Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Current

  • air current
  • alternating current
  • anodic current
  • antarctic circumpolar current
  • australian current
  • ba2+ current
  • bias current
  • bottom current
  • ca2+ current
  • calcium current
  • cation current
  • cationic current
  • channel current
  • charge current
  • charge limited current
  • charging current
  • chloride current
  • circuit current
  • circumpolar current
  • conduction current
  • critical current
  • dark current
  • dc current
  • delayed rectifier current
  • delayed rectifier k+ current
  • delayed rectifier potassium current
  • density current
  • depolarization current
  • direct current
  • drain current
  • drive current
  • east australian current
  • eddy current
  • electric current
  • electrical current
  • exchange current
  • excitatory current
  • excitatory postsynaptic current
  • fault current
  • gaba current
  • gate leakage current
  • harmonic current
  • herg current
  • high current
  • hyperpolarization-activated cation current
  • induced current
  • inhibitory postsynaptic current
  • injection current
  • input current
  • inward current
  • inward rectifier potassium current
  • ion current
  • ionic current
  • k+ current
  • katp current
  • kuroshio current
  • l-type ca2+ current
  • l-type calcium current
  • leak current
  • leakage current
  • lightning current
  • limited current
  • linear current
  • load current
  • macroscopic current
  • maximum drain current
  • membrane current
  • miniature excitatory postsynaptic current
  • miniature inhibitory postsynaptic current
  • na+ current
  • ocean current
  • output current
  • outward current
  • outward k+ current
  • outward potassium current
  • oxidation current
  • pacemaker current
  • peak current
  • persistent current
  • persistent na+ current
  • persistent sodium current
  • postsynaptic current
  • potassium current
  • receptor current
  • rectifier current
  • rectifier k+ current
  • rectifier potassium current
  • rectifying k+ current
  • ring current
  • saturation current
  • short circuit current
  • single-channel current
  • sinusoidal current
  • sodium current
  • space charge limited current
  • spin current
  • spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic current
  • stator current
  • surface current
  • synaptic current
  • tail current
  • threshold current
  • total current
  • transient inward current
  • transient outward current
  • transient outward k+ current
  • tunneling current
  • water current
  • whole-cell current

  • Terms modified by Current

  • current account
  • current account deficit
  • current achievement
  • current activity
  • current advance
  • current age
  • current alcohol dependence
  • current algorithm
  • current amplitude
  • current analysis
  • current antiviral therapy
  • current anxiety
  • current application
  • current approach
  • current area
  • current article
  • current aspect
  • current assumption
  • current asthma
  • current attempt
  • current attitude
  • current author
  • current availability
  • current awareness
  • current awareness service
  • current behaviour
  • current beneficiary survey
  • current best available evidence
  • current best evidence
  • current best practice
  • current body
  • current capability
  • current case
  • current challenge
  • current change
  • current characteristic
  • current cigarette smoking
  • current circumstance
  • current classification
  • current classification system
  • current climate
  • current climate condition
  • current clinical
  • current clinical application
  • current clinical guideline
  • current clinical practice
  • current cohort
  • current collapse
  • current command
  • current component
  • current concept
  • current conceptualization
  • current concern
  • current condition
  • current conflict
  • current consensus
  • current consumption
  • current content
  • current context
  • current controversy
  • current cost
  • current crisis
  • current criterioN
  • current crowding
  • current data
  • current debate
  • current decade
  • current decreased
  • current definition
  • current density
  • current density distribution
  • current depression
  • current design
  • current designation
  • current development
  • current diagnosis
  • current diagnostic
  • current diagnostic criterioN
  • current diagnostic system
  • current difficulty
  • current dilemma
  • current dipole
  • current direction
  • current discourse
  • current discussion
  • current distribution
  • current dose
  • current drinker
  • current drinking
  • current drive
  • current drug
  • current economic situation
  • current efficiency
  • current effort
  • current emphasis
  • current employee
  • current employment
  • current enhancement
  • current environment
  • current epidemic
  • current epidemiology
  • current episode
  • current era
  • current estimate
  • current evaluation
  • current event
  • current evidence
  • current evidence base
  • current expenditure
  • current experience
  • current experiment
  • current explanation
  • current financial crisis
  • current finding
  • current flow
  • current fluctuation
  • current focus
  • current form
  • current framework
  • current frequency
  • current gain
  • current generation
  • current goal
  • current gold standard
  • current government policy
  • current guideline
  • current health
  • current health care system
  • current health status
  • current hypothesis
  • current idea
  • current inactivation
  • current income
  • current increase
  • current indication
  • current information
  • current inhibition
  • current initiative
  • current injection
  • current insight
  • current intensity
  • current interest
  • current interpretation
  • current intervention
  • current investigation
  • current issue
  • current issues
  • current job
  • current kinetics
  • current knowledge
  • current lack
  • current land use
  • current law
  • current legislation
  • current level
  • current limit
  • current limitation
  • current literature
  • current management
  • current management practice
  • current management strategy
  • current marker
  • current market
  • current material
  • current measure
  • current measurement
  • current mechanism
  • current medical
  • current medical literature
  • current medical practice
  • current medication
  • current method
  • current methodology
  • current methods
  • current model
  • current models
  • current need
  • current nursing practice
  • current obesity epidemic
  • current observation
  • current opinion
  • current option
  • current oscillation
  • current outcome
  • current output
  • current pain intensity
  • current paper
  • current paradigm
  • current parameter
  • current partner
  • current pattern
  • current paucity
  • current peak
  • current perception
  • current perception threshold
  • current performance
  • current period
  • current perspective
  • current pharmacological treatment
  • current policy
  • current political
  • current popularity
  • current population
  • current population size
  • current population survey
  • current population survey data
  • current position
  • current practice
  • current prediction
  • current pregnancy
  • current prescription
  • current prevalence
  • current problem
  • current procedural terminology
  • current process
  • current profile
  • current progress
  • current projection
  • current proposal
  • current protocol
  • current provision
  • current ptsd
  • current published work
  • current pulse
  • current quality
  • current range
  • current rate
  • current ratio
  • current recession
  • current recommendation
  • current regime
  • current regulation
  • current relationships
  • current relevance
  • current report
  • current reproduction
  • current requirement
  • current research
  • current research finding
  • current resource
  • current response
  • current result
  • current review
  • current role
  • current sample
  • current scenario
  • current scientific literature
  • current selection
  • current sheet
  • current shift
  • current shortage
  • current signal
  • current sink
  • current situation
  • current size
  • current smoker
  • current smoking
  • current smoking status
  • current source
  • current spending
  • current stage
  • current standard
  • current standard therapy
  • current standards
  • current state
  • current state-of-the-art
  • current status
  • current stimulation
  • current strategy
  • current structure
  • current studies
  • current study
  • current success
  • current survey
  • current symptom
  • current system
  • current taxonomy
  • current teaching
  • current technique
  • current techniques
  • current technology
  • current theory
  • current therapeutic approach
  • current therapeutic option
  • current therapeutic strategy
  • current therapy
  • current thinking
  • current threat
  • current threshold
  • current time
  • current tool
  • current topics
  • current training
  • current transport
  • current treatment
  • current treatment guideline
  • current treatment modality
  • current treatment option
  • current treatment recommendation
  • current treatment regimen
  • current treatment strategy
  • current trend
  • current uk policy
  • current underlying
  • current understanding
  • current update
  • current usage
  • current use
  • current user
  • current value
  • current variation
  • current velocity
  • current version
  • current view
  • current views
  • current waveform
  • current way
  • current weight
  • current wheeze
  • current work
  • current year

  • Selected Abstracts

    Brief communication: Admixture analysis with forensic microsatellites in Minas Gerais, Brazil: The ongoing evolution of the capital and of an African-derived community

    Marília O. Scliar
    Abstract We report the estimated allele frequencies for 13 and 14 microsatellite loci in two populations of Minas Gerais, Brazil as follows: Belo Horizonte (the capital) and Marinhos (an African-derived community). Analysis of the African, Amerindian, and European genetic contributions to both populations, together with historical information, revealed distinct differences between the two populations. Estimates for Belo Horizonte revealed a higher-European (66%) than African (32%) contribution, and a minimal Amerindian contribution. These results are consistent with the peopling of the city mainly by people from the Minas Gerais hinterland, a people highly admixed but with more European ancestry. Estimates for Marinhos confirmed the high-African component of the population. However, a temporal analysis of two datasets,CURRENT (representing the population living in Marinhos today) and ORIGINAL (representing families, who have lived in Marinhos since the onset of the 20th century),,identified a diminishing of the population's African ancestry from 92% in the ORIGINAL group to 67% in the CURRENT group. This change is here interpreted as a consequence of the growing migration into the village of people with more European ancestry and subsequent admixture with the local population. Am J Phys Anthropol, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


    Pierre Van Der Eng
    First page of article [source]


    Michael K Pugsley
    SUMMARY 1.,The electrophysiological actions of quinacainol were investigated on sodium (INa), transient outward (ito) and sustained-outward plateau (iKsus) potassium currents in rat isolated cardiac myocytes using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique and compared with quinidine. 2.,Quinacainol blocked sodium currents in a concentration-dependent manner and with a potency similar to that of quinidine (mean (±SEM) EC50 50 ± 12 vs 95 ± 25 µmol/L for quinidine and quinacainol, respectively). However, quinacainol had a considerably prolonged onset and recovery from block compared with quinidine. 3.,Neither quinacainol nor quinidine significantly changed the steady state voltage dependence of activation of sodium currents. Quinidine produced a hyperpolarizing shift in the voltage dependence for sodium current inactivation, but no such shift was observed with quinacainol at doses that produced a substantial current block. 4.,Although quinacainol did not effectively block voltage-dependent potassium currents, even at concentrations as high as 1.5 mmol/L, quinidine, at a half-maximal sodium channel-blocking concentration, reduced peak ito current amplitude, increased the rate of inactivation of ito and blocked iKsus. 5.,These results indicate that quinacainol, a quinidine analogue, blocks sodium currents in cardiac myocytes with little effect on ito or iKsus potassium currents, which suggests that quinacainol may be exerting class 1c anti-arrhythmic actions. [source]

    Multiple path-based approach to image-based street walkthrough

    Dong Hoon Lee
    Abstract Image-based rendering for walkthrough in the virtual environment has many advantages should over the geometry-based approach, due to the fast construction of the environment and photo-realistic rendered results. In image-based rendering technique, rays from a set of input images are collected and a novel view image is rendered by the resampling of the stored rays. Current such techniques, however, are limited to a closed capture space. In this paper, we propose a multiple path-based capture configuration that can handle a large-scale scene and a disparity-based warping method for novel view generation. To acquire the disparity image, we segment the input image into vertical slit segments using a robust and inexpensive way of detecting vertical depth discontinuity. The depth slit segments, instead of depth pixels, reduce the processing time for novel view generation. We also discuss a dynamic cache strategy that supports real-time walkthroughs in large and complex street environments. The efficiency of the proposed method is demonstrated with several experiments. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Application of High Current and Current Zero Simulations of High-Voltage Circuit Breakers

    C. M. Franck
    Abstract This paper reports on the use of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations to predict the interruption behaviour of high-voltage circuit breakers (HV-CB) using the self-blast principle. Two different levels of accuracy of the arc model are proven to be sufficiently accurate for simulating the high-current phase and the period around current zero (CZ). For the high-current phase, a simplified equivalent model of the arc is implemented to predict the pressure build-up, and even more important to accurately trace the hot gas from the arcing zone into the exhausts and the heating volume. A detailed analysis of the gas mixing in the heating volume for different arcing times and current amplitudes showed the optimum geometrical design of the heating volume. For the CZ phase, a more detailed arc model is needed including the effects of ohmic heating, radiative energy transfer, and turbulent cooling fully resolved in space and time. The validation with experiments was done and shows good agreement which justifies the use of the implemented model. With it, scaling laws varying only one parameter at a time (pressure and applied current slope) were derived and confirm previously found empirical laws. This is of particular interest, as it is very difficult to derive such scaling laws from experiments where the scatter is always very large and where it is impossible to vary only one parameter at a time. The influence of the most important geometrical parameters of the nozzle on the interruption performance is shown. In addition to previous experimental indications of this, the simulation reveals that turbulent cooling on the arc edge is the main reason for the difference in interruption performance. Moreover, the exact spatio-temporal build-up of arc resistance and with it the detailed understanding of the arc interruption process is possible and shown here for the first time. These simulations enable us to predict HV-CB performance and to minimise the number of development tests and are routinely used in new development projects. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Investigation of the Influence of Overvoltage, Auxiliary Glow Current and Relaxation Time on the Electrical Breakdown Time Delay Distributions in Neon

    . A. Maluckov
    Abstract Results of the statistical analysis of the electrical breakdown time delay for neon-filled tube at 13.3 mbar are presented in this paper. Experimental distributions of the breakdown time delay were established on the basis of 200 successive and independent measurements, for different overvoltages, relaxation times and auxiliary glows. Obtained experimental distributions deviate from usual exponential distribution. Breakdown time delay distributions are numerically generated, usingMonte-Carlo method, as the compositions of the two independent random variables with an exponential and a Gaussian distribution. Theoretical breakdown time delay distribution is obtained from the convolution of the exponential and Gaussian distribution. Performed analysis shows that the crucial parameter that determines the complex structure of time delay is the overvoltage and if it is of the order of few percentage, then distribution of time delay must be treated as an convolution of two random variables. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Space-Charge Limited Current from Plasma-Facing Material Surface

    S. Takamura
    Abstract We have derived an exact theoretical expression for the space-charge limited current from the solid surfaces adjacent to plasmas that is applicable for an arbitrary sheath voltage. Our expression shows that the spacecharge limited current tends to saturate with the sheath voltage. This new formula is evaluated by 1-D Particle in Cell (PIC) simulation and experiment, and is in a good agreement with the simulation and experimental results. We have also obtained an analytical equation fitted to the new formula based on conventional Child-Langmuir formula by taking into account a more sophisticated dependence of the electrode potential and the plasma density through the effect of Debye shielding and a sheath expansion due to increased voltage across the sheath. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Gating of the expressed T-type Cav3.1 calcium channels is modulated by Ca2+

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2006
    L. Lacinová
    Abstract Aim:, We have investigated the influence of Ca2+ ions on the basic biophysical properties of T-type calcium channels. Methods:, The Cav3.1 calcium channel was transiently expressed in HEK 293 cells. Current was measured using the whole cell patch clamp technique. Ca2+ or Na+ ions were used as charge carriers. The intracellular Ca2+ was either decreased by the addition of 10 mm ethyleneglycoltetraacetic acid (EGTA) or increased by the addition of 200 ,m Ca2+ into the non-buffered intracellular solution. Various combinations of extra- and intracellular solutions yielded high, intermediate or low intracellular Ca2+ levels. Results:, The amplitude of the calcium current was independent of intracellular Ca2+ concentrations. High levels of intracellular Ca2+ accelerated significantly both the inactivation and the activation time constants of the current. The replacement of extracellular Ca2+ by Na+ as charge carrier did not affect the absolute value of the activation and inactivation time constants, but significantly enhanced the slope factor of the voltage dependence of the inactivation time constant. Slope factors of voltage dependencies of channel activation and inactivation were significantly enhanced. The recovery from inactivation was faster when Ca2+ was a charge carrier. The number of available channels saturated for membrane voltages more negative than ,100 mV for the Ca2+ current, but did not reach steady state even at ,150 mV for the Na+ current. Conclusions:, Ca2+ ions facilitate transitions of Cav3.1 channel from open into closed and inactivated states as well as backwards transition from inactivated into closed state, possibly by interacting with its voltage sensor. [source]

    Review of recommendations for the management of dental trauma presented in first-aid textbooks and manuals

    Katarzyna Emerich
    Proper information in first-aid textbooks and manuals should be the best way to present necessary procedures on how to act at the site of injury. The objective of this review is to report the quality of the knowledge presented in first-aid books and manuals. Methods:, We carried out a review of first-aid international textbooks and manuals available in Medical University Libraries in Poland. The inclusion criteria were all manuals on first-aid that were written for medical staff and lay persons, and were published between 1969 and 2007. All texts were screened for dental trauma treatment recommendations. Results:, Our literature review has shown that among 45 first-aid textbooks and manuals only 19 mention procedures for use in case of dental trauma. Of those texts, only 13 detail the storage media for an avulsed tooth until replantation. Conclusions:, Current, evidence-based, recommendations concerning first-aid procedures after dental trauma should be incorporated in forthcoming editions of first-aid textbooks and manuals. The guidance on procedures contained in reviewed texts is misleading. [source]

    Circuits and systems in stress.


    Abstract This paper follows the preclinical work on the effects of stress on neurobiological and neuroendocrine systems and provides a comprehensive working model for understanding the pathophysiology of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Studies of the neurobiology of PTSD in clinical populations are reviewed. Specific brain areas that play an important role in a variety of types of memory are also preferentially affected by stress, including hippocampus, amygdala, medial prefrontal cortex, and cingulate. This review indicates the involvement of these brain systems in the stress response, and in learning and memory. Affected systems in the neural circuitry of PTSD are reviewed (hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA-axis), catecholaminergic and serotonergic systems, endogenous benzodiazepines, neuropeptides, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT-axis), and neuro-immunological alterations) as well as changes found with structural and functional neuroimaging methods. Converging evidence has emphasized the role of early-life trauma in the development of PTSD and other trauma-related disorders. Current and new targets for systems that play a role in the neural circuitry of PTSD are discussed. This material provides a basis for understanding the psychopathology of stress-related disorders, in particular PTSD. Depression and Anxiety 16:14,38, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Radiovaporization: Radiofrequency Cutting Current to Vaporize and Sculpt Skin Lesions

    Stephen E. Chiarello MD
    First page of article [source]

    Scaling Up AIDS Treatment in Developing Countries: A Review of Current and Future Arguments

    Jens Kovsted
    Until recently, antiretroviral treatment against AIDS was perceived to be beyond the reach of the majority of patients in developing countries. This situation has changed drastically as international funding for AIDS treatment has swelled to several billion dollars a year. What has brought about this change? Analysis of the merit of six arguments often put forward against scaling up AIDS treatment in developing countries makes it clear that the most significant (and perhaps only) real change has been the large reduction in the price of the drugs. Although affordability is obviously a central issue, it is noticeable that most of the remaining arguments continue to be unresolved. This underlines the dangers of proceeding too fast towards treatment goals. [source]

    Pathological gambling: an increasing public health problem

    Article first published online: 7 JUL 200
    Gambling has always existed, but only recently has it taken on the endlessly variable and accessible forms we know today. Gambling takes place when something valuable , usually money , is staked on the outcome of an event that is entirely unpredictable. It was only two decades ago that pathological gambling was formally recognized as a mental disorder, when it was included in the DSM-III in 1980. For most people, gambling is a relaxing activity with no negative consequences. For others, however, gambling becomes excessive. Pathological gambling is a disorder that manifests itself through the irrepressible urge to wager money. This disorder ultimately dominates the gambler's life, and has a multitude of negative consequences for both the gambler and the people they interact with, i.e. friends, family members, employers. In many ways, gambling might seem a harmless activity. In fact, it is not the act of gambling itself that is harmful, but the vicious cycle that can begin when a gambler wagers money they cannot afford to lose, and then continues to gamble in order to recuperate their losses. The gambler's ,tragic flaw' of logic lies in their failure to understand that gambling is governed solely by random, chance events. Gamblers fail to recognize this and continue to gamble, attempting to control outcomes by concocting strategies to ,beat the game'. Most, if not all, gamblers try in some way to predict the outcome of a game when they are gambling. A detailed analysis of gamblers' selfverbalizations reveals that most of them behave as though the outcome of the game relied on their personal ,skills'. From the gambler's perspective, skill can influence chance , but in reality, the random nature of chance events is the only determinant of the outcome of the game. The gambler, however, either ignores or simply denies this fundamental rule (1). Experts agree that the social costs of pathological gambling are enormous. Changes in gaming legislation have led to a substantial expansion of gambling opportunities in most industrialized countries around the world, mainly in Europe, America and Australia. Figures for the United States' leisure economy in 1996 show gross gambling revenues of $47.6 billion, which was greater than the combined revenue of $40.8 billion from film box offices, recorded music, cruise ships, spectator sports and live entertainment (2). Several factors appear to be motivating this growth: the desire of governments to identify new sources of revenue without invoking new or higher taxes; tourism entrepreneurs developing new destinations for entertainment and leisure; and the rise of new technologies and forms of gambling (3). As a consequence, prevalence studies have shown increased gambling rates among adults. It is currently estimated that 1,2% of the adult population gambles excessively (4, 5). Given that the prevalence of gambling is related to the accessibility of gambling activities, and that new forms of gambling are constantly being legalized throughout most western countries, this figure is expected to rise. Consequently, physicians and mental health professionals will need to know more about the diagnosis and treatment of pathological gamblers. This disorder may be under-diagnosed because, clinically, pathological gamblers usually seek help for the problems associated with gambling such as depression, anxiety or substance abuse, rather than for the excessive gambling itself. This issue of Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica includes the first national survey of problem gambling completed in Sweden, conducted by Volberg et al. (6). This paper is based on a large sample (N=9917) with an impressively high response rate (89%). Two instruments were used to assess gambling activities: the South Oaks Gambling Screen-Revised (SOGS-R) and an instrument derived from the DSM-IV criteria for pathological gambling. Current (1 year) and lifetime prevalence rates were collected. Results show that 0.6% of the respondents were classified as probable pathological gamblers, and 1.4% as problem gamblers. These data reveal that the prevalence of pathological gamblers in Sweden is significantly less than what has been observed in many western countries. The authors have pooled the rates of problem (1.4%) and probable pathological gamblers (0.6%), to provide a total of 2.0% for the current prevalence. This 2% should be interpreted with caution, however, as we do not have information on the long-term evolution of these subgroups of gamblers; for example, we do not know how many of each subgroup will become pathological gamblers, and how many will decrease their gambling or stop gambling altogether. Until this information is known, it would be preferable to keep in mind that only 0.6% of the Swedish population has been identified as pathological gamblers. In addition, recent studies show that the SOGS-R may be producing inflated estimates of pathological gambling (7). Thus, future research in this area might benefit from the use of an instrument based on DSM criteria for pathological gambling, rather than the SOGS-R only. Finally, the authors suggest in their discussion that the lower rate of pathological gamblers obtained in Sweden compared to many other jurisdictions may be explained by the greater availability of games based on chance rather than games based on skill or a mix of skill and luck. Before accepting this interpretation, researchers will need to demonstrate that the outcomes of all games are determined by other factor than chance and randomness. Many studies have shown that the notion of randomness is the only determinant of gambling (1). Inferring that skill is an important issue in gambling may be misleading. While these are important issues to consider, the Volberg et al. survey nevertheless provides crucial information about gambling in a Scandinavian country. Gambling will be an important issue over the next few years in Sweden, and the publication of the Volberg et al. study is a landmark for the Swedish community (scientists, industry, policy makers, etc.). This paper should stimulate interesting discussions and inspire new, much-needed scientific investigations of pathological gambling. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Guido Bondolfi and Robert Ladouceur Invited Guest Editors References 1.,LadouceurR & WalkerM. The cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling. In: BellackAS, HersenM, eds. Comprehensive clinical psychology. New York: Pergamon, 1998:588 , 601. 2.,ChristiansenEM. Gambling and the American economy. In: FreyJH, ed. Gambling: socioeconomic impacts and public policy. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 1998:556:36 , 52. 3.,KornDA & ShafferHJ. Gambling and the health of the public: adopting a public health perspective. J Gambling Stud2000;15:289 , 365. 4.,VolbergRA. Problem gambling in the United States. J Gambling Stud1996;12:111 , 128. 5.,BondolfiG, OsiekC, FerreroF. Prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in Switzerland. Acta Psychiatr Scand2000;101:473 , 475. 6.,VolbergRA, AbbottMW, RönnbergS, MunckIM. Prev-alence and risks of pathological gambling in Sweden. Acta Psychiatr Scand2001;104:250 , 256. 7.,LadouceurR, BouchardC, RhéaumeNet al. Is the SOGS an accurate measure of pathological gambling among children, adolescents and adults?J Gambling Stud2000;16:1 , 24. [source]

    Spatial Imaging of Cu2+ -Ion Release by Combining Alternating Current and Underpotential Stripping Mode Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 2-3 2007
    Dirk Ruhlig
    Abstract Anodic underpotential stripping voltammetry was integrated into SECM in order to characterize local corrosion of metallic copper deposits on metal surfaces as a model for copper containing alloys. Primarily, the alternating current mode of SECM was applied in an electrolyte of low ionic strength for localizing possible corrosion sites without any perturbation of the corroding surface, e.g., by the presence of any redox mediator. Sequentially, the release of Cu2+ -ions was confirmed and locally visualized at the previously detected electrochemically active sites by means of spatially resolved anodic underpotential stripping voltammetry performed during SECM scanning. Underpotential stripping voltammetry of Cu2+ -ions was performed at a specifically developed 15,,m gold-coated Pt microelectrode used as SECM tip with a detection limit of 0.15,nM Cu2+ (N=4, RSD=6%) for an accumulation of 45,s at ,0.4,V. SECM images of model samples such as copper coated microelectrodes and lacquered metallic copper workpieces demonstrated the feasibility and applicability of combining AC- and underpotential stripping mode of SECM for local visualization of Cu2+ -ion release from corroding surfaces. [source]

    Development of a simulated earthworm gut for determining bioaccessible arsenic, copper, and zinc from soil,

    Wai K. Ma
    Abstract Soil physicochemical characteristics and contamination levels alter the bioavailability of metals to terrestrialinvertebrates. Current laboratory-derived benchmark concentrations used to estimate risk do not take into account site-specific conditions, such as contaminant sequestration, and site-specific risk assessment requires a battery of time-consuming and costly toxicity tests. The development of an in vitro simulator for earthworm bioaccessibility would significantly shorten analytical time and enable site managers to focus on areas of greatest concern. The simulated earthworm gut (SEG) was developed to measure the bioaccessibility of metals in soil to earthworms by mimicking the gastrointestinal fluid composition of earthworms. Three formulations of the SEG (enzymes, microbial culture, enzymes and microbial culture) were developed and used to digest field soils from a former industrial site with varying physicochemical characteristics and contamination levels. Formulations containing enzymes released between two to 10 times more arsenic, copper, and zinc from contaminated soils compared with control and 0.01 M CaCl2 extractions. Metal concentrations in extracts from SEG formulation with microbial culture alone were not different from values for chemical extractions. The mechanism for greater bioaccessible metal concentrations from enzyme-treated soils is uncertain, but it is postulated that enzymatic digestion of soil organic matter might release sequestered metal. The relevance of these SEG results will need validation through further comparison and correlation with bioaccumulation tests, alternative chemical extraction tests, and a battery of chronic toxicity tests with invertebrates and plants. [source]

    Toxicokinetics of perfluorocarboxylate isomers in rainbow trout

    Amila O. De Silva
    Abstract Perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) and other perfluorocarboxylates (PFCAs) are widely dispersed in the environment. Current and/or historical production of PFOA and fluorochemical precursors was conducted by telomerization and electrochemical fluorination (ECF). Telomer products typically contain linear chains of perfluorocarbons, and ECF products are a mixture of linear and branched isomers. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of toxicokinetics on PFCA isomer profiles in fish since monitoring studies have revealed a predominance of n -isomers of PFCAs in biota. Using dietary exposure, rainbow trout were administered technical ECF PFOA isomers (6.9 ,g/kg/d), linear perfluorononanoate (1.4 ,g/kg/d n -PFNA), and isopropyl PFNA (1.1 ,g/kg/d iso -PFNA) for 36 d and then switched to a 40-d clean diet. Throughout exposure and depuration phases, blood and tissue sampling ensued. The accumulation ratio (AR) revealed similar accumulation propensity of n -PFOA and two minor branched PFOA isomers; however, the majority of branched isomers had lower AR values than n -PFOA. Enrichment of n -PFOA and n -PFNA relative to most branched isomers was consistent in all tissues. First-order elimination (kd) and half-life (t1/2) values were calculated. The largest t1/2 corresponded to n -PFNA followed by iso -PFNA. In ECF PFOA isomers, both n -PFOA and one minor branched isomer had the largest t1/2, suggesting that this minor isomer could be diagnostic of ECF exposure using environmental PFOA isomer patterns. Results of lower-dose ECF PFOA exposure showed similar results to the high-dose study; it is possible that both scenarios resulted in saturation of processes involved in PFCA transport. As such, the toxicokinetics of PFCA isomers at environmentally realistic levels may deviate from the results of the present study. [source]

    Inhibitory Effect of Lamotrigine on A-type Potassium Current in Hippocampal Neuron,Derived H19-7 Cells

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 7 2004
    Chin-Wei Huang
    Summary:,Purpose: We investigated the effects of lamotrigine (LTG) on the rapidly inactivating A-type K+ current (IA) in embryonal hippocampal neurons. Methods: The whole-cell configuration of the patch-clamp technique was applied to investigate the ion currents in cultured hippocampal neuron,derived H19-7 cells in the presence of LTG. Effects of various related compounds on IA in H19-7 cells were compared. Results: LTG (30 ,M,3 mM) caused a reversible reduction in the amplitude of IA. The median inhibitory concentration (IC50) value required for the inhibition of IA by LTG was 160 ,M. 4-Aminopyridine (1 mM), quinidine (30 ,M), and capsaicin (30 ,M) were effective in suppressing the amplitude of IA, whereas tetraethylammonium chloride (1 mM) and gabapentin (100 ,M) had no effect on it. The time course for the inactivation of IA was changed to the biexponential process during cell exposure to LTG (100 ,M). LTG (300 ,M) could shift the steady-state inactivation of IA to a more negative membrane potential by approximately ,10 mV, although it had no effect on the slope of the inactivation curve. Moreover, LTG (100 ,M) produced a significant prolongation in the recovery of IA inactivation. Therefore in addition to the inhibition of voltage-dependent Na+ channels, LTG could interact with the A-type K+ channels to suppress the amplitude of IA. The blockade of IA by LTG does not simply reduce current magnitude, but alters current kinetics, suggesting a state-dependent blockade. LTG might have a higher affinity to the inactivated state than to the resting state of the IA channel. Conclusions: This study suggests that in hippocampal neurons, during exposure to LTG, the LTG-mediated inhibition of these K+ channels could be one of the ionic mechanisms underlying the increased neuronal excitability. [source]

    The current status of antibiotic use in equine reproduction

    M. M. LeBlanc
    Summary Antibiotics are infused into the uterine lumen, added to semen extenders and given systemically for infections of the reproductive tract of the mare and stallion. Evidence-based guidelines for determining treatment length and route of administration are limited and use is frequently based on convenience or tradition. Current recommended antibiotic use for the treatment of bacterial and fungal endometritis, placentitis and metritis in the mare and genital infections of the stallion are presented. Antibiotic classes used for reproductive problems are also reviewed. [source]

    Elaboration of Monophasic and Biphasic Calcium Phosphate Coatings on Ti6Al4V Substrate by Pulsed Electrodeposition Current

    Hicham Benhayoune
    Calcium phosphate coatings on Ti6Al4V substrates are elaborated by pulsed electrodeposition. The surface morphology and chemical composition of the coatings are characterized by SEM,EDS. The obtained results are systematically confirmed at the nanometre scale using TEM. Moreover, XRD is performed in order to identify the coatings phases. The results show that pulsed electrodeposition allows uniform coatings to be obtained without the holes and craters usually observed with classical electrodeposition. After appropriate heat treatment, these coatings have a biphasic composition of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite and , -tricalcium phosphate. Moreover, the addition of 9% H2O2 to the electrolyte leads to monophasic coatings made of stoichiometric hydroxyapatite. As an indication of the passive nature of the electrodeposited coating, electrochemical potentiodynamic tests are performed in physiological solution in order to determine the corrosion behaviour of these coatings. [source]

    Role of Ca2+ -Activated Cl, Current in Ventricular Action Potentials of Sheep During Adrenoceptor Stimulation

    Arie O. Verkerk
    Adrenoceptor stimulation enhances repolarising and depolarising membrane currents to different extents in cardiac myocytes. We investigated the opposing effects of the repolarising Ca2+ -activated Cl, current (ICl(Ca)) and depolarising L-type Ca2+ current (ICa,L) on the action potential configuration of sheep ventricular myocytes stimulated with noradrenaline. Whole-cell current-clamp recordings revealed that noradrenaline accelerated and prolonged phase-1 repolarisation. We define the minimal potential at the end of phase-1 repolarisation as ,notch level'. Noradrenaline (1 ,M) caused the notch level to fall from 14 ± 2.6 to 7.8 ± 2.8 mV (n= 24), but left action potential duration, resting membrane potential or action potential amplitude unaffected. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings showed that 1 ,M noradrenaline increased both ICa,L and ICl(Ca), but it had no significant effect on the principal K+ currents. Blockage of ICl(Ca) by 0.5 mM 4,4,-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2,-disulphonic acid (DIDS) in both the absence and the presence of noradrenaline abolished phase-1 repolarisation. In the presence of noradrenaline, DIDS caused elevation of the plateau phase amplitude and an increase in the action potential duration. In conclusion, elevation of the plateau phase amplitude and action potential prolongation associated with an increased ICa,L upon adrenoceptor stimulation is prevented by an increased ICl(Ca) in sheep ventricular myocytes. [source]

    Public Pension Reform in the United Kingdom: What Effect on the Financial Well-Being of Current and Future Pensioners?,

    FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2005
    Richard Disney
    Abstract Unlike many tax and benefit changes, reforms to public pension programmes take many years to have their full effect. This paper examines the effect of reforms to the public pension programme in the United Kingdom on the state retirement incomes of current generations of pensioners and on the prospective state incomes of future generations of pensioners. We show that, for an individual with lifetime earnings close to male average earnings, the UK pension system is at its most generous to those reaching the state pension age around the year 2000, but that the introduction of the state second pension and the pension credit postpones this peak for individuals on lower incomes and for those with substantial periods out of paid employment spent with caring responsibilities. We also consider how the ,mix' of benefits, particularly between the contributory and income-tested sectors, could change over time, and the impact that this would have on incentives to save for retirement. [source]

    Time series analyses reveal transient relationships between abundance of larval anchovy and environmental variables in the coastal waters southwest of Taiwan

    Abstract We investigated environmental effects on larval anchovy fluctuations (based on CPUE from 1980 to 2000) in the waters off southwestern Taiwan using advanced time series analyses, including the state-space approach to remove seasonality, wavelet analysis to investigate transient relationships, and stationary bootstrap to test correlation between time series. For large-scale environmental effects, we used the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) to represent the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); for local hydrographic conditions, we used sea surface temperature (SST), river runoff, and mixing conditions. Whereas the anchovy catch consisted of a northern species (Engraulis japonicus) and two southern species (Encrasicholina heteroloba and Encrasicholina punctifer), the magnitude of the anchovy catch appeared to be mainly determined by the strength of Eng. japonicus (Japanese anchovy). The main factor that caused the interannual variation of anchovy CPUE might change through time. The CPUE showed a negative correlation with combination of water temperature and river runoff before 1987 and a positive correlation with river runoff after 1988. Whereas a significant negative correlation between CPUE and ENSOs existed, this correlation was driven completely by the low-frequency ENSO events and explained only 10% of the variance. Several previous studies on this population emphasized that the fluctuations of larval anchovy abundance were determined by local SST. Our analyses indicated that such a correlation was transient and simply reflected ENSO signals. Recent advances in physical oceanography around Taiwan showed that the ENSOs reduced the strength of the Asian monsoon and thus weakened the China Coastal Current toward Taiwan. The decline of larval anchovy during ENSO may be due to reduced China Coastal Current, which is important in facilitating the spawning migration of the Japanese anchovy. [source]

    Establishing climate,growth relationships for yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) in the northeast Pacific using a dendrochronological approach

    Abstract We applied dendrochronology (tree-ring) methods to develop multidecadal growth chronologies from the increment widths of yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) otoliths. Chronologies were developed for the central California coast, a site just north of Vancouver Island, British Columbia, and at Bowie Seamount west of the Queen Charlotte Islands, British Columbia. At each site, synchronous growth patterns were matched among otoliths via the process of cross-dating, ensuring that the correct calendar year was assigned to all increments. Each time series of growth-increment measurements was divided by the values predicted by a best-fit negative exponential function, thereby removing age-related trends. These detrended time series were averaged into a master chronology for each site, and chronologies were correlated with monthly averages of sea surface temperatures, upwelling, the Northern Oscillation Index, and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation. The two northern growth chronologies positively correlated with indices of warm ocean conditions, especially from the prior summer through the spring of the current year. During the same period, the California chronology positively correlated with indices of cool ocean conditions, indicating an opposing productivity regime for yelloweye rockfish between the California Current and the Gulf of Alaska. Overall, this study demonstrates how tree-ring techniques can be applied to quickly develop annually resolved chronologies and establish climate,growth relationships across various temporal and spatial scales. [source]

    Larval fish assemblages along the south-eastern Australian shelf: linking mesoscale non-depth-discriminate structure and water masses

    Abstract We present findings of the first mesoscale study linking larval fish assemblages and water masses along shelf waters off south-eastern Australia (southern Queensland-New South Wales), based on vertical, non-depth discriminate data from surveys in October 2002 and 2003 (spring) and July 2004 (winter). Clustering and ordination were employed to discriminate between larval assemblages and, for the first time, to define water masses from water column temperature frequencies. Surveys yielded 18 128 larval fishes comprising 143 taxa from 96 identifiable families, with small pelagics accounting for 53% of the total. Three major recurrent larval assemblages were identified during the study, each of which matched one of three water masses, namely East Australian Current to the north (EAC; 20.5,23.4°C), Tasman Sea to the south (TAS; 14.8,17.5°C), and mixed EAC,TAS water in between (MIX; 18.3,19.9°C). All three assemblages were present in spring, whereas only EAC and MIX occurred in the more northerly constrained winter survey. Furthermore, boundaries between the EAC, MIX and TAS assemblages were found to be dynamic, with locations shifting temporally and spatially depending on EAC extent. Assemblage composition differed significantly between water masses across surveys, with EAC,TAS being most dissimilar. Such contrast was due to the presence of tropical/temperate taxa in EAC, primarily temperate-associated taxa in TAS, and a combination of EAC,TAS taxa within MIX consistent with the convergence of both waters. Results highlight the strength of employing larval assemblages as indicators of water masses, particularly in view of the potential effect of climate change on spawning habitats of shelf fishes. [source]

    Ichthyoplankton-based spawning dynamics of blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus) in south-eastern Australia: links to the East Australian Current

    Abstract We describe findings of three ichthyoplankton surveys undertaken along south-eastern Australia during spring (October 2002, 2003) and winter (July 2004) to examine spawning habitat and dynamics of blue mackerel (Scomber australasicus). Surveys covered ,860 nautical miles between southern Queensland (Qld; 24.6°S) and southern New South Wales (NSW; 41.7°S), and were mainly centred on the outer shelf including the shelf break. Egg identifications were verified applying mtDNA barcoding techniques. Eggs (n = 2971) and larvae (n = 727; 94% preflexion) occurred both in spring and winter, and were confined to 25.0,34.6°S. Greatest abundances (numbers per 10 m2) of eggs (1214,7390) and larvae (437,1172) occurred within 10 nm shoreward from the break in northern NSW. Quotient analyses on egg abundances revealed that spawning is closely linked to a combination of bathymetric and hydrographic factors, with the outer shelf as preferred spawning area, in waters 100,125 m deep with mean temperatures of 19,20°C. Eggs and larvae in spring occurred in waters of the East Australian Current (EAC; 20.6,22.3°C) and mixed (MIX; 18.5,19.8°C) waters, with none occurring further south in the Tasman Sea (TAS; 16.0,17.0°C). Results indicate that at least some of the south-eastern Australian blue mackerel stock spawns during winter-spring between southern Qld and northern NSW, and that no spawning takes place south of 34.6°S due to low temperatures (<17°C). Spawning is linked to the EAC intrusion, which also facilitates the southward transport of eggs and larvae. Since spring peak egg abundances came from where the EAC deflects offshore, eggs and larvae are possibly being advected eastwards along this deflection front. This proposition is discussed based on recent data on blue mackerel larvae found apparently entrained along the Tasman Front. [source]

    Larval fish assemblages and water mass structure off the oligotrophic south-western Australian coast

    Abstract Larval fish assemblages were sampled using replicated oblique bongo net tows along a five-station transect extending from inshore (18 m depth) to offshore waters (1000 m depth) off temperate south-western Australia. A total of 148 taxa from 93 teleost families were identified. Larvae of Gobiidae and Blenniidae were abundant inshore, while larvae of pelagic and reef-dwelling families, such as Clupeidae, Engraulidae, Carangidae and Labridae were common in continental shelf waters. Larvae of oceanic families, particularly Myctophidae, Phosichthyidae and Gonostomatidae, dominated offshore assemblages. Multivariate statistical analyses revealed larval fish assemblages to have a strong temporal and spatial structure. Assemblages were distinct among seasons, and among inshore, continental shelf and offshore sampling stations. Inshore larval fish assemblages were the most seasonal, in terms of species composition and abundance, with offshore assemblages the least seasonal. However, larval fish assemblages were most closely correlated to water mass, with species distributions reflecting both cross-shelf and along-shore oceanographic processes and events. Similarity profile (SIMPROF) analysis suggested the presence of twelve distinct larval fish assemblages, largely delineated by water depth and season. The strength and position of the warm, southward flowing Leeuwin Current, and of the cool, seasonal, northward flowing Capes Current, were shown to drive much of the variability in the marine environment, and thus larval fish assemblages. [source]

    Seabird distribution, abundance and diets in the eastern and central Aleutian Islands

    Abstract We examined the hypothesis that seabird distribution, abundance and diets differ among the eastern and central Aleutian Islands in response to distinct marine environments and energy pathways in each region. Research cruises were conducted in June 2001 and May,June 2002. We determined the distribution, abundance, diet and prey consumption of seabirds, and related these to zooplankton abundance and water masses that possess different physical properties. We found that distribution, abundance and diets of seabirds could be partitioned into two regions that correspond to marine environments determined by the extent of the Alaska Coastal Current along the eastern and central Aleutian Islands. Short-tailed shearwaters (Puffinus tenuirostris) were the most abundant seabird in the coastal waters of the eastern Aleutian Islands, and northern fulmars (Fulmarus glacialis) were the most abundant seabird in the oceanic waters of the central Aleutian Islands. Seabird communities in the central and eastern Aleutian Islands were likely associated with different food webs. In the central Aleutian Islands, short-tailed shearwaters and northern fulmars consumed shelf-break species of euphausiids (Thyssanoesa longipes) and oceanic copepods (Neocalanus cristatus), respectively; in the eastern Aleutian Islands, both short-tailed shearwaters and northern fulmars consumed shelf species of euphausiids (T. inermis). Carbon transport to seabirds was highest in Unimak and Akutan Passes where shearwaters removed large quantities of shelf euphausiids, followed by Samalga and Seguam Passes where northern fulmars removed large amounts of oceanic copepods. [source]

    Synchronicity in southern hemisphere squid stocks and the influence of the Southern Oscillation and Trans Polar Index

    C. M. Waluda
    Abstract Squid are short lived, with highly labile populations that respond rapidly to changes in environmental conditions. This makes them a good model for studying the response of recruitment processes to environmental signals. This study examines the influence of the Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) and Trans Polar Index (TPI) on the environment and abundance of six species of commercially important squid from the southern hemisphere, all linked to major current systems connected by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current: Dosidicus gigas (Southeast Pacific), Loligo vulgaris reynaudii (Southeast Atlantic), Nototodarus sloanii, N. gouldi (Southwest Pacific), Illex argentinus and L. gahi (Southwest Atlantic). All fisheries displayed a high level of inter-annual variability and a degree of synchronicity was seen to occur in the abundance of the three Pacific species. The SOI signal was reflected in the environment of each fishery, particularly in Pacific regions. Both indices are correlated with squid abundance, particularly during the early life history stages (SOI) and adult stages (TPI), suggesting some degree of latitudinal separation, with juveniles potentially influenced by environmental variability at lower latitudes and adults at higher latitudes. [source]

    The relationship between the skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishery and seasonal temperature variability in the south-western Atlantic

    H. A. Andrade
    Abstract The spatio-temporal distribution of tuna fishing effort has been related to oceanographic circulation and features in several seas of the world. Understanding the relationship between environmental variables and fishery resource dynamics is important for management decisions and to improve fishery yields. The relationship between sea temperature variability and the pole-and-line skipjack tuna (Katsuwonus pelamis) fishery in the south-western Atlantic Ocean was investigated in this work. Data from logbooks, satellite images (sea surface temperature), and oceanographic surveys were used in the analyses. Skipjack are caught in warm tropical waters of the Brazil Current (BC). The north,south displacement of fishing effort was strongly associated to seasonal variation of the surface temperature, which was coupled to the tropical BC flow. Oceanographic fronts from autumn to spring and a shallow thermocline in summer probably induces the aggregation of skipjack schools over the shelfbreak, favouring fishing operations. Hypotheses are proposed to explain the relationship between peaks of fishing events and the presence of topographic peculiarities of the shelfbreak. [source]

    Larval transport and retention of the spiny lobster, Panulirus argus, in the coastal zone of the Florida Keys, USA

    Cynthia Yeung
    Abstract The spiny lobster Panulirus argus is of ecological and commercial importance in the South Florida coast of the continental USA and throughout the Intra-Americas Sea. Essential spiny lobster habitat in South Florida is primarily located in the Florida Keys coastal zone (including the Dry Tortugas), where the dynamic regional circulation coupled with the long planktonic larval duration (6,12 months) of P. argus raises questions of larval retention and recruitment. Locally spawned phyllosomata entrained in the Florida Current are likely to be expatriated out of the Straits of Florida, which implies that the local spiny lobster population is sustained by the transport of larval recruits from upstream locations. We examined the physical processes that may influence recruitment. Transport processes in the Keys coastal zone are spatially variable. Observed and modelled data suggest that the upper Keys is a point of onshore larval transport via the inshore meandering of the Florida Current, and the lower Keys to Dry Tortugas region apoint of retention through wind-driven onshore/countercurrents and eddy recirculation. Eddies that propagate between the Dry Tortugas and the lower Keys facilitate the exchange of larvae between the Florida Current and the coastal zone. Northerly wind events associated with cold fronts can enhance recirculation of larvae in the upper Keys. The association of older larvae with the Florida Current front supports the hypothesis that spiny lobster larval recruits come from upstream sources in the Caribbean. [source]