Dynamic Response (dynamic + response)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Engineering

Selected Abstracts


A.M. Morison
First page of article [source]

Distribution of the Ordovician Fluid in the Tahe Oilfield and Dynamic Response of Cave System S48 to Exploitation

LOU Zhanghua
Abstract: The Tahe Oilfield is a complex petroleum reservoir of Ordovician carbonate formation and made up of spatially overlapping fracture-cavity units. The oilfield is controlled by a cave system resulting from structure-karst cyclic sedimentation. Due to significant heterogeneity of the reservoir, the distribution of oil and water is complicated. Horizontally, a fresh water zone due to meteoric water can be found in the north part of the Akekule uplift. A marginal freshening zone caused by water released from mudstone compaction is found at the bottom of the southern slope. Located in a cross-formational flow discharge zone caused by centripetal and the centrifugal flows, the main part of the Tahe Oilfield, featuring high salinity and concentrations of Cl, and K++Na+, is favorable for accumulation of hydrocarbon. Three types of formation water in the Tahe Ordovician reservoir are identified: (1) residual water at the bottom of the cave after oil and gas displacement, (2) residual water in fractures/pores around the cave after oil and gas displacement, and (3) interlayer water below reservoirs. The cave system is the main reservoir space, which consists of the main cave, branch caves and depressions between caves. Taking Cave System S48 in the Ordovician reservoir as an example, the paper analyzes the fluid distribution and exploitation performance in the cave system. Owing to evaporation of groundwater during cross-formational flow, the central part of the main cave, where oil layers are thick and there is a high degree of displacement, is characterized by high salinity and Br, concentration. With high potential and a long stable production period, most wells in the central part of the main cave have a long water-free oil production period. Even after water breakthrough, the water content has a slow or stepwise increase and the hydrochemistral characteristics of the produced water in the central part of the main cave are uniform. From the center to the edge of the main cave, displacement and enrichment of oil/gas become weaker, residual water increases, and the salinity and concentration of Br, decrease. At the edge of the main cave, although the wells have a high deliverability at the beginning with a short stable production period and water-free production period. After water breakthrough, the pressure and deliverability drop quickly, and the water content rises quickly. The hydrochemistral characteristics of the produced water are relatively uniform. Wells in the branch caves have a relatively low deliverability at the beginning, with a short stable production period. Water breakthrough appears quickly and then the pressure and deliverability drop quickly. The salinity and concentrations of Cl, and K++Na+ are usually fluctuant or descend slowly in the produced water. Wells in low areas of ancient karst have a low deliverability and a short stable production period. The yield drops quickly and the water content is high, while the characteristics of the produced water may vary significantly well to well. The salinity and concentrations of Cl, and K++Na+ in the produced water are usually fluctuant with a precipitous decline. [source]

Dynamic response of a soft soil layer to flow and periodical disturbance

Ping-Cheng Hsieh
Abstract The dynamic response of a soft soil layer of finite thickness under the mutual effects of flow and periodical disturbance at the free surface is discussed in this work. The homogeneous water is governed by potential theory and the soil layer obeys Biot's theory of poroelasticity. The boundary-value problem is solved by an analytical algorithm, in which the wave number is found first. Secondly, the closed form solutions are found by a two-parameter perturbation method with the boundary-layer correction. The results are also compared with those of the poroelastic soil layer of infinite thickness to show the impermeable rigid boundary effect. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Dynamic response of soft poroelastic bed to linear water waves,a boundary layer correction approach

Ping-Cheng Hsieh
Abstract According to Chen et al. (Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE 1997; 123(10):1041,1049.) a boundary layer exists within the porous bed and near the homogeneous-water/porous-bed interface when oscillatory water waves propagate over a soft poroelastic bed. This boundary layer makes the evaluation of the second kind of longitudinal wave inside the soft poroelastic bed very inaccurate. In this study, the boundary layer correction approach for the poroelastic bed is applied to the boundary value problem of linear oscillatory water waves propagating over a soft poroelastic bed. After the analyses of length scale and order of magnitude of physical variables are done, a perturbation expansion for the boundary layer correction approach based on two small parameters is proposed and solved. The solutions are carried out for the first and third kind of waves throughout the entire domain. The second kind of wave which disappears outside the boundary layer is solved systematically inside the boundary layer. The results are compared with the linear wave solutions of Huang and Song (Journal of Engineering Mechanics, ASCE 1993; 119:1003,1020.) to confirm the validity. Moreover, a simplified boundary layer correction formulation which is expected to be very useful in numerical computation is also proposed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Dynamic response of intrinsic continua for use in biological and molecular modeling: Explicit finite element formulation

Michael J. Leamy
Abstract An intrinsic beam formulation has recently appeared (AIAA J. 2003; 41(6):1131,1137), which presents the three-dimensional equations of motion governing spatial and temporal changes in a one-dimensional continua's curvature, strain, rectilinear velocity, and angular velocity. The formulation would suggest several computational advantages over more-traditional displacement-based continua approaches: low-order interpolation functions can describe generally curved and twisted continua configurations; inter-element displacements, slopes, strains, and curvatures can be matched; and finite rotational variables and their complexities are absent. Here, we present a completed intrinsic continua finite element development and critical analysis, which follows from an earlier preliminary treatment as applied to carbon nanotubes (Int. J. Solids Struct. 2007; 44:874,894). Modeling of nodal displacements and rotations are included. Explicit time stepping, with desired high-frequency damping, is accomplished using an implementation of the generalized-, method. Zero-energy modes inherent in the formulation are also identified and rectified. Finally, we document very good agreement between results predicted with the intrinsic continua finite element simulator and results generated using more-traditional finite element simulations. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Influence of electronic correlations on the frequency-dependent hopping transport in Si:P

Elvira Ritz
Abstract At low energy scales charge transport in the insulating Si:P is dominated by activated hopping between the localized donor electron states. Thus, theoretical models for a disordered system with electron-electron interaction are appropriate to interpret the electric conductivity spectra. With a newly developed technique we have measured the complex broadband microwave conductivity of Si:P from 100 MHz to 5 GHz in a broad range of phosphorus concentration n /nc from 0.56 to 0.95 relative to the critical value nc = 3:5 × 1018 cm,3 corresponding to the metal-insulator transition driven by doping. At our base temperature of T = 1.1 K the samples are in the zero-phonon regime where they show a super-linear frequency dependence of the conductivity indicating the influence of the Coulomb gap in the density of the impurity states. At higher doping n , nc, an abrupt drop in the conductivity power law ,1(,) , ,, is observed. The dielectric function ,1 increases upon doping following a power law in (1 , n /nc). Dynamic response at elevated temperatures has also been investigated. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Experimental study of dynamic damage of an arch dam

Haibo Wang
Abstract Seismic responses of a 292-m high arch dam were studied by experiment on a shaking table. The model system included the arch dam with contraction joints, a part of a reservoir, and a partial foundation with a topographic feature near the dam. Potential rock wedges on the abutments and the mechanical properties including uplift on the kinematic planes were carefully simulated. A damping boundary consisting of a viscous liquid was introduced to simulate the effect of dynamic energy emission to far field, which made the dynamic interaction between the dam and the foundation be adequately represented in the model test of an arch dam system. Dynamic responses of the arch dam system under a sequence of seismic loadings in increasing strength were examined. Eleven cracks or overstresses on the model dam due to the earthquake excitations were observed, and consequently, its natural frequency dropped by about 14%, but the model dam was stable under the hydrostatic load of the impounded water after the test. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hydrology and dynamics of a polythermal (mostly cold) High Arctic glacier

Robert G. Bingham
Abstract To improve our understanding of the interactions between hydrology and dynamics in mostly cold glaciers (in which water flow is limited by thermal regime), we analyse short-term (every two days) variations in glacier flow in the ablation zone of polythermal John Evans Glacier, High Arctic Canada. We monitor the spatial and temporal propagation of high-velocity events, and examine their impacts upon supraglacial drainage processes and evolving subglacial drainage system structure. Each year, in response to the rapid establishment of supraglacial,subglacial drainage connections in the mid-ablation zone, a ,spring event' of high horizontal surface velocities and high residual vertical motion propagates downglacier over two to four days from the mid-ablation zone to the terminus. Subsequently, horizontal velocities fall relative to the spring event but remain higher than over winter, reflecting channelization of subglacial drainage but continued supraglacial meltwater forcing. Further transient high-velocity events occur later in each melt season in response to melt-induced rising supraglacial meltwater inputs to the glacier bed, but the dynamic response of the glacier contrasts with that recorded during the spring event, with the degree of spatial propagation a function of the degree to which the subglacial drainage system has become channelized. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Dynamic stiffness of deep foundations with inclined piles

L. A. Padrón
Abstract The influence of inclined piles on the dynamic response of deep foundations and superstructures is still not well understood and needs further research. For this reason, impedance functions of deep foundations with inclined piles, obtained numerically from a boundary element,finite element coupling model, are provided in this paper. More precisely, vertical, horizontal, rocking and horizontal,rocking crossed dynamic stiffness and damping functions of single inclined piles and 2 × 2 and 3 × 3 pile groups with battered elements are presented in a set of plots. The soil is assumed to be a homogeneous viscoelastic isotropic half-space and the piles are modeled as elastic compressible Euler,Bernoulli beams. The results for different pile group configurations, pile,soil stiffness ratios and rake angles are presented. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Response simulation and seismic assessment of highway overcrossings

Anastasios Kotsoglou
Abstract Interaction of bridge structures with the adjacent embankment fills and pile foundations is generally responsible for response modification of the system to strong ground excitations, to a degree that depends on soil compliance, support conditions, and soil mass mobilized in dynamic response. This paper presents a general modeling and assessment procedure specifically targeted for simulation of the dynamic response of short bridges such as highway overcrossings, where the embankment soil,structure interaction is the most prevalent. From previous studies it has been shown that in this type of interaction, seismic displacement demands are magnified in the critical bridge components such as the central piers. This issue is of particular relevance not only in new design but also in the assessment of the existing infrastructure. Among a wide range of issues relevant to soil,structure interaction, typical highway overcrossings that have flexible abutments supported on earth embankments were investigated extensively in the paper. Simulation procedures are proposed for consideration of bridge-embankment interaction effects in practical analysis of these structures for estimation of their seismic performance. Results are extrapolated after extensive parametric studies and are used to extract ready-to-use, general, and parameterized capacity curves for a wide range of possible material properties and geometric characteristics of the bridge-embankment assembly. Using two instrumented highway overpasses as benchmark examples, the capacity curves estimated using the proposed practical procedures are correlated successfully with the results of explicit incremental dynamic analysis, verifying the applicability of the simple tools developed herein, in seismic assessment of existing short bridges. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An answer to an important controversy and the need for caution when using simple models to predict inelastic earthquake response of buildings with torsion

Stavros A. Anagnostopoulos
Abstract This paper presents evidence that the extension of conclusions based on the widely used simplified, one story, eccentric systems of the shear-beam type, to actual, nonsymmetric buildings and consequent assessments of the pertinent code provisions, can be quite erroneous, unless special care is taken to match the basic properties of the simplified models to those of the real buildings. The evidence comes from comparisons of results obtained using three variants of simplified models, with results from the inelastic dynamic response of three- and five-story eccentric buildings computed with detailed MDOF systems, where the members are idealized with the well-known plastic hinge model. In addition, a convincing answer is provided on a pertinent hanging controversy: For frame-type buildings, designed in accordance with the dynamic provisions of modern codes (such as EC8 or IBC2000), which allow reduced shears at the stiff edge due to torsion, the frames at the flexible sides are the critical elements in terms of ductility demands. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

HDR devices for the seismic protection of frame structures: Experimental results and numerical simulations

Laura Ragni
Abstract As part of a national research programme an experimental campaign was carried out on a real scale mock-up consisting of a steel,concrete composite frame equipped with dissipative bracings, based on high damping rubber (HDR) devices. Free vibration tests, followed by force-controlled and displacement-controlled cyclic tests were performed. The experimental tests were aimed at studying the dynamic response of the coupled system in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of HDR devices in increasing the stiffness and dissipation capacity of the frame and investigating the ability of the constitutive HDR model proposed by the authors to predict the dynamic response of the coupled system. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Seismic behavior of single-story asymmetric-plan buildings under uniaxial excitation

Andrea Lucchini
Abstract The critical parameters that influence the nonlinear seismic response of asymmetric-plan buildings are identified by evaluating the effects of different asymmetries that may characterize the structure of a building as well as exploring the influence of the ground motion features. First, the main findings reported in the literature on both the linear and nonlinear dynamic response of asymmetric-plan buildings are presented. The common findings and the conflicting conclusions reached in different investigations are pointed out. Then, the results of comprehensive nonlinear dynamic analyses performed for evaluating the seismic response of systems characterized by different strength and stiffness configurations, representative of a large class of asymmetric-plan buildings, are reported. Findings from the study indicate that the building response changes when moving from the linear to the nonlinear range, so that the seismic behavior of asymmetric-plan buildings, apart from the source of asymmetry, can be always classified as irregular. Additionally, it was observed that as the seismic demands cause amplification of system nonlinearity with increasing earthquake intensity, the maximum displacement demand in the different resisting elements tends to be reached with the same deformed configuration of the system. The resultant of the seismic forces producing such a maximum demand is located at the center of resistance and corresponds to the collapse mechanism of the system that provides the maximum lateral strength in the exciting direction of the seismic action. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Dimensional analysis of the earthquake-induced pounding between adjacent structures

Elias Dimitrakopoulos
Abstract In this paper the dynamic response of two and three pounding oscillators subjected to pulse-type excitations is revisited with dimensional analysis. Using Buckingham's ,-theorem the number of variables that govern the response of the system is reduced by three. When the response is presented in the dimensionless ,-terms remarkable order emerges. It is shown that regardless of the acceleration level and duration of the pulse all response spectra become self-similar and follow a single master curve. This is true despite the realization of finite duration contacts with increasing durations as the excitation level increases. All physically realizable contacts (impacts, continuous contacts, and detachments) are captured via a linear complementarity approach. The study confirms the existence of three spectral regions. The response of the most flexible among the two oscillators amplifies in the low range of the frequency spectrum (flexible structures); whereas, the response of the most stiff among the two oscillators amplifies at the upper range of the frequency spectrum (stiff structures). Most importantly, the study shows that pounding structures such as colliding buildings or interacting bridge segments may be most vulnerable for excitations with frequencies very different from their natural eigenfrequencies. Finally, by applying the concept of intermediate asymptotics, the study unveils that the dimensionless response of two pounding oscillators follows a scaling law with respect to the mass ratio, or in mathematical terms, that the response exhibits an incomplete self-similarity or self-similarity of the second kind with respect to the mass ratio. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Three-dimensional behavior of a spherical self-centering precast prestressed pile isolator

Rosita Jünemann
Abstract A 3D analytical formulation of a precast prestressed pile (PPP) seismic isolator with top and bottom spherical rolling kinematic constraints is proposed. The PPP isolator was initially conceived as a low-cost seismic isolation (and foundation) system for housing units of low-income people. Since these structures are usually located at sites with poor soil conditions, the PPP isolator also works as a foundation pile by connecting the superstructure with more competent soil layers. The non-holonomic nature of the rolling constraint is dealt with by a structural formulation. The proposed 3D formulation is validated by numerical results obtained from a previously proposed formulation for the 2D problem, and a contact finite element model in ANSYS (www.ansys.com). Other issues associated with the dynamic response of isolated structures with the PPP are also examined, such as expected response reductions, variation in the axial force of the central prestressed cable, and torsional response amplifications. Finally, guidelines to estimate the actual 3D response using 2D analysis results are investigated. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Seismic response of intake towers including dam,tower interaction

M. A. Millán
Abstract The seismic response of the intake,outlet towers has been widely analyzed in recent years. The usual models consider the hydrodynamic effects produced by the surrounding water and the interior water, characterizing the dynamic response of the tower,water,foundation,soil system. As a result of these works, simplified added mass models have been developed. However, in all previous models, the surrounding water is assumed to be of uniform depth and to have infinite extension. Consequently, the considered added mass is associated with only the pressures created by the displacements of the tower itself. For a real system, the intake tower is usually located in proximity to the dam and the dam pressures may influence the equivalent added mass. The objective of this paper is to investigate how the response of the tower is affected by the presence of the dam. A coupled three-dimensional boundary element-finite element model in the frequency domain is employed to analyze the tower,dam,reservoir interaction problem. In all cases, the system response is assumed to be linear, and the effect of the internal fluid and the soil,structure interaction effects are not considered. The results suggest that unexpected resonance amplifications can occur due to changes in the added mass for the tower as a result of the tower,dam,reservoir interaction. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A buffered impact damper for multi-degree-of-freedom structural control

Kuinian Li
Abstract The results of an experimental investigation into the use of a buffered impact damper for controlling the dynamic response of an MDOF (multi-degree-of-freedom) structure are presented in this paper. Free and forced vibration tests of a three-DOF test structure equipped with a buffered impact damper are performed to evaluate the resulting damping effect and impact characteristics. The effect of damper parameters, such as clearance, and excitation type on the performance of the impact damper is also investigated. The performance of the buffered impact damper is compared with that of an equivalent conventional rigid impact damper. It is found that the buffered impact damper not only significantly reduces the peak contact force and the associated accelerations and noise generated by collisions but can also substantially enhance the damping effect over a wide range of frequencies, encompassing the natural frequencies of the test structure. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Compensation of actuator delay and dynamics for real-time hybrid structural simulation

M. Ahmadizadeh
Abstract Compensation of delay and dynamic response of servo-hydraulic actuators is critical for stability and accuracy of hybrid experimental and numerical simulations of seismic response of structures. In this study, current procedures for compensation of actuator delay are examined and improved procedures are proposed to minimize experimental errors. The new procedures require little or no a priori information about the behavior of the test specimen or the input excitation. First, a simple approach is introduced for rapid online estimation of system delay and actuator command gain, thus capturing the variability of system response through a simulation. Second, an extrapolation procedure for delay compensation, based on the same kinematics equations used in numerical integration procedures is examined. Simulations using the proposed procedures indicate a reduction in high-frequency noise in force measurements that can minimize the excitation of high-frequency modes. To further verify the effectiveness of the compensation procedures, the artificial energy added to a hybrid simulation as a result of actuator tracking errors is measured and used for demonstrating the improved accuracy in the simulations. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Torsional balance of plan-asymmetric structures with frictional dampers: experimental results

Ignacio J. Vial
Abstract This investigation deals with the measured seismic response of a six-storey asymmetric structural model with frictional dampers. Its main objective is to experimentally prove the concept of weak torsional balance for mass- and stiffness-eccentric model configurations. The goal is to control the torsional response of these asymmetric structures and to achieve, if possible, a weak form of torsional balance by placing the so-called empirical centre of balance (ECB) of the structure at equal distance from the edges of the building plan. The control of the dynamic response of asymmetric structures is investigated herein by using steel,teflon frictional dampers. As expected from theory, experimental results show that the mean-square and peak displacement demand at the flexible and stiff edges of the plan may be similar in magnitude if the dampers are optimally placed. Frictional dampers have proven equally effective in controlling lateral-torsional coupling of torsionally flexible as well as stiff structures. On the other hand, it is shown that impulsive ground motions require larger frictional capacities to achieve weak torsional balance. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of train dynamics on seismic response of steel monorail bridges under moderate ground motion

Chul-Woo Kim
Abstract This study is intended to investigate the seismic response of steel monorail bridges using three-dimensional dynamic response analysis. We particularly consider monorail bridge,train interaction when subjected to ground motion that occurs with high probability. A monorail train car with two bogies with pneumatic tires for running, steering and stabilizing wheels is assumed to be represented sufficiently by a discrete rigid multi-body system with 15 degrees of freedom (DOFs). Bridges are considered as an assemblage of beam elements with 6 DOFs at each node. Modal analysis is used for dynamic response analysis under moderate earthquakes. The seismic response of an advanced monorail bridge that adopts a simplified structural system and composite girders is investigated through comparison with seismic responses of a conventional bridge. The acceleration response of a monorail train is also calculated to investigate the effect of structural types of bridges on the train's dynamic response during earthquakes. Results show that the seismic responses of the advanced bridges are greater than those of the conventional monorail bridge because of the simplified structural system and increased girder weight that is attributable to composite girders of the advanced bridge. Moreover, the train on the advanced bridge shows greater dynamic response than that on the conventional bridge. Observations reveal that the dynamic monorail train system acts as a damper on the monorail bridge. That fact shows that the existing design, which considers a train as additional mass, yields a conservative result. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An efficient three-dimensional solid finite element dynamic analysis of reinforced concrete structures

K. V. Spiliopoulos
Abstract Most of the finite element analyses of reinforced concrete structures are restricted to two-dimensional elements. Three-dimensional solid elements have rarely been used although nearly all reinforced concrete structures are under a triaxial stress state. In this work, a three-dimensional solid element based on a smeared fixed crack model that has been used in the past mainly for monotonic static loading analysis is extended to cater for dynamic analysis. The only material parameter that needs to be input for this model is the uniaxial compressive strength of concrete. Steel bars are modelled as uniaxial elements and an embedded formulation allows them to have any orientation inside the concrete elements. The proposed strategy for loading or unloading renders a numerical procedure which is stable and efficient. The whole process is applied to two RC frames and compared against existing experiments in the literature. Results show that the proposed approach may adequately be used to predict the dynamic response of a structure. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Effect of variation of normal force on seismic performance of resilient sliding isolation systems in highway bridges

Hirokazu Iemura
Abstract In this study, a series of shaking table tests are carried out on scaled models of two seismically isolated highway bridges to investigate the effect of rocking motion and vertical acceleration on seismic performance of resilient sliding isolators. In addition, performance of RSI is compared with system having solely natural rubber bearings. Test results show that variation of normal force on sliders due to rocking effect and vertical acceleration makes no significant difference in response of RSI systems. In addition, analytical response of prototype isolated bridge and the model used in experiments is obtained analytically by using non-linear model for isolation systems. It is observed that for seismically isolated bridges, dynamic response of full-scale complex structures can be predicted with acceptable accuracy by experiments using a simple model of the structure. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Estimate of input energy for elasto-plastic SDOF systems during earthquakes based on discrete wavelet coefficients

Jun Iyama
Abstract The response of an elasto-plastic single degree of freedom (SDOF) system to ground motion is estimated based on wavelet coefficients calculated by discrete wavelet transform. Wavelet coefficients represent both the time and frequency characteristics of input ground motion, and thus can be considered to be directly related to the dynamic response of a non-linear system. This relationship between the energy input into an elastic SDOF system and wavelet coefficients is derived based on the assumption that wavelets deliver energy to the structure instantaneously and the quantity of energy is constant regardless of yielding. These assumptions are shown to be valid when the natural period of the system is in the predominant period range of the wavelet, the most common scenario for real structures, through dynamic response analysis of a single wavelet. The wavelet-based estimation of elastic and plastic energy transferred by earthquake ground motion is thus shown to be in good agreement with the dynamic response analysis when the natural period is in the predominant range of the input. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An investigation of tuned liquid dampers equipped with damping screens under 2D excitation

M. J. Tait
Abstract This paper reports on the results of a study conducted on tanks partially filled with water, representing tuned liquid dampers (TLD), subjected to both 1D and 2D horizontal excitations. The sloshing response of the water in the tank is characterized by the free surface motion, the resulting base shear force, and evaluation of the energy dissipated by the sloshing water. A 1D non-linear flow model capable of simulating a TLD equipped with damping screens is employed to model a 2D TLD. Application of this particular model requires the assumption that the response is decoupled and can be treated as the summation of two independent 1D TLDs. Results from the non-linear flow model are compared with the 2D experimental shake table test results leading to a validation of the decoupled response assumption. This attractive decoupled response property allows square and rectangular tanks to be used as 2D TLDs, which can simultaneously reduce the dynamic response of a structure in two perpendicular modes of vibration. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Near-fault ground motions, and the response of elastic and inelastic single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) systems

G. P. Mavroeidis
Abstract In order to investigate the response of structures to near-fault seismic excitations, the ground motion input should be properly characterized and parameterized in terms of simple, yet accurate and reliable, mathematical models whose input parameters have a clear physical interpretation and scale, to the extent possible, with earthquake magnitude. Such a mathematical model for the representation of the coherent (long-period) ground motion components has been proposed by the authors in a previous study and is being exploited in this article for the investigation of the elastic and inelastic response of the single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) system to near-fault seismic excitations. A parametric analysis of the dynamic response of the SDOF system as a function of the input parameters of the mathematical model is performed to gain insight regarding the near-fault ground motion characteristics that significantly affect the elastic and inelastic structural performance. A parameter of the mathematical representation of near-fault motions, referred to as ,pulse duration' (TP), emerges as a key parameter of the problem under investigation. Specifically, TP is employed to normalize the elastic and inelastic response spectra of actual near-fault strong ground motion records. Such normalization makes feasible the specification of design spectra and reduction factors appropriate for near-fault ground motions. The ,pulse duration' (TP) is related to an important parameter of the rupture process referred to as ,rise time' (,) which is controlled by the dimension of the sub-events that compose the mainshock. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Hybrid platform for vibration control of high-tech equipment in buildings subject to ground motion.

Part 2: analysis
Abstract The experimental results of using a hybrid platform to mitigate vibration of a batch of high-tech equipment installed in a building subject to nearby traffic-induced ground motion have been presented and discussed in the companion paper. Based on the identified dynamic properties of both the building and the platform, this paper first establishes an analytical model for hybrid control of the building-platform system subject to ground motion in terms of the absolute co-ordinate to facilitate the absolute velocity feedback control strategy used in the experiment. The traffic-induced ground motion used in the experiment is then employed as input to the analytical model to compute the dynamic response of the building-platform system. The computed results are compared with the measured results, and the comparison is found to be satisfactory. Based on the verified analytical model, coupling effects between the building and platform are then investigated. A parametric study is finally conducted to further assess the performance of both passive and hybrid platforms at microvibration level. The analytical study shows that the dynamic interaction between the building and platform should be taken into consideration. The hybrid control is effective in reducing both velocity response and drift of the platform/high-tech equipment at microvibration level with reasonable control force. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

An experimental investigation of water level effects on the dynamic behaviour of a large arch dam

Jean Proulx
Abstract The need for full-scale dynamic tests, which are recognized as the most reliable method to evaluate a structure's vibration properties, is increasing as new analysis techniques are developed that take into account the complex interaction phenomenons that occur in dam,reservoir,foundation systems. They are extremely useful to obtain reliable data for the calibration of newly developed numerical methods. The Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics Research Center (CRGP) at the University of Sherbrooke has been developing and applying dynamic testing methods for large structures in the past 10 years. This paper presents the experimental evaluation of the effects of the varying water level on the dynamic response of the 180 m Emosson arch dam in Switzerland. Repeated forced-vibration tests were carried out on the dam during four different periods of the reservoir's filling cycle during a one-year span. Acceleration and hydrodynamic pressure frequency responses were obtained at several locations while the dam was subjected to horizontal harmonic loading. The variation of the resonant frequencies as a function of the reservoir level is investigated. A summary of the ongoing numerical correlation phase with a three-dimensional finite element model for the dam,reservoir,foundation system is also presented. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Analyzing dynamic performance of stressed power systems in vicinity of instability by modal series method

Ali H. Naghshbandy
Abstract Highly stressed power systems exhibit complex dynamic behaviors such as inter-area oscillations when subjected to large disturbances. In such conditions, nonlinear effects have dominant role in determining dynamic response of the systems. In this paper by using modal series method, dynamic behaviors of the stressed power systems in severe conditions and near instability have been studied. Also two measures, mode dominance measure (MDM) and most perturbed machine factor (MPF) have been introduced. They determine the most dominant modes and identify the most perturbed generators when the system is subjected to a given fault. Contribution factors have been used to show the links between identified modes and machines from the analysis. Time domain simulation has been helped for validation of the results. By using similarity transformation, state variables have been represented in modal space and utilized to check the results. The studies are carried out on the IEEE 50-generator test system which demonstrates a wide range of dynamic characteristics at different loading levels and fault scenarios. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Design of an estimator of the kinematics of AC contactors

Jordi-Roger Riba Ruiz
Abstract This paper develops an estimator of the kinematics of the movable parts of any AC powered contactor. This estimator uses easily measurable electrical variables such as the voltage across the coil terminals and the current flowing through the main coil of the contactor. Hence, a low cost microcontroller would be able to implement a control algorithm in order to reduce the undesirable phenomenon of contact bounce, which causes severe erosion of the contacts and dramatically reduces the electrical life and reliability of the contacts. To develop such an estimator is essential to have at our disposal a robust model of the contactor. Therefore, a rigorous parametric model that allows us to predict the dynamic response of the AC contactor is proposed. It solves the mechanic and electromagnetic coupled differential equations that govern the dynamics of the contactor by applying a Runge,Kutta-based solver. Several approaches have been described in the technical literature. Most of them are based on high cost computational finite elements method or on simplified parametric models. The parametric model presented here takes into account the fringing flux and deals with shading rings interaction from a general point of view, thus avoiding simplified assumptions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Stability analysis and simulation of a single-phase voltage source UPS inverter with two-stage cascade output filter

Jawad Faiz
Abstract The primary role of an uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems is to produce sinusoidal output voltage with minimum total harmonic distortion (THD) and fast dynamic response. This paper investigates the performance of two-stage cascade output filter for single-phase voltage source UPS inverter and it is compared with an LC output filter. The simulation result shows harmonic reduction of output voltage of the inverter due to using multiple-filter. Both THD of the low output voltage and good voltage utilization can be achieved by the proposed filter scheme. The THD of the output voltage in various load condition are all less than 4%. A good agreement between the simulation and experimental results is achieved. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]