensus Development Panel definition), but that might also induce erectile dysfunction. Sexual Distress can lead to a request for help which needs to be acknowledged. Conclusion., The Italian Society of Andrology identified two new areas of requests for help concerning male sexual issues: sexual distress and unconventional requests for pro-erectile medications. These domains, which do not represent new diseases, nonetheless induce the sufferers to seek help and, accordingly, need to be acknowledged. Pescatori ES, Giammusso B, Piubello G, Gentile V, and Pirozzi Farina F. Journey into the realm of requests for help presented to sexual medicine specialists: Introducing male sexual distress. J Sex Med 2007;4:762,770. [source]


    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 11 2010
    Elie Ghannam Nemr
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 2 2008

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 3 2007
    Andrei Koerbel MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Wei Su
    SUMMARY 1The aims of the present study were to examine whether: (i) upregulation of the endothelin (ET) pathway is involved in impairment of vascular relaxation and early retinopathy in diabetic rats; and (ii) vascular and retinal abnormalities respond to the total triterpene acid (TTA) isolated from Fructus Corni compared with responses to the novel endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213 and aminoguanidine (AMG), a special antagonist for advanced glycation end-products (AGE) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS). 2Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into five groups, namely a normal control and four diabetic groups, which included an untreated diabetic group and groups treated with AMG (100 mg/kg, i.g.), CPU0213 (30 mg/kg, s.c.) or TTA (50 mg/kg, i.g.). Diabetes was induced by single injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, i.p.) on the 1st day. The mRNA expression of prepro-endothelin-1 (ppET-1), endothelin-converting enzyme (ECE) and iNOS in the thoracic aorta and mRNA for ETA receptors and iNOS in the retina were detected by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction. Vasorelaxation to acetylcholine (ACh) and functional assessment of nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability was determined in the thoracic aorta. 3We observed upregulated mRNA expression of iNOS, ppET-1 and ECE in the thoracic aorta and upregulated mRNA for the ETA receptor and iNOS in the retina in the untreated diabetic group. Vasodilatation mediated by ACh and NO bioavailability were markedly reduced in the thoracic aorta compared with the normal control group. These abnormalities were essentially reversed by TTA, CPU0213 or AMG, with the exception with that AMG did not modify vasodilatation to ACh. 4These data suggest that upregulation of gene transcription of the ET system mediates depressed vasorelaxation, NO bioavailability and changes in iNOS and ETA receptors that reflect early retinopathy in diabetic rats. Total triterpene acid, in terms of pharmacological properties resembling the endothelin receptor antagonist CPU0213, is effective in normalizing expression of the ET system and iNOS in early diabetic retinopathy and vasculaopathy. [source]


    PV Anandh Babu
    SUMMARY 1The efficacy of green tea extract (GTE) on serum and cardiac lipids was investigated in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. 2Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of STZ (60 mg/kg bodyweight). Six weeks after the induction of diabetes, GTE was administered orally for 4 weeks (300 mg/kg bodyweight daily). Bodyweight, heart weight, heart weight : bodyweight ratio, blood glucose, serum and cardiac lipids were determined in experimental rats. 3In diabetic rats, there was a significant decrease in bodyweight with an increase in heart weight : bodyweight ratio and blood glucose. Diabetic rats had significantly increased serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, free fatty acids and low-density lipoprotein,cholesterol (LDL-C) and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein,cholesterol (HDL-C). In the hearts of diabetic rats, there was a significant increase in cholesterol, triglycerides and free fatty acids levels, with an increase in lipoprotein lipase activity. 4The administration of GTE to diabetic rats resulted in significant recovery in bodyweight, heart weight : bodyweight ratio and blood glucose levels. The administration of GTE reduced cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acid and LDL-C levels, and increased HDL-C levels, in the serum of diabetic rats. In addition, GTE decreased cholesterol, triglyceride, free fatty acids levels and lipoprotein lipase activity in the myocardium of diabetic rats. These beneficial effects of GTE are ascribed to its antihyperglycaemic and hypolipidaemic activity. In conclusion, green tea can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease in diabetes with a significant improvement in lipid metabolism. [source]


    Naoko Tanaka
    SUMMARY 1.,The effect of 2-chloroadenosine (2CA), a P1 receptor agonist and ,,,-methylene ATP (,,mATP), a P2 receptor agonist, on the overflow of endogenous noradrenaline (NE) and the contractile response were examined in the electrically field-stimulated (EFS) (1 Hz) caudal artery obtained from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and SHR/NDmcr-cp (SHR-cp) rats. 2.,Both 2CA and ,,mATP reduced the EFS-evoked release of NE from the arteries of WKY. Also, 2CA significantly reduced the EFS-evoked contractile response in WKY, while it had no effect at all in SHR-cp. ,,mATP significantly reduced the EFS-evoked contractile response in both WKY and SHR-cp. Both 2CA and ,,mATP did not affect the contractile response induced by NE at 1 µmol/L. 3.,These results indicate that in the caudal arteries of SHR-cp, the P2 agonist but not the P1 agonist is functional in the prejunctional inhibitory regulation of adrenergic neurotransmission. This P1 dysfunction may play a role in the sympathetic hyperinnervation in metabolic syndrome. [source]


    Toshio Imanishi
    SUMMARY 1.,Recent studies have revealed an association between coronary risk factors and both the number and function of bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPC). We investigated the effect of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on the senescence of EPC, leading to cellular dysfunction. 2.,Endothelial progenitor cells were isolated from human peripheral blood and characterized. The exposure of cultured EPC to ox-LDL (10 µg/mL) significantly accelerated the rate of senescence compared with control during 20 days in culture as determined by acidic ,-galactosidase staining. Oxidized LDL-induced EPC senescence was significantly inhibited by pretreatment with either lectin-like ox-LDL receptor-1 (LOX-1) antibody (Ab) or atorvastatin (P < 0.01). 3.,Because cellular senescence is critically influenced by telomerase, which elongates telomeres, we measured telomerase activity using a polymerase chain reaction,ELISA-based assay. Oxidized LDL significantly diminished telomerase activity to approximately 50%, an effect that was significantly abolished by pretreatment with either LOX-1 Ab or atorvastatin (P < 0.01). 4.,We examined whether ox-LDL-induced EPC senescence translates into EPC dysfunction. An MTS assay disclosed an inhibitory effect of ox-LDL on EPC proliferation. In a Matrigel assay, EPC treated with ox-LDL were less likely to participate in network fomation compared with controls. 5.,In conclusions, ox-LDL accelerates the onset of EPC senescence, which may be related to telomerase inactivation. Oxidized LDL-induced EPC senescence leads to the impairment of proliferative capacity and network formation. [source]

    Identifying Left Ventricular Dysfunction in Pulmonary Hypertension

    Navin Rajagopalan MD
    The significance of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction in patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) is unknown. Our purpose was to quantify LV function in PH patients by measuring LV myocardial performance index (MPI) and correlating it with invasively determined hemodynamic variables. The authors prospectively measured LV MPI via transthoracic echocardiography in 50 patients with PH (53±11 years; 35 women) who also underwent right heart catheterization within 1 day of echocardiography. For comparative purposes, LV MPI was also measured in 15 healthy volunteers who served as controls. LV MPI was significantly increased in the PH group compared with controls (0.62±0.27 vs 0.36±0.08; P<.001), indicating worse LV dysfunction despite that LV ejection fraction was not significantly different between the groups (58%±4% vs 60%±3%). LV MPI demonstrated significant correlations with invasively determined mean pulmonary artery pressure (r=.50; P<.001), pulmonary vascular resistance (r=.57; P<.001), and cardiac index (r=,.64; P<.001). By receiver operating characteristic analysis, LV MPI >0.75 predicted cardiac index <2 L/min/m2 with 89% sensitivity and 78% specificity (area under the curve, 0.89). In a multivariate model, LV MPI was independently associated with cardiac index (P<.01). Patients with PH demonstrate abnormal LV function as quantified by elevated LV MPI, which correlates significantly with pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac index. [source]

    Baseline Characteristics of Patients Randomized in the Resynchronization Reverses Remodeling in Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction (REVERSE) Study

    Cecilia Linde MD
    The Resynchronization Reverses Remodeling in Systolic Left Ventricular Dysfunction (REVERSE) study is a randomized controlled trial currently assessing the safety and efficacy of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with asymptomatic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction with previous symptoms of mild heart failure. This paper describes the baseline characteristics of randomized patients; 610 patients with New York Heart Association (NYHA) class II (82.3%) heart failure or asymptomatic (NYHA class I) LV dysfunction with previous symptoms (17.7%) were randomized in 73 centers. The mean age was 62.5±11.0 years, the mean LV ejection fraction was 26.7%±7.0%, and the mean LV end-diastolic diameter was 66.9±8.9 mm. A total of 97% of patients were taking angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers and 95.1% were taking ,-blockers, which were at the target dose in 35.1% of patients. Compared with previous randomized cardiac resynchronization therapy trials, REVERSE patients are on better pharmacologic treatment, are younger, and have a narrower QRS width despite similar LV dysfunction. [source]

    Blunted Hemodynamic Response and Reduced Oxygen Delivery With Exercise in Anemic Heart Failure Patients With Systolic Dysfunction

    Jennifer Listerman MD
    Anemic heart failure patients with systolic dysfunction are known to have reduced exercise capacity. Whether this is related to poor hemodynamic adaptation to anemia is not known. Peak exercise oxygen consumption (VO2) and hemodynamics at rest and peak exercise were assessed among 209 patients and compared among those who were (n=90) and were not (n=119) anemic. Peak VO2 was significantly lower among anemic patients (11.7±3.3 mL/min/kg vs 13.4±3.1 mL/min/kg; P=.01). At rest, right atrial pressure was higher (10±5 mm Hg vs 8±4 mm Hg; P=.02) and venous oxygen saturation lower (62%±8% vs 58%±10%; P<.01) among anemic patients. At peak exercise, anemic patients had a higher wedge pressure (27±9 mm Hg vs 24±10 mm Hg; P=.04). No significant differences in stroke volume, cardiac index, systemic vascular resistance, or oxygen saturation were noted between the 2 groups. In conclusion, the relative hemodynamic response to exercise among anemic heart failure patients appears blunted and may contribute to worse exercise tolerance. [source]

    Presence of Biventricular Dysfunction in Patients With Type II Diabetes Mellitus

    Mohammad-Reza Movahed MD
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) has been found to be associated with depressed left ventricular (LV) function. Right ventricular (RV) function in DM patients, however, has not been well studied. The goal of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of LV and RV dysfunction in patients with DM. A series of 157 patients underwent simultaneous measurement of LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and RV ejection fraction (RVEF). Four of 26 DM patients had RVEF <30% (15.4%) vs 4 of 126 controls (3.2%) (P=.01). Eleven of 27 (40.7%) patients with DM had LVEF <30% vs 9 of 128 controls (7%) (P<.0001). Using multivariate analysis, DM remained independently associated with severely decreased biventricular function (RVEF <30%; odds ratio, 5.7; confidence interval, 1.3,25.4 [P=.02] and LVEF <30%; odds ratio, 12.9; confidence interval, 3.8,43.7 [P<.0001]). These results suggest that diabetic cardiomyopathy involves both ventricles as an independent pathologic process. [source]

    Acute Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to Right Ventricular Pacing in a Patient With Sinus Node Dysfunction and Severe Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    Giancarlo H. Speziani MD
    Right ventricular pacing has been associated with worsening symptoms of heart failure in patients with cardiomyopathy. We describe a patient with severe ischemic cardiomyopathy and sinus node dysfunction who developed acute worsening of pulmonary hypertension immediately after right ventricular pacing. [source]

    Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Diastolic Dysfunction in the Elderly: Influence of Gender

    Chanwit Roongsritong MD
    Diastolic heart failure is common in the elderly, particularly women. Previous studies on the value of brain natriuretic peptide in diastolic dysfunction have been largely limited to male subjects. The authors found that female gender, in addition to diastolic function, is an independent predictor of brain natriuretic peptide levels in the elderly without systolic ventricular dysfunction. The authors' data indicate that an optimal threshold of brain natriuretic peptide for detecting diastolic dysfunction should be qender-specific. [source]

    Ventricular Mechanical Asynchrony in Patients with Different Degrees of Systolic Dysfunction: Results from AVE Registry by the Italian Society of Cardiovascular Echography (SIEC)

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2010
    Scipione Carerj M.D.
    Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the prevalence of interventricular and intraventricular asynchrony in patients with different degrees of left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Methods: We enrolled 182 patients (male 79%, mean age 64 ± 11 years) with LV ejection fraction (EF) < 50% and identified two groups: Group A (n = 79) with mild-to-moderate LV dysfunction (EF between 36% and 49%) and Group B (n = 103) with severe dysfunction (EF , 35%). An echocardiogram was performed in all patients and a delay longer than 40 msec in the time difference between the aortic and pulmonary preejection intervals was considered as an index of interventricular asynchrony. The electromechanical delays were assessed by pulsed tissue Doppler technique. A time difference between the earliest and the latest segment greater than 40 msec was considered the cutoff for intraventricular asynchrony. The sum of asynchrony was calculated by adding to the LV intraventricular delay the delay between the lateral basal right ventricular segment and the most delayed LV basal segment. Results: The prevalence of interventricular asynchrony was lower among Group A patients (19.8% vs. 37.9%; P = 0.007) while the prevalence of intraventricular asynchrony did not differ between groups (32.9% vs. 44% in Group A and Group B respectively; P = 0.18). The sum of asynchrony (cutoff >102 msec) did not differ between groups either (29.9% vs. 35.9%; P = 0.39). Conclusions: The prevalence of intraventricular asynchrony is independent of the LV systolic dysfunction severity. This could indicate the potential role of cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with mild-moderate systolic dysfunction. (ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY 2010;27:110-116) [source]

    Measurement of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction by Real Time 3D Echocardiography in Patients with Severe Systolic Dysfunction: Comparison with Radionuclide Angiography

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2010
    Hajo Müller M.D.
    Aim: Measurement of left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using real time 3D echocardiography (3DE) has been performed in subjects with preserved or modestly reduced systolic function. Our aim was to evaluate this technique in the subset of patients with severe systolic dysfunction. Methods and results: Consecutive patients with LVEF less than 0.35 at two-dimensional echocardiography were included. LVEF obtained by 3DE was compared to the value measured by radionuclide angiography (RNA). Real time full-volume 3DE was performed, with offline semiautomated measurement of LVEF using dedicated software (Cardioview RT, Tomtec) by a single observer blinded to the results of RNA. A total of 50 patients were evaluated, of whom 38 (76%, 27 males, age 69 ± 13 years) had a 3DE of sufficient quality for analysis. LVEF for this group was 0.21 ± 0.07 using 3DE and 0.27 ± 0.08 using RNA. The agreement between the two techniques was rather poor (r = 0.49; P < 0.001; 95% limits of agreements of ,0.20 to 0.09). Truncation of the apex was observed in 6 of 38 (16%) patients. Conclusion: In patients with severe systolic dysfunction, 3DE shows poor agreement for measurement of LVEF as compared to RNA. There may be underestimation of up to 20% in absolute terms by 3DE. Accordingly, the two methods are not interchangeable for the follow-up of LV function. A limitation of 3DE may, at least in part, be related to the incomplete incorporation of the apical region into the pyramidal image sector in patients with dilated hearts. (Echocardiography 2010;27:58-63) [source]

    Lack of Association between Obesity and Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 2 2009
    Mohammad Reza Movahed M.D., Ph.D.
    Background: Previous studies have demonstrated that obesity is one of the risk factors for congestive heart failure (CHF). By analyzing a large database, we investigated any association between body mass index (BMI) and left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Methods: We retrospectively analyzed 24,265 echocardiograms performed between 1984 and 1998. Fractional shortening (FS) and BMI were available for 13,382 subjects in this cohort which were used for data analysis. FS was stratified into four groups: (1) FS > 25%, (2) FS 17.5,25%, (3) FS 10,17.5%, and (4) FS < 10%. Furthermore, we also used final diagnosis that was coded by the reading cardiologist as mild, moderate, and severe LV dysfunction separately for data analysis. BMI was divided into four groups: BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 (underweight), 18.5,24.9 kg/m2 (normal), 25,30 kg/m2 (overweight), and >30 kg/m2 (obese). Results: There was no association between different BMI categories and LV systolic function. The prevalence of mild, moderate, or severely decreased LV function (based on FS or subjective interpretation of reading cardiologists) was equally distributed between the groups. Obese patients (BMI > 30%) had normal FS of >25 in 16.9%, mildly decreased FS in 18%, moderately decreased FS in 18.4%, and severely decreased FS in 20.1% P = ns. Conclusion: Our study is consistent with previous trials suggesting that obesity is not related to systolic LV dysfunction. The underlying mechanism for the occurrence of congestive heart failure in obese patients needs further investigation. [source]

    Local Dysfunction and Asymmetrical Deformation of Mitral Annular Geometry in Ischemic Mitral Regurgitation: A Novel Computerized 3D Echocardiographic Analysis

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2008
    Masao Daimon M.D.
    Objective: Most studies of the pathogenesis of functional mitral regurgitation (MR) have focused on alterations in ventricular function and geometry. We used a novel 3D echocardiographic method to assess abnormalities in mitral annular (MA) geometry and motion in patients with ischemic MR (IMR) and compared these data to those obtained from normal subjects and from patients with MR caused by dilated cardiomyopathy (DMR). Methods: Real time 3D echo was performed in 12 normal subjects, 25 with IMR, and 14 with DMR. Eight points along the saddle-shaped MA were identified using our software at systole and diastole. From these eight points, four annular diameters at each cardiac phase were determined. Annular motion was assessed by measuring local displacement (LD) of a given point between systole and diastole. Results: Annular motion was different between groups: IMR had smaller LD in posterior MA segments than did normals (2.6 ± 1.1 vs 4.8 ± 1.9 mm, P < 0.01), while DMR had globally reduced LD. In IMR systolic MA dilatation was striking in the anterior,posterior (diameter; IMR vs controls, 28.3 ± 3.5 vs 22.5 ± 2.2 mm, P< 0.05) and anterolateral,posteromedial (31.7 ± 3.5 vs 25.1 ± 2.2 mm, P < 0.05) directions; in IMR, systolic MA diameters in these two directions correlated with MR severity(P = 0.02). MA dilatation occurred globally in DMR. Conclusion: This novel 3D echo method demonstrated that MA motion and dilatation were asymmetric in IMR and symmetric in DMR. These differences in MA geometry and motion may aid in the development of distinct new therapies for IMR and DMR. [source]

    Prevalence and Characteristics of Left Ventricular Noncompaction in a Community Hospital Cohort of Patients with Systolic Dysfunction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2008
    Roopinder Sandhu M.D.
    Background: Left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC) is felt to be a rare form of cardiomyopathy, although its prevalence in a nonreferred population is unknown. We examined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of LVNC in a community hospital cohort of adult patients with echocardiographic evidence of left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction. Methods: All adult echocardiograms with global LV dysfunction and an LVEF , 45% over a 1-year period were reviewed for signs of LV noncompaction. Its presence was confirmed by the consensus of at least 2/3 readers specifically searching for this using standard criteria for noncompaction. Results: A 3.7% prevalence of definite or probable LVNC was found in those with LVEF, 45% and a 0.26% prevalence for all patients referred for echocardiography during this period. This is appreciably higher than prior reports from tertiary centers. Conclusion: Noncompaction may not be a rare phenomenon and is comparable to other more widely recognized but less common causes of heart failure such as peripartum myopathy, connective tissue diseases, chronic substance abuse and HIV disease. [source]

    Age- and Sex-Related Differences in the Tissue Doppler Imaging Parameters of Left Ventricular Diastolic Dysfunction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2007
    Hyeun S. Park M.D.
    Background: The effect of age and gender on tissue Doppler imaging measurements comparing the septal and mitral annulus needs to be investigated. Methods: We investigated in 276 outpatients in a university cardiology practice the relationship of age and gender to left atrial (LA) size, LA volume, mitral pulse-wave Doppler E/A ratio, E/Ea ratios by tissue Doppler image of mitral annular velocity (TDI), and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction (LVDD) by TDI. Results: Mitral E/A inflow was statistically decreased with age. E/Ea ratios of the lateral and mean of both lateral and septal annulus showed a statistical increase with age, while the E/Ea ratio of the septal annulus did not correlate with age. When comparing men and women of all ages, the mean LA volume for men was 59.2 cm3± 24.36 cm3 versus 48.54 cm3± 16.14 cm3 (P-value < 0.0001) and the mean LA size was 4.0 + 0.51 cm for men and 3.65 + 0.47 for women (P-value < 0.0001). There was no statistical difference between men and women when looking at mitral E/A inflow ratio, deceleration time, E/Ea ratio of the septal annulus, E/Ea ratio of the lateral annulus, E/Ea ratio of the mean of both septal and lateral annulus, and grades of LVDD. Conclusion: In patients 70 years of age or older, the mean diastolic grade was mild-to-moderate LVDD when using lateral or mean of septal and lateral annular measurements. When only the septal annular measurements were used to determine diastolic grade, all four age groups showed a mean of mildly to moderately impaired LVDD and showed no correlation with age. There were no differences in tissue Doppler imaging measurements between men and women. [source]

    Validity of Revised Doppler Echocardiographic Algorithms and Composite Clinical and Angiographic Data in Diagnosis of Diastolic Dysfunction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 10 2006
    Kofo O. Ogunyankin M.D.
    Background: Commonly used echocardiographic indices for grading diastolic function predicated on mitral inflow Doppler analysis have a poor diagnostic concordance and discriminatory value. Even when combined with other indices, significant overlap prevents a single group assignment for many subjects. We tested the relative validity of echocardiographic and clinical algorithms for grading diastolic function in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Method: Patients (n = 115), had echocardiograms immediately prior to measuring left ventricular (LV) diastolic (pre-A, mean, end-diastolic) pressures. Diastolic function was classified into the traditional four stages, and into three stages using a new classification that obviates the pseudonormal class. Summative clinical and angiographic data were used in a standardized fashion to classify each patient according to the probability for abnormal diastolic function. Measured LV diastolic pressure in each patient was compared with expected diastolic pressures based on the clinical and echocardiographic classifications. Result: The group means of the diastolic pressures were identical in patients stratified by four-stage or three-stage echocardiographic classifications, indicating that both classifications schemes are interchangeable. When severe diastolic dysfunction is diagnosed by the three-stage classification, 88% and 12%, respectively, were clinically classified as high and intermediate probability, and the mean LV pre-A pressures was >12 mmHg (P < 0.005). Conversely, the mean LV pre-A pressure in the clinical low probability or echocardiographic normal groups was <11 mmHg. Conclusion: Use of a standardized clinical algorithm to define the probability of diastolic function identifies patients with elevated LV filing pressure to the same extent as echocardiographic methods. [source]

    Elongation Index as a New Index Determining the Severity of Left Ventricular Systolic Dysfunction and Mitral Regurgitation in Patients with Congestive Heart Failure

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 7 2005
    Mehmet Yokusoglu M.D.
    The shape of the left ventricle is an important echocardiographic feature of left ventricular dysfunction. Progression of the mitral regurgitation and consequent left ventricular remodeling is unpredictable in heart failure. Elongation index is an index of left ventricular sphericity. The surface area of the elongated ventricle is larger than that of a spherical one. The objective of this study was to assess the relation between elongation index and the degree of mitral regurgitation along with noninvasive indices of left ventricular function. Thirty-two patients (21 male, 11 female, mean age: 57 ± 6 yrs) with congestive heart failure and mitral regurgitation were included. Patients were stratified into three groups according to vena contracta width as having mild (n = 11), moderate (n = 11) and severe mitral regurgitation (n = 10). The elongation index (EI) was considered as equal to {[(left ventricular internal area-measured) , (theoretical area of the sphere with measured left ventricular volume)]/(theoretical area of the sphere with measured left ventricular volume)}. Ejection fractions by the modified Simpson rule, dP/dt and sphericity index (SI) were also recorded. The relationship between (EI), ejection fraction, dP/dt and SI reached modest statistical significance (p < 0.05). When the EI and SI were compared, the correlation was also significant (p < 0.01). The areas under the receiver operator curve of EI and SI for discriminating dP/dt < 1000 mm Hg/s were 0.833 and 0.733, respectively. In conclusion, the elongation, which defines the shape of the left ventricle, might be related to the systolic function of the left ventricle and the degree of the mitral regurgitation. Further studies are needed to demonstrate its use in other clinical entities. [source]

    Assessment of Myocardial Viability with Dobutamine Stress Echocardiography in Patients with Ischemic Left Ventricular Dysfunction

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2005
    Siu-Sun Yao M.D.
    The noninvasive assessment of myocardial viability has proved clinically useful for distinguishing hibernating and/or stunned myocardium from irreversibly injured myocardium in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease or recent myocardial infarction, with marked regional and/or global left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Noninvasive techniques utilized for the detection of viability in asynergic myocardial regions include positron emission tomographic imaging of residual metabolic activity, single photon emission tomography (SPECT) of radioisotope uptake with thallium-201, low-dose dobutamine echocardiography assessment of inotropic reserve and myocardial contrast echocardiography for evaluation of microvascular integrity. Of these techniques, dobutamine stress echocardiography is a safe, widely available and relatively inexpensive modality for the identification of myocardial viability for risk stratification and prognosis. Low-dose dobutamine response can accurately predict improvement of dysfunctional yet viable myocardial regions, and thus identify a subset of patients whose LV function will improve following successful coronary revascularization. [source]

    Assessment of Acute Right Ventricular Dysfunction Induced by Right Coronary Artery Occlusion Using Echocardiographic Atrioventricular Plane Displacement

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 6 2000
    Alpesh R. Shah M.D.
    Right ventricular (RV) systolic function analysis by echocardiography has traditionally required RV endocardial border definition with subsequent tracing and is often inaccurate or impossible in technically poor studies. The atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD) method attempts to use the descent of the tricuspid annular ring, a reflection of the longitudinal shortening of the right ventricle, as a surrogate marker for RV systolic function. We hypothesized that RV ischemia induced during right coronary artery occlusion proximal to the major right ventricular branches would result in severe right ventricular systolic dysfunction detectable by the AVPD method. During this pilot study, seven patients undergoing elective proximal RCA angioplasty had echocardiographic measurement of RV AVPD performed at baseline (i.e., immediately prior to RCA balloon inflation), during the last 30 seconds of first RCA balloon inflation, and at 1 minute after balloon deflation (recovery). Lateral and medial RV AVPD were significantly reduced from baseline values during intracoronary balloon inflation. (Lateral: 2.45 cm ± 0.22 vs 1.77 cm ± 0.13, P < 0.001; medial: 1.46 cm ± 0.37 vs 1.28 cm ± 0.32, P < 0.05). Additionally, lateral and medial RV AVPD significantly returned towards baseline values during recovery. (Lateral: 2.39 cm ± 0.20, P < 0.001; medial: 1.58 cm ± 0.27, P = 0.01). At baseline, all lateral RV AVPD values were > 2.0 cm, whereas during balloon inflation all were < 2.0 cm. No such clear distinction was found in medial RV AVPD values. Proximal RCA angioplasty is associated with a significant reduction in lateral and medial RV AVPD. Thus RV AVPD may serve as a marker for RV systolic dysfunction. [source]