Crab Species (crab + species)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Discards from the commercial gillnet fishery for dusky flathead, Platycephalus fuscus, in New South Wales, Australia: spatial variability and initial effects of change in minimum legal length of target species

C. A. Gray
Abstract A scientific observer programme was used to quantify the composition and magnitude of discards in the gillnet fishery for dusky flathead, Platycephalus fuscus (Cuvier), in three barrier estuaries in New South Wales, Australia, during the 2001 fishing season. Regulations only permit the retention of legal-sized dusky flathead and legal-sized blue swimmer crab, Portunus pelagicus L., and mud crab, Scylla serrata (Forskål); all other organisms were discarded. Sampling was stratified into two time periods; before and after 1 July 2001 which coincided with the increase in the minimum legal length (MLL) of dusky flathead from 33 to 36 cm total length (TL). Eighty one catches were sampled, yielding 38 finfish species and two portunid crab species. Legal-sized dusky flathead were the most abundant organism captured, accounting for 23,47% by number and 34,54% by weight of the mean observed catch depending on the estuary and survey period, with a mean catch of 25,59 flathead weighing 13,25 kg per fishing-night. Species composition and relative abundance of catches differed among estuaries, but not between sampling periods. Predominant bycatch species included legal and undersize blue swimmer crab, sea mullet, Mugil cephalus L., luderick, Girella tricuspidata (Quoy & Gaimard), bream, Acanthopagrus australis (Günther) and yellowfin leatherjacket, Meuschenia trachylepis (Günther). These five species accounted for 82% of total bycatch by number and 71% by weight, pooled across the three estuaries. More crabs were retained than discarded, with retained legal-size crabs (byproduct) accounting for 16% of total bycatch by number and 13% by weight, with an average of 5,22 crabs weighing 1,6 kg being caught per fishing-night, depending on the estuary. Overall, 7% of dusky flathead captured (number) were below the MLL of 36 cm and discarded, suggesting the nets as currently configured may be relatively selective in catching legal-size flathead. However, 41% of dusky flathead were <40 cm TL, indicating that if the MLL for this species is increased to this length as proposed, new nets must be introduced into the fishery. The findings are discussed in terms of making the flathead fishery more sustainable, including alternative management strategies for the fishery. [source]

Testing the abundant-centre hypothesis using intertidal porcelain crabs along the Chilean coast: linking abundance and life-history variation

Marcelo M. Rivadeneira
Abstract Aim, The abundant-centre hypothesis (ACH) is based on the assumption that physiological constraints limit populations at the edges of their distributional range, yet the geographical variation of physiological performance or life-history traits has rarely been examined. Here we examine the applicability of the ACH in a marine system by testing whether physiological predictions are reflected in large-scale variations of life-history traits. Location, The Chilean coast (18°,42° S), encompassing more than 2500 km along the Pacific coast of South America. Methods, Five porcelain crab species (Petrolisthes granulosus, Petrolisthes laevigatus, Petrolisthes tuberculatus, Petrolisthes violaceus and Allopetrolisthes angulosus) were sampled on intertidal boulder beaches at 13 sampling sites. For each species and site we evaluated: (1) relative abundance (density), (2) maximum size, (3) size at maturity, (4) sex ratio, (5) proportion of ovigerous females, and (6) presence of recruits. The shape of the spatial distribution of each trait was evaluated statistically against the prediction of four hypothetical models (normal, ramped-south, ramped-north and abundant-edge). Results, The relative abundance and life-history traits showed different spatial patterns among species. Relative abundance (across sites) was fitted by a normal model in only two species. No model fitted the spatial variation in body size and size at first maturity, which showed a slight but monotonic poleward increase in all species. Sex ratio showed a prominent hump-shaped pattern, with females prevailing in the centre of the ranges and males dominating towards the range boundaries; this pattern was statistically significant in three of the five studied species. The proportion of ovigerous females showed no clear latitudinal trends, and mature individuals were observed across most of the geographical range of the species. However, recruits tended to be absent towards the southern (poleward) boundaries of the distribution. Main conclusions, The ACH does not apply to all species equally. The link between abundance and life-history traits is complex and variable among the porcelain crab species studied. Overall, the observed patterns were consistent with the idea that equatorward boundaries might be controlled by physiological restrictions mainly affecting adult survival, whereas poleward boundaries might be shaped by limitations in reproductive output and larval survival. Our results underline the importance of incorporating ecological, physiological and life-history studies in future tests of the ACH. [source]

Ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatophores of old world freshwater crabs (Brachyura: Potamoidea: Gecarcinucidae, Potamidae, and Potamonautidae)

Sebastian Klaus
Abstract We investigated the ultrastructure of spermatozoa and spermatophores of 19 palaeotropical freshwater crab species [12 species of the Gecarcinucidae, 6 of the Potamidae (Potamiscinae), and 1 species of the Potamonautidae (Deckeniinae: Hydrothelphusini)]. The investigated Potamiscinae have densely packed coenospermic spermatophores with the exception of Thaiphusa sirikit and Johora singaporensis that exhibit cleistospermia. In contrast, in the Gecarcinucidae the spermatozoa are loosely embedded in a mucous matrix. The gecarcinucid and potamiscine sperm differ, furthermore, in acrosomal structure and size. The acrosome in the Gecarcinucidae is much smaller and spherical, while the larger acrosome in the Potamiscinae has the tendency to be depressed. In the Potamiscinae, an additional middle acrosomal zone evolved between the acrosome ray zone and the outer acrosomal zone. Within the Gecarcinucidae, a differentiation into two groups (Gecarcinucinae and Parathelphusinae) is not supported by the present spermatological data. The sperm morphology of Hydrothelphusa aff. madagascariensis (Potamonautidae: Deckeniinae) differs from Potamonautes sidneyi (Potamonautidae: Potamonautinae) in acrosomal size and shape, and in the absence of a periopercular rim. A closer relationship of Deckeniinae and Gecarcinucidae cannot be confirmed by spermatology. J. Morphol., 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Osmoregulation in Six Sympatric Fiddler Crabs (genus Uca) from the Northwestern Gulf of Mexico

MARINE ECOLOGY, Issue 4 2002
Carl L. Thurman
Abstract. As problems in taxonomy and systematic relationships among the Uca species are resolved, a definition of how each fiddler crab species partitions and utilizes habitat resources is needed. To this end, the osmoregulatory capabilities were studied in six species of fiddler crabs from the western Gulf of Mexico. Specimens were placed in 50,ml of artificial seawater ranging in osmolality from 50 to 3450,mOsm (2 to 109,,) for five days. Survivorship was recorded for each species. Uca rapax, U. panacea and U. subcylindrica are hardy from 200 to 3200,mOsm (6 to 101,,). Uca spinicarpa and U. minax survive only below 1400,mOsm (44,,). U. longisignalis is intermediate, with limited survival above 2500,mOsm (79,,). Hemolymph osmolality was determined for crabs surviving the osmotic regimen. Uca panacea, U. subcylindrica and U. rapax are equivalent in their regulation between 50 and 3200,mOsm (2,,,101,,). Uca longisignalis lost its ability to control hemolymph osmolality above 2200,mOsm (69,,). On the other hand, U. spinicarpa and U. minax become less effective hyporegulators in media above 1200 (38,,) and 1500,mOsm (47,,), respectively. Only U. longisignalis appears to exhibit clear differences in osmoregulatory capacity between populations. Population data for U. panacea and laboratory experiments with U. subcylindrica also support the notion of capacitative acclimation in Uca. These physiological capabilities correlate well with the known habitat characteristics for each fiddler crab species in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico. [source]

Apparent digestibility of selected feed ingredients in diets formulated for the sub-adult mud crab, Scylla paramamosain, in Vietnam

Phuong Ha Truong
Abstract The present study was conducted to explore the potential to incorporate local plant-based feed ingredients into diets formulated for the mud crab species, Scylla paramamosain, commonly exploited for aquaculture in South-east Asia. Four test ingredients (defatted soybean meal, rice bran, cassava meal and corn flour) were incorporated at 30% or 45% inclusion levels in a fishmeal-based reference diet and used in digestibility trials where apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) for experimental diets and test ingredients were determined. Generally, high ADC values were obtained using diets containing 30% soybean meal or rice bran. By contrast, the lowest ADC values were obtained for the diet containing 45% cassava meal [70.9% for dry matter (ADMD); 77.1% for crude protein (ACPD) and 80.2% for gross energy (AGED)]. Similar trends were observed when ADC ingredient (I) digestibilities were compared. Specifically, the highest ADCI values were obtained for soybean meal when used at a 30% inclusion level (87.6% ADMDI; 98.4% ACPDI and 95.6% AGEDI) while the lowest ADCI values were obtained using cassava meal at a 45% inclusion level (53.8% ADMDI; 60.2% ACPDI and 67.3% AGEDI). Based on the current findings, we propose that soybean meal and rice bran could be considered for incorporation into formulated diets for S. paramamosain. [source]