Crude Protein (crude + protein)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Earth and Environmental Science

Kinds of Crude Protein

  • dietary crude protein

  • Terms modified by Crude Protein

  • crude protein concentration
  • crude protein content

  • Selected Abstracts

    Morphological development and nutritive value of herbage in five temperate grass species during primary growth: analysis of time dynamics

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009

    Abstract In a 2-year field experiment, morphological development and measures of the nutritive value of herbage for livestock during primary growth in Meadow foxtail, Tall oatgrass, Cocksfoot, Perennial ryegrass and Yorkshire fog were investigated. All measured variables were affected significantly by both species and sampling date, and their interaction (P < 0·001), in the period of primary growth. Changes with time in mean stage weight for Meadow foxtail and Cocksfoot were different from the other species due to their indeterminate growth habits. Mean stage weight of Tall oatgrass and Yorkshire fog increased more rapidly than that of Perennial ryegrass with time. Changes in mean stage weight with time were described by linear, parabolic and sigmoid relationships. Crude protein (CP) concentration of herbage was higher for Cocksfoot and Meadow foxtail than for Perennial ryegrass. A parabolic relationship of CP concentration with time was typical for all the species. Concentrations of neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) and acid-detergent fibre (ADF) in herbage of the species differed most during the mid-period of primary growth. Their increases with time showed curvilinear (sigmoid and parabolic) relationships. Perennial ryegrass had lower concentrations of both NDF and ADF in herbage than the other species. Differences between the in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility among the grasses increased in mid- and late periods of primary growth. Perennial ryegrass had higher values for in vitro DM digestibility but the difference from other species was small in the early period of primary growth and from cocksfoot in the late period of primary growth. In vitro DM digestibility showed, in most cases, a sigmoid and, in others, a linear decrease with time. Principal component analysis showed that perennial ryegrass and meadow foxtail were the most distinctive of the species in characteristics relating to morphological development and the nutritive value of herbage to livestock. [source]

    Manipulation of herbage production by altering the pattern of applying nitrogen fertilizer

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2008
    D. Hennessy
    Abstract The redistribution of herbage production during the growing season to synchronize herbage supply with feed demand by livestock by altering the application pattern of a range of nitrogen (N) fertilizer rates was studied. Application rates of N were 50, 150 and 250 kg N ha,1 per annum and patterns were with 0·60 of N fertilizer applied before June (treatment RN) and with only 0·20 of N fertilizer before June (treatment IN). Treatments were imposed in a cutting (simulated grazing) experiment (Experiment 1), which was conducted for 2 years and a grazing experiment (Experiment 2) which was conducted for 3 years. In both experiments, herbage production was reduced in April and May and increased in the June,October period on treatment IN relative to RN, but annual herbage production was not significantly affected except in the third year of Experiment 2, when treatment RN had significantly (P < 0·05) higher herbage production than treatment IN. Crude protein (CP) concentration of herbage was lower in April and May on treatment IN than treatment RN. However, CP concentration of herbage was rarely below 150 g kg,1 DM and so it is unlikely that livestock productivity would be compromised. On treatment IN, concentrations of CP in herbage were higher in the late summer than on treatment RN, which may increase livestock productivity during July and August when livestock productivity is often lower. Altering the strategy of application of N fertilizer did not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility of herbage. [source]

    Impact of seeding rate on annual ryegrass performance

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2004
    B. C. Venuto
    Abstract Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) is a primary forage resource for livestock producers throughout the south-eastern USA during the winter-growing season. It is important for livestock producers to begin grazing annual ryegrass as early as possible and any management practices maximizing early season production could be beneficial. To assess the impact of seeding rate on subsequent yield, yield distribution, quality, seedling density, and end-of-season plant and tiller density, a 2-year study was initiated at four locations in Louisiana. Three annual ryegrass cultivars, varying in seed size, were established at four seeding rates based on pure live seed (PLS) rates of 400, 800, 1200 and 1600 PLS m,2. There was no advantage in total yield from increasing seeding rates beyond 800 PLS m,2. However, first-harvest yields increased from 360 to 930 kg dry matter (DM) ha,1 as seeding rate increased from 400 to 1600 PLS m,2. Crude protein and neutral-detergent fibre concentrations, and in vitro DM digestibility, were not affected by seeding rate. Seedling density and end-of-season plant numbers increased as seeding rate increased. However, stems per plant decreased as seeding rate increased, indicating compensatory tillering for the reduced plant numbers observed at the lower seeding rates. These results indicate first-harvest yield can be increased by planting at higher seeding rates but total yields are not increased. [source]

    Fermentation quality and nutritive value of green soybean stover silage

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 1 2007
    Ken-ichi Horiguchi
    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fermented juice of epiphytic lactic acid bacteria (FJLB) on fermentation quality and nutritive value of green soybean stover silage. Green soybean stover was cut and packed in drum silos without or with 5% (volume/weight) FJLB. Four sheep were fed a basal diet of 40% reed canarygrass hay and 60% commercial concentrate (dry matter basis) and assigned to two treatments: green soybean stover silage preserved without FJLB or with FJLB. Crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents of green soybean stover silage (dry matter basis) were 16.4% and 45.2% for the silage without FJLB, and 15.8% and 47.1% for the silage with FJLB, respectively. Lactic acid content of the fresh green soybean stover silage was 1.41% for the silage without FJLB and 1.63% for the silage with FJLB. The butyric acid content of the fresh green soybean stover silage with FJLB was substantially lower than that of the silage without FJLB. There was no effect of FJLB added for silage making on the nutrient content, nitrogen retention or ruminal fermentation of the diets. It was estimated that total digestible nutrients content and digestible crude protein content of green soybean stover silage were 64.2% and 11.2% of dry matter, respectively. [source]

    Yield and Forage Quality of Different ×Festulolium Cultivars in Winter

    W. Opitz v. Boberfeld
    Abstract ×Festulolium ssp. are of particular interest as autumn-saved herbage in the winter grazing system, but information concerning their performance in this low-input system is not available. To this end, we examined dry matter (DM) yield and forage quality in winter of four different cultivars of ×Festulolium ssp. (×Festulolium pabulare, Festulolium braunii), either with festucoid or loloid attributes, compared with Festuca arundinacea Schreb. Furthermore, pre-utilization (accumulation since June or July) and date of winter harvest (December or January) were varied examining the influence of different sward management. DM yield, crude protein, metabolizable energy (ME) (in vitro rumen fermentation technique), acid detergent fibre (ADF) and ergosterol concentration were determined. Within all years, the festucoid cultivars (mean 3.4 t ha,1) attained significant higher yields during winter than the loloid cultivars (mean 1.6 t ha,1), but their yields were comparable with F. arundinacea (mean 3.0 t ha,1). Crude protein was decisively influenced by the different yield levels of the cultivars resulting in higher values for the loloid cultivars. Energy concentrations decreased with later winter harvest, whereas ADF as well as ergosterol concentrations frequently increased from December to January. The greatest differences between festucoid and loloid cultivars were generally observed during severe winters. Obviously, the festucoid cultivars were better adapted to a utilization as autumn-saved herbage than the cultivars with rather loloid attributes. However, the hybrids did not surpass F. arundinacea regarding yield and quality. [source]

    Effects of Fertilizer Phosphorus on Yield Traits of Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) Under Field Conditions

    A. Yemane
    Abstract Cool-season food legumes (CSFLs) are important supplementary protein sources and soil fertility restorers for subsistence farmers in Ethiopia. Yields of CSFLs, however, are limited by low soil fertility, as they are grown in poor soils, often without fertilizer. Dekoko (Pisum sativum var. abyssinicum) is one of the CSFLs cultivated in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. It is highly appreciated by the local people for its taste. This paper reports on the effect of phosphorus (P) on the yield and nutrition value of Dekoko under field conditions, and compares the results with those obtained for Ater (Pisum sativum var. sativum). The experiment was conducted in the 1998 and 1999 growing seasons. Three rates of P equivalent to zero, 30, and 60 kg ha,1 P2O5 were tested. Biomass, leaf area index, branches/plant, pods/m2 and yield responded positively while seeds/pod and seed weight were not significantly affected by P. Tissue P contents in shoots and roots increased with an increase in P application rate, while P in the nodules was not affected. Crude protein (CP) content increased from 24.9 % of dry matter (DM) at P0 to 26.2 % at P2, and from 24.3 % at P0 to 25.2 % at P2, in Dekoko and Ater seeds, respectively, while total sugars decreased with an increase in P application rate. Cysteine in Dekoko and asparagine and threonine in both varieties decreased, while lysine and other amino acids were not significantly affected by P. P improved seed yield and CP content without greatly affecting the amino acid profile of Dekoko, when compared with that of the FAO/WHO (1991, Protein Quality Evaluation. Food and Nutrition, Paper 51. FAO/WHO, Rome) standard pattern of amino acid for children 2,5 years of age. Thus, improving yield through fertilization may help to improve nutritional quality and household food security for subsistence farmers. [source]

    Effect of the types and concentrations of alkali on the color of cocoa liquor

    Pablo Rodríguez
    Abstract BACKGROUND: The alkalization process is extensively used in the cocoa industry, but information is scarce and not easy to acquire. The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of different types and concentrations of alkali on the color of cocoa liquor. Dried beans from Chuao (state Aragua, Venezuela) were used to produce cocoa liquors. Samples of liquors were alkalized with solutions of NaHCO3, Na2CO3 and NaOH at concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 g kg,1. RESULTS: The data showed that values of the coordinates L*, a* and b* decrease when liquors were treated with the three different types and concentrations of alkalis. Almost all samples had ,E* values above 1. The ratios b*/a* and a*/b* and the proximate composition were also modified. Crude protein, crude fat and polyphenol concentrations were decreased and the ash content augmented as concentrations of the alkalis were increased. The fatty acid and sugar profiles were also affected. These ratios were most pronounced when NaOH was used. CONCLUSION: The selection of the type or concentration of alkali is a function of the type of product to be elaborated. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Chemical composition and ruminal degradability of lucerne (Medicago sativa) products

    Arif F Mustafa
    Abstract A study was conducted to determine the chemical composition and in situ nutrient ruminal degradability of three lucerne products. These were dehydrated pellets, sun-cured pellets and cubes. Results of the chemical analysis showed that sun-cured pellets had the highest (P,<,0.05) neutral and acid detergent fibre as well as total carbohydrate levels, followed by cubes and dehydrated pellets respectively. Crude protein (CP) content was highest (P,<,0.05) for dehydrated pellets (204.3,g,kg,1), intermediate for sun-cured pellets (160.0,g,kg,1) and lowest for cubes (153.2,g,kg,1). Intermediately degradable CP (buffer-insoluble CP minus neutral detergent-insoluble CP) was the main protein fraction in the three products and was higher (P,<,0.05) in cubes than in dehydrated and sun-cured pellets. Estimated net energy of lactation was highest (P,<,0.05) for dehydrated pellets (5.9,MJ,kg,1), intermediate for cubes (5.23,MJ,kg,1) and lowest (P,<,0.05) for sun-cured pellets (5.15,MJ,kg,1). Results of the in situ experiment indicated that dehydrated pellets had higher (P,<,0.05) ruminal protein degradability than sun-cured pellets and cubes. The estimated ruminal escape protein values for dehydrated pellets, sun-cured pellets and cubes were 361, 420 and 498,g,kg,1 CP respectively. It was concluded that differences in chemical composition and ruminal degradability among the three lucerne products were mainly due to differences in stage of maturity. It was also concluded that the dehydration process failed to increase the ruminal escape protein value of dehydrated pellets relative to sun-cured pellets and cubes. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

    Effect of Dietary Protein Sources on Growth and Body Composition of Snail, Semisulcospira gottschei

    Sang-Min Lee
    A feeding experiment was conducted to determine a dietary protein source for juvenile snail, Semisulcospira gottschei. Eight experimental diets (designated as 1,8) were formulated to contain 31% casein, 42% fish meal, 31% blood meal, 39% meat meal, 46% corn gluten meal, 57% soybean meal, 50% cottonseed meal with 23% casein, and 50% wheat flour with 6% casein, respectively, as dietary sole protein sources. Snails (37 ± 3.4 mg/snail) were randomly distributed into 25 L aquaria (20 L water each) in a recirculating aquarium system at a density of 100 juveniles per aquarium. Three replicate groups of snails were fed one of the experimental diets ad libitum once in every 2 d for 12 wk. At the end of the feeding experiment, survival of snails ranged from 77 to 89%, and was not significantly different among the treatments. Snails fed Diet 7 containing 25.3% crude protein deriving from cottonseed meal and casein grew faster than did snails fed other diets, except for snails fed Diet 6 containing soybean meal as a protein source. Growth of snails fed diets containing blood meal, corn gluten meal, and meat meal was the least of snails fed any diet. Crude protein, crude lipid, and ash contents of whole body varied remarkably with dietary protein source. The present findings suggest that dietary protein source could affect the body weight and proximate composition of snails. Cottonseed meal and soybean meal might be a more preferable dietary protein source for snail juvenile compared with other ingredients tested. [source]

    Variety diversity effect on the chemical composition and dry matter degradation characteristics of residue and by-products of oil palm fruits

    Musibau Adungbe BAMIKOLE
    ABSTRACT The materials palm press fibre (PPF), palm calyx (PCL) and palm oil sludge (POS) obtained from three varieties of oil palm: dura, oleifera and tenera were investigated for the effect of variety on their nutritive value. Analysis of proximate composition, cell wall fractions, some mineral concentration as well as in-situ dry matter degradation in the rumen of steers were carried out. Significant effects of materials (i.e. PPF, PCL and POS) as well as variety (i.e. dura, oleifera and tenera) were noticed in all the parameters studied except sodium (Na) and organic matter (OM) components. Crude protein (CP) values in all the varieties were lowest in PCL (3.15,5.48%) and highest in POS (9.02,10.02%), while crude fibre (CF) values were highest in PCL (33.00,46.19%) and lowest in POS (3.15,5.48%). The upper and lower values respectively for CP and CF in the materials were in most cases for the tenera variety. The cell wall fractions (NDF, ADF, Lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose) were all higher in PCL and lowest in POS. In the three varieties, POS had highest concentration of Mg (0.117,0.231 g/100 g), K (1.21,2.33 g/100 g) and Cu (75.07,87.34 mg/kg) but lowest content of Ca (0.016,0.089 g/100 g) while PPF had lowest concentration of Mg (0.031,0.039 g/100 g) and Cu (20.96,22.28 mg/kg). Iron (Fe, mg/kg) values were generally high, but highest in PCL (2015.41,4042.16). Dry matter degradability and effective degradability values were best in POS irrespective of the variety and least in PCL. Among the three varieties, dry matter degradation characteristics of tenera were the best and oleifera the least. Generally the residue and by-products irrespective of the variety of oil palm they are obtained from can be ranked for their nutritive value as POS > PPF > PCL, while nutritive ranking based on variety is tenera > dura > oleifera. Conclusively, POS and PPF from any variety of oil palm could be adopted directly as feed resources for ruminant livestock, while PCL will require hydrolytic nutritive value enhancement treatment. Ruminant livestock will however be at an advantage if materials from tenera variety are fed. [source]

    Dietary pyridoxine requirement of juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian)

    W. HE
    Abstract In a 80-day feeding trial, a total of 1050 juvenile Jian carp (Cyprinus carpio var. Jian) with an average initial weight of 10.71 ± 0.05 g were fed semi-purified diets containing seven graded levels of pyridoxine (0.20, 1.71, 3.23, 4.96, 6.32, 8.58 and 12.39 mg pyridoxine kg,1 diet). Results indicated that with increasing dietary pyridoxine levels up to 4.96 mg kg,1 diet, percent weight gain (PWG) and specific growth rate (SGR) were improved, and no differences were found with further increase of pyridoxine levels. Feed intake also followed the similar pattern to that observed with PWG and SGR when dietary pyridoxine levels were ,6.32 mg kg,1 diet. But feed efficiency and protein efficiency ratio were not affected by pyridoxine levels. Crude protein of carcass, productive protein value and plasma ammonia concentration were improved with increasing dietary pyridoxine levels up to 4.96 mg kg,1 diet. Amylase activities in the intestine were improved with increasing dietary pyridoxine levels up to 4.96 mg kg,1 diet, but protease and lipase activities in the intestine were not affected by pyridoxine levels. Na+, K+ -ATPase and Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase activities in proximal intestine, mid intestine (MI) and distal intestine (DI) were lowest when fed the diet containing 1.71 mg pyridoxine kg,1 diet. The alkaline phosphatase activities in MI and DI followed the same pattern. The dietary pyridoxine requirement of juvenile Jian carp based on PWG estimated by broken line model was 6.07 mg pyridoxine kg,1 diet. [source]

    Fatty acid ruminal metabolism and digestibility in cows fed perennial ryegrass

    Michel Doreau
    Abstract The ruminal metabolism and intestinal digestibility of fatty acids (FA) was studied in four mid-lactation dairy cows fitted with ruminal and duodenal cannulae. The cows received fresh perennial ryegrass as sole feed. Two grasses were compared, differing in the soluble carbohydrate/nitrogen ratio (SC+/N, and SC,/N+ ratios). This ratio was modified by the combination of three factors: age of regrowth, N,fertilisation and hour of cutting. The two grasses contained 12.5 and 20.7% of crude protein, and 24.6 and 13.7% of SC, respectively. The SC+/N, grass contained less FA [1.82 vs. 2.49% of dry matter (DM)] and a lower percentage of linolenic acid (60.9 vs. 65.6% of FA). As DM intake did not differ between treatments, FA intake was higher for the SC,/N+ treatment. The duodenal composition of FA revealed numerous isomers of 18:1 and conjugated and non-conjugated isomers of 18:2. SC,/N+ treatment resulted in a higher duodenal flow of stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acids and of several intermediates of linolenic acid hydrogenation. This was a consequence of differences in intake. Intestinal digestibility of FA from both grasses was high (around 90%). The proportions of FA in plasma did not reflect with accuracy the differences in duodenal FA resulting from differences in ruminal metabolism. [source]

    Climate change and cattle nutritional stress

    GLOBAL CHANGE BIOLOGY, Issue 10 2010
    Abstract Owing to the complex interactions among climate, plants, cattle grazing, and land management practices, the impacts of climate change on cattle have been hard to predict. Predicting future grassland ecosystem functioning relies on understanding how changes in climate alter the quantity of forage produced, but also forage quality. Plant protein, which is a function of plant nitrogen concentrations, and digestible energy limit the performance of herbivores when in short supply; moreover, deficiencies can be expensive to mitigate. To better understand how changes in temperature and precipitation would affect forage protein and energy availability, we analyzed over 21 000 measurements of cattle fecal chemistry acquired over 14 years in the continental US. Our analysis of patterns in forage quality among ecologically defined regions revealed that increasing temperature and declining precipitation decreased dietary crude protein and digestible organic matter for regions with continental climates. Within regions, quality also declined with increased temperature; however, the effects of precipitation were mixed. Any future increases in precipitation would be unlikely to compensate for the declines in forage quality that accompany projected temperature increases. As a result, cattle are likely to experience greater nutritional stress in the future. If these geographic patterns hold as a proxy for future climates, agriculture will require increased supplemental feeds or the consequence will be a decrease in livestock growth. [source]

    Silage quality when Moringa oleifera is ensiled in mixtures with Elephant grass, sugar cane and molasses

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 4 2009
    B. Mendieta-Araica
    Abstract Fourteen different silages were prepared using mixtures of Moringa (Moringa oleifera), Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv Taiwan) or sugar cane (Saccharum officinarum). Molasses from sugar cane was used in the amounts of either 10 or 50 g kg,1 fresh matter (FM) in treatments without sugar cane. A completely randomized design with three replicates of each treatment was used. The silages were prepared in 1800 mL micro silos and opened after 120 d. The presence of Moringa and Elephant grass in the silage changed the pH by ,0·8 and +0·7, respectively (P < 0·001), indicating a favourable effect of Moringa on silage pH. Overall differences were found among treatments for dry matter content, crude protein and acetic acid concentrations, weight loss, CO2 production and silage pH after spoilage (P < 0·001). Weight loss was proportionately 0·034 and 0·014 in silages with and without sugar cane respectively (P < 0·001). Overall, differences (P < 0·05) were also found for neutral-detergent fibre and lactic acid concentrations, lactic acid bacteria counts, clostridial counts and time to spoilage of the silages. Treatments containing Moringa had higher lactic acid concentrations (+16 g kg,1 DM; P < 0·01) compared to treatments without but the presence of Moringa decreased time to spoilage by 67 h (P < 0·05). No differences were found in propionic acid concentration or fungal growth of the silages. It is concluded that Moringa can be used as a component of high quality silages which also contain high concentrations of crude protein. [source]

    Agronomic performance and nutritive value of common and alternative grass and legume species in the Peruvian highlands

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2009
    K. Bartl
    Abstract The agronomic performance and nutritive value of twelve annual and perennial grasses and legumes were analysed in order to define alternatives to local forages for dry-season feeding of ruminants in the Peruvian Andes. There were twelve species and two fertilizer treatments (no fertilizer and a N;P;K fertilizer mainly applied at sowing) in an experiment with a randomized complete block design with three replicates at each of two sites. Plant height, soil cover by forage and weed species, frost damage, dry matter (DM) yield and nutritive value of herbage were evaluated in 2005 and 2006. Among the annual species, Hordeum vulgare L. cv. UNA 80 and ×Triticosecale Wittm. had the highest DM yields when fertilized (8226 and 6934 kg ha,1 respectively). Without fertilizer the alternative cultivars had similar DM yields to that of the local forages. Cultivars of Avena sativa L. had lower concentrations of neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) (557 g kg,1 DM) and higher concentrations of predicted net energy for lactation (5·86 MJ kg,1 DM) than the other annual grass species (625 g kg,1 DM and 5·01 MJ kg,1 DM respectively), while the legumes were superior in concentrations of crude protein (277 g kg,1 DM) and NDF (362 g kg,1 DM). Considering the low agronomic performance of the perennial forages, a mixture of fertilized annual grasses and legumes appears the most appropriate approach to meeting the demand for forage of high nutritive value in the Peruvian highlands. [source]

    Effect of supplementation with grain, hay or straw on the performance of weaner Merino sheep grazing old man (Atriplex nummularia) or river (Atriplex amnicola) saltbush

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    H. C. Norman
    Abstract Old man saltbush (Atriplex nummularia) and river saltbush (A. amnicola) are widely used in commercial grazing systems on saline land in south-western Australia. Three hypotheses were tested during a 3-year study aimed at understanding the performance of weaner Merino sheep grazing saltbush-based pastures. The first hypothesis, that young Merino sheep grazing river saltbush would be better able to maintain live weight, body condition and would grow more wool than sheep grazing old man saltbush, was not supported by the data. Across the 3 years of the study, sheep grazing old man saltbush lost significantly less live weight and grew more wool (proportionately 0·06) than sheep grazing river saltbush. Differences in animal performance were considered to be associated with differences between the plant species in in vitro digestibility, concentrations of fibre, sulphur and crude protein in the herbage and the architecture of the Atriplex plants. The second and third hypotheses concerned supplementation strategies for sheep grazing saltbush. Three supplements were offered, namely barley grain, cereal straw or cereal hay, at a rate that approximated to one-third of the daily metabolizable energy requirements for maintenance of live weight. The performance of the sheep was higher when the grain supplement was offered but there was no effect of feeding roughage supplements compared to no supplementation. The findings suggested that the practice of feeding saltbush with adjacent crop stubbles is unlikely to be beneficial once any fallen grain has been consumed. [source]

    Effect of frequency of application of inorganic nitrogen fertilizer within a rotational paddock-grazing system on the performance of dairy cows and inputs of labour

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2008
    C. P. Ferris
    Abstract As herd sizes and labour costs increase, and the availability of skilled labour decreases, efficient use of available labour becomes more important in dairy cow systems. Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of reducing the frequency of application of inorganic nitrogen (N) fertilizer on inputs of labour and performance of dairy cows. Experiments 1 (duration of 169 d) and 2 (duration of 179 d) involved fifty-eight and forty multiparous Holstein,Friesian dairy cows, respectively, in mid-lactation. In each experiment, in the ,infrequent' treatment fertilizer was applied to all paddocks on a single occasion at the start of each grazing cycle, while in treatment ,frequent', fertilizer was applied on three occasions each week, within 2 or 3 d of each paddock having been grazed. The experimental treatments were started from 30 March and 29 March in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively. Total N application rates were approximately 360 and 250 kg N ha,1 in Experiments 1 and 2 respectively. Concentrate feed (4·0 kg per cow) was offered daily in both experiments. With the ,infrequent' treatment, highest concentrations of crude protein and nitrate in herbage were observed in swards grazed approximately 10 d after N fertilizer was applied. Treatment had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat and protein concentrations, and final live weight and body condition score of cows in either experiment. Milk urea and plasma urea concentrations were not significantly affected by treatment. Calculated application times of fertilizer for a herd of 100 dairy cows were 107 and 83 min week,1 for the ,frequent' and ,infrequent' treatments respectively. [source]

    Seasonal changes in herbage mass and nutritive value of a range of grazed legume swards under Mediterranean and cool temperate conditions

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2007
    U. Sölter
    Summary Seasonal changes in herbage mass and herbage quality of legume-based swards under grazing by sheep or cattle were investigated at four locations in climatically different zones of Europe: Sardinia (Italy), southern France, northern Germany and south-west England (UK). At each location standard treatments were applied to legumes typical of species widely used in each locality: Medicago polymorpha in Italy, Medicago sativa in France, and Trifolium repens in Germany and in UK. At each site comparisons were made of two other legumes: Trifolium subterraneum and Hedysarum coronarium in Italy, Onobrychis sativa and Trifolium incarnatum in France, Trifolium pratense and Lotus corniculatus in Germany, and Trifolium ambiguum and L. corniculatus in UK. Legumes were sown in mixture with locally appropriate companion grasses, and measurements were made over two or three grazing periods. In Italy M. polymorpha swards gave the greatest herbage mass in grazing period 1 but H. coronarium was more persistent. At the French site all legumes established poorly with no significant herbage mass differences between treatments. At both the UK and German sites L. corniculatus maintained a high proportion of legume in the sward; T. repens showed poor persistence under continuous sheep grazing in UK but persisted under cattle grazing in Germany, while T. ambiguum was slow to establish in the UK, and T. pratense proved to be of comparable herbage mass to the standard T. repens -based sward in the last year of the experiment. The concentration of crude protein and in vitro digestibility of organic matter in the dry matter of herbage showed greater within-season variation than between treatments at each site. It is concluded that, in addition to currently used species, legume-based swards containing H. coronarium, O. sativa and L. corniculatus all have potential to contribute to forage production for low-input grazing and their use merits further consideration in systems of livestock production in Europe. [source]

    Liveweight gains of lambs from Caucasian clover/ryegrass and white clover/ryegrass swards on soils of high and low fertility

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
    A. D. Black
    Summary The high nutritive value and persistence under a wide range of climatic and soil fertility conditions make Caucasian clover a potentially useful forage legume but there is little information about the performance of livestock grazing Caucasian clover/grass swards. This study compared liveweight gains of lambs grazing Caucasian clover/perennial ryegrass and white clover/perennial ryegrass swards on high fertility (Olsen P 20 mg L,1, SO4 -S 12 mg kg,1) and low fertility (Olsen P 11 mg L,1, SO4 -S 7 mg kg,1) soils from 1998 to 2001 in the South Island of New Zealand. Mean annual liveweight gains were 1178 kg ha,1 for Caucasian clover/perennial ryegrass and 1069 kg ha,1 for white clover/perennial ryegrass swards at high fertility compared with 1094 kg ha,1 and 1015 kg ha,1, respectively, at low fertility. There was a higher mean proportion of clover in Caucasian clover/perennial ryegrass (0·19) than white clover/perennial ryegrass (0·11) swards, but there were no differences in total herbage production between the two clover/perennial ryegrass swards. The mean concentration of crude protein in the herbage of Caucasian clover (302 g kg DM,1) was higher than that in white clover (287 g kg DM,1) and grass herbage (227 g kg DM,1). Estimated mean metabolizable energy concentrations in the herbage were 12·5 MJ kg DM,1 for the two clovers and 11·6 MJ kg DM,1 for grass herbage. The difference in liveweight gain between swards on soils of high and low fertility was associated with an increase in total herbage production of similar composition and nutritive value, giving a greater number of grazing days for the swards on soils of high than low fertility. [source]

    Changes in the physiology and feed quality of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) during regrowth

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2002
    R. P. Rawnsley
    Abstract A glasshouse study was undertaken to determine the physiological and morphological changes in cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L.) during regrowth after defoliation. Individual plants were arranged in a mini-sward in a randomized complete block design. Treatments involved harvesting each time one new leaf had expanded (one-leaf stage), up to the six-leaf stage, with the plants separated into leaf, stubble (tiller bases) and roots. Stubble and root water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC), stubble and leaf dry matter (DM), tiller number per plant and leaf quality (crude protein (CP), estimated metabolizable energy (ME) and mineral content) were measured to develop optimal defoliation management of cocksfoot-based pastures. WSC concentration in stubble and roots was highest at the five- and six-leaf stages. Mean WSC concentration (g kg,1 DM) was greater in stubble than roots (32·7 ± 5·9 vs. 9·4 ± 1·5 respectively). There was a strong positive linear relationship between plant WSC concentration and leaf DM, root DM and tillers per plant after defoliation (Adj R2 = 0·72, 0·88 and 0·95 respectively). Root DM plant,1 and tiller DM tiller,1 decreased immediately following defoliation and remained low until the three-leaf stage, then increased from the four-leaf stage. Tillers per plant remained stable until the four-leaf stage, after which they increased (from 9·9 ± 0·5 to 15·7 ± 1·0 tillers plant,1). Estimated metabolizable energy concentration (MJ kg,1 DM) was significantly lower at the six-leaf stage (11·01 ± 0·06) than at any previous leaf regrowth stage, whereas CP concentration (g kg,1 DM) decreased with regrowth to the six-leaf stage. Both the levels of ME and CP concentrations were indicative of a high quality forage throughout regrowth (11·37 ± 0·04 and 279 ± 8·0 for ME and CP respectively). Results from this study give a basis for determining appropriate criteria for grazing cocksfoot-based pastures. The optimal defoliation interval for cocksfoot appears to be between the four- and five-leaf stages of regrowth. Delaying defoliation to the four-leaf stage allows time for replenishment of WSC reserves, resumption of root growth and an increase in tillering, and is before herbage is lost and quality falls due to onset of leaf senescence. [source]

    The effect of harvest date and inoculation on the yield, fermentation characteristics and feeding value of forage pea and field bean silages

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2001
    M. D. Fraser
    Two experiments describe the ensiling potential of whole-crop forage peas (Pisum sativum) and field beans (Vicia faba). In Experiment 1, forage peas (cv. Magnus) and field beans (cv. Mayo) were harvested at 10, 12 and 14 weeks after sowing, and ensiled in 10 kg mini-silos either untreated or treated with an inoculant (Lactobacillus plantarum). In terms of yield and ensiling potential, the optimum growth stage for harvesting forage peas occurred at 12 weeks of growth. In contrast, delaying the harvest of field beans until 14 weeks gave the highest yields of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP). Changes in crop maturity had little effect on the chemical composition of the fresh forages, but between-harvest date differences were observed in the DM, ammonia-N, CP, water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC), acid-detergent fibre (ADF), neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), lactic acid and volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentrations and pH of the corresponding silages. Fermentation was improved by applying an inoculant. In Experiment 2, forage peas and field beans were harvested at 14 weeks after sowing and ensiled as round-bale silage, either untreated or treated with an inoculant. The yields of the crops were similar, and the only difference in the chemical composition of the wilted forages was a higher CP concentration in the field beans. However, after the ensiling process was complete, the forage pea silages were found to have significantly higher DM, WSC, starch and butyric acid concentrations compared with the field bean silages, and lower ammonia-N, CP, ADF, acetic acid and lactic acid concentrations. Inoculation was found to increase the lactic acid concentration and reduce the pH and ammonia-N and acetic acid concentrations of the silages. Each of the silages produced in Experiment 2 was offered to six Suffolk crossbred wether lambs, aged 10 months. Voluntary DM intakes were similar on all treatments, despite the apparent digestibility of the forage pea silages being significantly higher than that of the field bean silages. Nitrogen retention was higher for lambs offered forage pea silage. Application of an inoculant was found to have a negative effect on the amount of N retained, indicating the necessity for more detailed investigations into proteolytic activity within these crops during the fermentation process. [source]

    The effect of accumulation period and harvest date in spring on dry-matter yield and forage quality in mixed swards containing Lolium spp. and Trifolium subterraneum in Western Australia

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 1 2001
    M. N. Callow
    The object of this study was to determine the effect of closing date and date of harvest for conservation (accumulation period), on dry-matter (DM) yield and forage quality of annual pasture in Western Australia. The field study comprised 48 plots, 2 m × 2 m, sown with either annual ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaud.) or Italian ryegrass (L. multiflorum Lam.), and mixed with subterranean clover (Trifolium subterraneum L.). Defoliation of swards until the end of winter was at the three leaves tiller,1 stage. In spring, once stem nodal development had commenced, swards were defoliated every 3,4 weeks. Swards were defoliated either twice with three leaves tiller,1 (accumulation period 1 commenced on 15 August); twice with three leaves tiller,1 and then once after 4 weeks (accumulation period 2 commenced on 11 September); twice with three leaves tiller,1 and then twice after 4-week intervals (accumulation period 3 commenced on 9 October) or; twice with 3 leaves tiller,1 and then twice after 4-week intervals and then once after 3 weeks (accumulation period 4 commenced on 30 October). From the commencement of the accumulation period, tiller density, DM yield and forage quality were determined weekly for up to 10 weeks. There was a positive quadratic association between DM yield and days after the commencement of the accumulation period. Yields were maximized from accumulation period 1 with 5·3, 6·6 and 9·5 t DM ha,1, and growth rates were 140, 128 and 145 kg DM ha,1 d,1, for Wimmera annual ryegrass and Richmond and Concord cultivars of Italian ryegrass respectively. In contrast, in vitro dry-matter digestibility (IVDMD) and crude protein (CP) content were negatively associated with days after the commencement of the accumulation period, and initial values were greater than 0·80 and 180 g kg DM,1 for IVDMD and CP content respectively. The rate of decline in IVDMD d,1 for Wimmera annual ryegrass was 0·005, 0·019 and 0·012 d,1 for accumulation periods 1, 2 and 3, respectively, while for Italian ryegrass cultivars Richmond was 0·015, 0·011, 0·02 and 0·012 d,1 and Concord was 0·014, 0·009, 0·013 and 0·01 d,1, for the 4 accumulation periods respectively. It is recommended that annual and Italian ryegrass pastures be harvested between 10% and 20% inflorescence emergence when IVDMD will exceed 0·70 regardless of cultivar and/or defoliation practice prior to the commencement of the accumulation period. [source]

    The effect of herbage allowance on daily intake by Creole heifers tethered on natural Dichanthium spp. pasture

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2000
    Two experiments were carried out in Guadeloupe to estimate the organic matter intake (OMI) and digestibility (OMD) of a Dichanthium spp. sward, grazed by tethered Creole heifers [mean live weight (LW) 202 ± 2·0 kg], at three daily herbage allowances. Experiment 1 examined herbage allowances of 16, 25 and 31 kg of dry matter (DM) d,1 on a fertilized sward at 21 days of regrowth whereas, in experiment 2, lower allowances of 11, 15 and 19 kg DM d,1 were examined on the same sward, which was unfertilized and grazed at 14 days of regrowth. In each experiment, the herbage was grazed with three groups of two heifers in a 3 × 3 Latin square design. Sward characteristics were described before grazing. OMI was calculated from total faecal output, and OMD was predicted from the crude protein (CP) content of the faeces. The amount of herbage defoliated by the heifers was also estimated on tillers selected at random. Organic matter intakes were on average 26 g and 19 g OM kg,1 LW, and OMD values were 0·740 and 0·665 for Experiments 1 and 2, respectively, and were not affected by allowance. In Experiment 1, the herbage quality was high [0·50 of leaf and 116 g CP kg,1 organic matter (OM)] for a tropical forage, whereas in Experiment 2, the quality of the herbage (0·27 of leaf and 73 g CP kg,1 OM) was lower. These differences were reflected in differences in intake and digestibility in the two experiments. The experimental tropical Dichanthium spp. swards can have intake characteristics similar to those of a temperate sward. [source]

    Nutritional quality of semi-arid grassland in western Spain over a 10-year period: changes in chemical composition of grasses, legumes and forbs

    GRASS & FORAGE SCIENCE, Issue 3 2000
    From 1987 to 1996, the nutritional quality of the main botanical components (grasses, legumes and forbs) in semi-arid grasslands in the dehesa ecosystem in western Spain was analysed. Herbage samples were collected at the end of spring, in 30 locations, at two different topographic positions (upper and lower slope zones). Herbage mass over 2 cm and proportion of botanical components were estimated and samples were analysed for crude protein, neutral-detergent fibre (NDF), hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin and in vitro dry matter digestibility (DMD). Analysis of variance revealed a significant effect of sampling year on the herbage mass, proportion of botanical components and their nutritional quality. The three botanical groups, grasses, legumes and forbs, followed similar year-to-year trends in their crude protein, cellulose and lignin contents and in vitro DMD. Herbage mass was not significantly related to any meteorological variables, suggesting that interannual variation in biomass production of botanically complex pastures cannot be explained by a single factor. However, annual precipitation was significantly related to the proportion of the botanical group that was dominant at each slope zone: grasses in the lower zone and forbs in the upper zone. In the upper zone, spring precipitation explained part of the interannual variation in the NDF, cellulose, lignin contents and in vitro DMD of the botanical components. [source]

    Feed and feeding quality of imported grass hays as evaluated by newly proposed grades

    GRASSLAND SCIENCE, Issue 2 2007
    Yoshitsugu Niwa
    Abstract In conjunction with investigating the quality of imported grass hays, the present study set out to develop an evaluation standard. A total of 123 hay samples were tested: 70 of timothy hay, 23 of sudangrass hay, 20 of oat hay and 10 of bermudagrass hay. Crude protein content, nitrogen cell wall free extract (NCWFE) content, Oa (organic a fraction in cell wall, non-lignified portion of cell wall) content and Ob (organic b fraction in cell wall, lignified portion of cell wall) content were measured for each sample, and the values of these were used as the basis for the determination of digestible carbohydrate content and dry matter intake (DMI). The variation in crude protein, NCWFE, Oa and Ob content within each grass species was large. The coefficients of variation for the chemical composition of all 123 samples were 24.9% for crude protein, 37.4% for NCWFE, 30.7% for Oa and 11.0% for Ob. Because variation in composition was large, variations in digestible carbohydrate content and DMI within each species were also large. On the basis of the mean values of chemical composition, it was determined that the harvesting period was after the flowering stage. Evaluation standards were set using a five-point scale (5, excellent; 4, good; 3, medium; 2, low; 1, poor), based on the 123 samples tested in the present study, using the mean values and standard deviations of chemical parameters, digestible carbohydrate content and DMI. Consequently, in assessing DMI (per bodyweight of 600 kg), a grade of 5 was given for values of 14.3 kg or higher, 4 for values between 11.5 and 14.3 kg, 3 for values between 8.7 and 11.5 kg, 2 for values between 5.9 and 8.7 kg, and 1 for values lower than 5.9 kg. [source]

    The effect of roasting on the nutritional and antioxidant properties of yellow and white maize varieties

    Ganiyu Oboh
    Summary Maize varieties (yellow and white) were roasted for 17 min; and allowed to cool, and later milled into powder. The nutritional evaluation (proximate composition, mineral and antinutrient content determination) and antioxidant properties investigation (reducing power, free radicals scavenging ability and Fe2+ chelating ability) of the product was subsequently carried out. The result of the study revealed that roasting caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) in the crude fat, carbohydrate, Ca, Na, Mg and Zn content. Conversely, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) was observed in crude protein, crude fibre, Fe and K content. A significant decrease in the phytate content was also observed. However, the reduced phytate content did not have sparing effect on Zn bioavailability. Roasting significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the extractible phenol and flavonoid content of the maize varieties. The antioxidant properties (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydracyl free radical scavenging ability and Fe2+ chelating ability) followed the phenolic content pattern. However, roasting caused a significant increase in the ferric reducing antioxidant power of the maize varieties. Thus, roasting reduced the protein content of maize but also increased the energy value and antioxidant capacity as exemplified by high reducing power. [source]

    Composition and functional properties of raw and electron beam-irradiated Mucuna pruriens seeds

    Rajeev Bhat
    Summary The proximate, nutritional and functional properties of raw and electron beam-irradiated (0,30 kGy) Mucuna seeds were investigated. Irradiation increased crude protein and crude carbohydrates significantly than crude lipid, crude fibre and energy. Raw seeds were rich in minerals and were not affected by irradiation except for magnesium and phosphorus. Amino acids of raw seeds were comparable to soyabean and FAO/WHO reference pattern and except for 30 kGy, no significant changes were seen in amino acid profile. Raw seeds were rich in unsaturated fatty acids and some of them decreased on irradiation, while linoleic acid steadily elevated (0,14.35 mg g,1 lipid). In vitro protein digestibility was dose dependent and significantly increased up to 15 kGy. Water and oil absorption capacities and foaming capacity significantly increased on irradiation, while protein solubility decreased (15 and 30 kGy) with an improvement of gelation property of seed flour. The cooking time of seeds significantly reduced on irradiation. [source]

    Comparison of some properties on the different types of pestil: a traditional product in Turkey

    Ozlem Cagindi
    Summary Pestil is a traditional dried fruit snack, which is consumed in Turkey. Wheat starch is mixed with different clarified fruit juices such as grape, mulberry, apricot or plum and cooked using traditional techniques. In this work the proximate chemical composition (moisture, ash, fat, crude protein and total carbohydrate), energy value and thickness of grape, apricot and mulberry pestils were investigated. The colour properties (Hunter L, a and b) were determined by a Minolta Chroma-Meter and the mineral content (Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Cu, Zn, Mn) of each product was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The carbohydrate value of pestil samples ranged between 73.7 and 82.4% and energy value was between 321.5 and 356.4 kcal 100 g,1. Mulberry pestil was a better source of energy than grape and apricot pestils. Apricot pestils were rich in calcium, sodium and zinc, and mulberry pestil samples were rich in magnesium. [source]

    Chemical characterization and protein quality evaluation of leaf protein concentrates from Glyricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala

    Johnson Oluwasola Agbede
    Summary Leaves and leaf protein concentrates (LPCs) from leaves of Glyricidia sepium and Leucaena leucocephala were analysed for chemical constituents. The protein quality of the LPC, with or without dl -methionine supplementation, was estimated by using sixty weanling albino rats. Glyricidia leaves contained higher crude protein and lower crude fibre than L. leucocephala leaves, while the ash values were identical. In the LPCs, crude protein showed a good balance of amino acids and nutritionally important minerals. The gross energy (GE) was only enhanced in the LPC of Glyricidia and, although tannin content was reduced in the LPCs, the phytate concentration increased. The rat bioassay did not suggest that, even when supplemented with dl -methionine, Glyricidia or Leucaena LPC would support rat growth when used as the sole sources of dietary protein. Based on the analytical and bioassay data, the nutritional potentials and limitations of these under-utilized protein resources are discussed. [source]

    Irrigation Level Affects Isoflavone Concentrations of Early Maturing Soya Bean Cultivars

    A. M. Al-Tawaha
    Abstract Field experiments were conducted in 2003/2004 in Québec to determine the effects of irrigation levels (none, low and high) and cultivars (AC Orford, AC Proteina and Golden) on soya bean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] isoflavone concentrations and yields. Seed yield, yield components, and oil and crude protein (CP) concentrations were concurrently determined. Response to irrigation was greater in 2003, which was substantially warmer and drier than in 2004. In both years, most responses were observed with the lower of the two irrigation levels evaluated, which increased total isoflavones concentration by an average of 45 % compared with a non-irrigated control. Cultivars, however, responded differently to irrigation. In 2003, response of AC Proteina was greater than that of AC Orford, while Golden did not respond. In 2004, some responses were observed with AC Proteina and Golden but none with AC Orford. Overall, in both years, AC Proteina had the greatest isoflavone concentrations and AC Orford the lowest. Responses of seed yield and yield components depended on the year and were also greater in 2003. Both irrigation treatments generally increased seed yield and yield components compared with a non-irrigated control; the response was greater with the higher irrigation level. Irrigation had no effect on oil and CP concentrations. Finally, isoflavone yield response to irrigation was again greater in 2003, and depended on the cultivar. Results thus demonstrate that specific soil moisture levels will maximize soya bean isoflavone concentrations, excess irrigation sometimes negating any potential benefits. [source]