Criminal Justice System (criminal + justice_system)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The Physician as Gatekeeper to the Use of Genetic Information in the Criminal Justice System

Samuel C. Seiden
First page of article [source]

Factors predicting arrest for homeless persons receiving integrated residential treatment for co-occurring disorders

Blake Barrett
Background,Homeless individuals are at increased risk for health and criminal justice problems. Aims,The aim of this study was to examine risk factors affecting arrest rates in a cohort of homeless people with co-occurring psychiatric and substance-abuse disorders. Methods,Baseline data were collected from 96 homeless individuals residing in a residential treatment facility for people with co-occurring disorders. Arrest data were obtained for 2 years following treatment intake. Regression analyses were employed to examine interactions between study variables. Results,One third of the sample was arrested during the 2-year follow-up period, principally for drug offences. People referred to treatment directly from the criminal justice system were four times more likely to re-offend than those referred from other sources. Participants' perceived need for mental-health services reduced risk of arrest while their perception of medical needs increased this risk. Conclusions,The relationship between referral from a criminal justice source and re-arrest after admission to the treatment facility is unsurprising, and consistent with previous literature, but the suggestion of an independently increased risk in the presence of perceived physical health-care needs is worthy of further study. The lower risk of arrest for people who perceive that they have psychological needs is encouraging. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Impact of assertive community treatment and client characteristics on criminal justice outcomes in dual disorder homeless individuals

Dr Robert J. Calsyn PhD
Background People with severe mental illness and substance use disorders (dual disorder) often have considerable contact with the criminal justice system. Aims To test the effects of client characteristics on six criminal justice outcomes among homeless (at intake) people with mental illness and substance misuse disorders. Methods The sample was of participants in a randomized controlled trial comparing standard treatment, assertive community treatment (ACT) and integrated treatment (IT). Data were analysed using hierarchical logistic regression. Results Half the sample was arrested and a quarter incarcerated during the two-year follow-up period. The regression models explained between 22% and 35% of the variance of the following criminal justice measures: (1) major offences, (2) minor offences, (3) substance-use-related offences, (4) incarcerations, (5) arrests, and (6) summons. Prior criminal behaviour was the strongest predictor of all of the dependent variables; in general, demographic and diagnostic variables were not. Similarly, neither the type nor the amount of mental health treatment received predicted subsequent criminal behaviour. Conclusion Elsewhere the authors have shown that ACT and IT had advantages for health and stability of accommodation but these analyses suggest that more specialized interventions are needed to reduce criminal behaviour in dual disorder individuals. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mental health patients in criminal justice populations: needs, treatment and criminal behaviour

J. Keene PhD Professor of Primary Care
Background Government policy requires that health and social care agencies work more closely together and in partnership with the criminal justice system. There is a well-established relationship between crime and mental disorder. Method The Tracking Project provides for the first time in England the means of collating and analysing data on mental disorder (defined as receiving secondary care as patients of a Mental Health Trust) and crime (defined as all those charged with an offence). Data were collected over a three-year period for all individuals who had contact with the criminal justice system and mental health services in an English county. Results In a county population of 800,400, some 30,329 were offenders. More than a third had used a health or social care service during the three-year period; 8.0% were mentally disordered. Those offenders aged 25,64 and who contacted the police more than once were significantly more likely to be mentally disordered. Type of offence was also a relevant variable. The probation service showed broadly similar results. Discussion The research has provided for the first time substantive quantitative evidence of the relationship between crime and mental disorder. The results can be used as the basis for further work to target assessment and risk reduction measures at those most at risk. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Developmental aspects of violence and the institutional response

Stephen BlumenthalArticle first published online: 14 MAR 200
Introduction The developmental and attachment literature on violence is reviewed. Violence is conceptualized as an attempt to achieve justice. The cycle of violence is explored with reference to the early experience of perpetrators and their treatment by the criminal justice system after they have committed acts of violence. Aetiology The origins of violence are considered in the context of the experience of trauma in childhood and the consequent damage to ,internal working models' of relationships. The perpetration of violence in later life is viewed in the context of identifying with the aggressor, the obliteration of thought processes and the repetition of the earlier childhood trauma. The offence is considered as a symptom, a symbolic communication, by individuals who are unable to symbolize distress on a verbal level. The institutional response The ,violence begets violence' hypothesis is then extended to include the response of society and its institutions as part of the full circle of the repetition compulsion: the childhood victim who later becomes a perpetrator, then again becomes the victim of a cruel and persecuting system. Incarceration is viewed as a ,compromise formation' in that it fulfils the wish both for punishment and for care, albeit in a highly disguised form and allowing for a defensive state of mind to continue. The therapeutic relationship These issues are considered in the context of the therapeutic relationship and the enactment of early trauma in this setting which may provide insight into the psychological processes at work between the offender and society. Conclusions Understanding violence indicates that, whilst some individuals need to be physically checked, a response which focuses on retribution fails to address the problem of violence and colludes with the very pathology of those who engage in such action. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


CRIMINOLOGY, Issue 4 2003
This paper examines the strained relationship between French police agencies and ethnic minorities and discusses evidence of ethnic discrimination by the police and the criminal justice system. Until recently, the idea that ethnic composition of a police force ought to reflect, to some degree, the community it polices, seemed odd in France. We argue that there are two main reasons for this viewpoint: first, a conception of the role of the police in the State as accountable to the government rather than to the citizens; secondly, a conception of Republic and citizenship denying any political significance to the personal identities of citizens. We conclude that ethnic diversification of police forces is but one aspect of a more encompassing struggle against discrimination that requires a degree of accommodation with the present legal and statistical invisibility of racial/ethnic groups. [source]


Research Summary: Clinicians and researchers have strongly recommended culturally-focused counseling with African-American men arrested for domestic violence. An experimental clinical trial tested the effectiveness of this approach against conventional cognitive-behavioral counseling in all-African-American groups and in racially-mixed groups (N = 501). No significant difference was found in the reassault rate reported by the men's female partners over a 12-month follow-up period (23% overall). During that period, men in the racially-mixed groups were, moreover, half as likely to be rearrested for domestic violence as the men in the culturally-focused groups. The men's level of racial identification did not significantly affect the outcomes of the counseling options. Policy Implications: Simply adding a culturally-focused counseling group to domestic violence programs does not seem in itself to improve outcomes. In the current study, the culturally-focused counseling was an appendage to an existing agency closely linked to the criminal justice system. Culturally-focused counseling may prove to be more effective within community-based organizations tied to local services and supports. [source]


Research Summary: Prior macro-level studies examining the impact of prison population growth on crime rates have produced widely varying results. Studies using national-level time series data find large impacts of prison growth on crime, whereas those using state panel data find more modest ones. Critics of the former studies maintain that the estimates are implausibly large, arguing that the effects are instead due to analysts' inability to control for potential confounding factors. Conversely, critics of the latter studies argue that they underestimate the total impacts of imprisonment by failing to account for potential free-riding effects. This study uses panel data for 58 Florida counties for 1980 to 2000 to reexamine the link between prison population growth and crime. Unlike previous studies, we find no evidence that increases in prison population growth covary with decreases in crime rates. Policy Implications: Our findings suggest that Florida policymakers carefully weigh the costs and benefits of their continued reliance on mass incarceration against the potential costs and benefits of alternatives. If the costs of mass incarceration do not return appreciable benefits, i.e., a reduction in crime, it is time to reconsider our approach to crime and punishment. Other research offers evidence of crime prevention programs operating inside the criminal justice system and in communities that hold promise for reducing crime; our findings indicate that policymakers carefully consider these options as a way to achieve their goals. [source]

Prison Theology: A Theology of Liberation, Hope and Justice

DIALOG, Issue 3 2008
Sadie Pounder
Abstract:, In our nation today, the number of prisons and prisoners continue to grow at rates that are out-of-control. One in 100 of our citizens is in jail or prison, the highest ratio in the world. Unlike the poor, homeless, critically ill, and elderly, those in prison are separated from us to the degree they are unseen. Unseen also, is the oppressiveness of the criminal justice system that oversees more than 6.5 million people either in confinement or on probation or parole. Liberation theology, which advocates and works toward freeing people from oppression, includes feminist, black, womanist and Latino/Hispanic movements. This article proposes prison theology as part of the liberation theology family and identifies a prison theology based on liberation, hope and justice. It encourages a prison theology movement led by the church to liberate those under the oppressiveness of the criminal justice system, especially those confined and to energize a passion for justice and compassion for the oppressed throughout the criminal justice system. [source]

Older criminals: a descriptive study of psychiatrically examined offenders in Sweden

Seena Fazel
Abstract Objective We retrospectively examined psychiatric diagnoses of older offenders referred by court for psychiatric assessment in Sweden, and compared them with younger offenders. Method In Sweden, structured court-ordered forensic psychiatric evaluations are undertaken by a forensic psychiatric team. Data on age, sex, citizenship, psychiatric diagnoses, offences, and legal insanity declarations were obtained for the years 1988,2000 (n=7297). Results There were 210 forensic psychiatric evaluations in those aged 60 and over. 7% had a diagnosis of dementia, 32% psychotic illness, 8% depressive or anxiety disorder, 15% substance abuse or dependence, and 20% personality disorder. Older offenders were significantly less likely to be diagnosed with schizophrenia or a personality disorder, and more likely to have dementia or an affective psychosis compared to younger ones. Logistic regression analyses suggested that of the studied factors, the ones most typical of older offenders were a diagnosis of dementia and being charged with a sexual offence. Conclusion There appear to be important differences in psychiatric morbidity between older offenders and younger ones who come into contact with forensic psychiatric services. This research may assist in the planning of forensic and therapeutic services for the increasing number of older adults passing through the criminal justice system. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Responsibilities of Criminal Justice Officials

abstract In recent years, political philosophers have hotly debated whether ordinary citizens have a general pro tanto moral obligation to follow the law. Contemporary philosophers have had less to say about the same question when applied to public officials. In this paper, I consider the latter question in the morally complex context of criminal justice. I argue that criminal justice officials have no general pro tanto moral obligation to adhere to the legal dictates and lawful rules of their offices. My claim diverges not only from the commonsense view about such officials, but also from the positions standardly taken in legal theory and political science debates, which presume there is some general obligation that must arise from legal norms and be reconciled with political realities. I defend my claim by highlighting the conceptual gap between the rigid, generalised, codified rules that define a criminal justice office and the special moral responsibilities of the various moral roles that may underpin that office (such as guard, guardian, healer, educator, mediator, counsellor, advocate, and carer). After addressing four objections to my view, I consider specific contexts in which criminal justice officials are obligated not to adhere to the demands of their offices. Amongst other things, the arguments advanced in this paper raise questions about both the distribution of formal discretion in the criminal justice system and the normative validity of some of the offices that presently exist in criminal justice systems. [source]

Responding to society's needs: Prescription privileges for psychologists

Mary Ann Norfleet
The health care revolution has contributed to the natural evolution of the role of psychologists. This has led to the necessity for future psychologists to have the authority to prescribe psychotropic medications in order to offer the best-available, comprehensive treatment to the public. Psychologists' training gives them a unique role in addressing the psychosocial aspects of medical problems, in collaboration with primary-care physicians. Prescribing psychologists are cost-effective, many practice in rural areas where people have no other access to mental health care, and they will be able to treat other underserved populations such as the poor, the elderly, the chronically mentally ill, children, and prisoners in the criminal justice system. Prescribing psychologists will have an increasingly prominent role in future health care policy decisions and practice. © 2002 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 58: 599,610, 2002. [source]

Why rape survivors participate in the criminal justice system,

Debra Patterson
After a rape, survivors may seek help from multiple community organizations including the criminal justice system (CJS). Research has found that few survivors report their assaults to the police and of those who do report, many withdraw their participation during the investigation. However, relatively little is known about the factors that lead survivors to participate in the CJS, and how other community services provided by forensic nurses or victim advocates may also help encourage survivor engagement. In the current study, 20 survivors who reported their victimizations to police within a large Midwest county were interviewed about the factors that influenced their involvement in the CJS. Further, we examined the role that the police, forensic nurses, and victim advocates played in their participation. Using qualitative analyses, our findings suggest that informal supports hold a strong role in the reporting process and formal supports are influential in survivors' engagement in the investigational process. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Autism in the criminal justice detention system: A review of the literature

Andrew Cashin RN, Cert PTT, Dip App Sci, FACMHN
Abstract Little is known about the experience of people with autism in custody. A review of the literature that explored the relationship between autism and criminality and the criminal justice detention system was conducted. Literature suggests that people with autism are potentially overrepresented within the criminal justice system. There is little research that has examined the experiences of people with autism spectrum disorders in custody. There is very little to guide service design to develop autism support services for people in prison. [source]

Forensic Investigation of Sex Crimes In Colombia

Nancy B. Cabelus
Victimization by sexual assault has become not only a public health and safety issue but a way of life for many in Colombia. Poverty, gender inequality, and a lack of family and community support contribute to the cycle of sexual violence. Ineffective medico-legal systems have added to a rate of 93% for sex crimes that go without arrest or prosecution in BogotŠ, the capital. Collaborative efforts are underway between the United States and Colombian governments to change the criminal justice system and strengthen forensic investigation of sex crimes in Colombia. [source]

Modified Shotguns in Turkey from 2006 to 2008

Aylin YalÁ, bey M.Sc., n Sar
Abstract:, This study investigates the legal status of modified shotguns in Turkey by examining the cases submitted to the Ayd,n Regional Criminal Laboratory between January 2006 and August 2008. A total of 351 shotguns used in crimes were examined. These guns were evaluated in respect of their type, size, caliber, fitness for use, and legal classification. Eleven percent of these shotguns had been modified and it was found that 55% of the modified shotguns were classified according to law 6136 and qualified as a pistol and 45% were classified according to law 2521 and qualified as nonstandard shotguns. Within the Turkish criminal justice system, a nonstandard shotgun attracts a less stringent sentence than a pistol. It would therefore appear that this sentencing structure is considered when modifying shotguns in Turkey. This is clearly a loop-hole in the legislation that could perhaps be investigated and closed. [source]

Offenders with intellectual disability: the size of the problem and therapeutic outcomes

P. Barron
Abstract Background People with intellectual disability (ID) who offend may be subject to a variety of disposals within the criminal justice system, or via diversion to health and social services in inpatient units or in community ID teams. Offenders with ID are a group with complex needs who may pose a recurrent risk to the public. Despite the significant number of offenders with ID, there is limited evidence on treatment effectiveness and outcomes. Methods A literature search of all electronic databases was undertaken, and journals were hand-searched for clinical trials or case studies of interventions for offenders with ID. The main outcome was recidivism rates. Results There were no published clinical trials of offenders with ID. A series of small-scale group cognitive-behavioural treatments for sex offenders offers the most persuasive evidence of success in reducing recidivism. Conclusion Offenders with ID often receive inadequate services as a result of poor identification through the criminal justice system and research into effective treatments is rudimentary. Further studies are necessary in order to improve treatment efficacy and service provision for a complex group of individuals. [source]

Victims' Rights in Criminal Trials: Prospects for Participation

Jonathan Doak
Victims in common law jurisdictions have traditionally been unable to participate in criminal trials for a number of structural and normative reasons. They are widely perceived as ,private parties' whose role should be confined to that of witnesses, and participatory rights for such third parties are rejected as a threat to the objective and public nature of the criminal justice system. However, recent years have witnessed both a major shift in attitude in relation to the role of victims within the criminal justice system and a breakdown in the public/ private divide in criminal justice discourse. This article considers the standing of the victim within the criminal trial against the backdrop of such changes, and examines the arguments for a more radical course of reform that would allow victims to participate actively in criminal hearings as they are able to do in many European jurisdictions. [source]

Who Cares About Disabled Victims of Crime?

Barriers, Facilitators for Redress
Abstract, The author identified and discusses barriers and facilitators for public action after the occurrence of abuse against an adult with an intellectual disability (ID). Data were collected via a postal survey sent to guardians in one Swedish region with questions about suspected abuse against their wards (n = 978), of whom 392 had an ID (the remaining were affected by dementia or had another physical or mental disability). The rate of abuse was 4.8% (n = 19) among those wards with an ID. A range of abuses were reported, but there were no significant statistical differences attributed by sex of the wards. Facilitating examples for redress in the statutory framework were identified, but it was observed that implementation of redress was often flawed. Three alternative public actions were discussed: (1) victims' refusal to contact the public sector; (2) internal handling by the social services; and (3) reporting to police (but case closed). Findings showed that there were difficulties in understanding that passive respect for integrity and autonomy is not in line with the public ethos that demands actively caring for dependent wards, that offences in residential settings were sometimes handled internally and not reported in accord with the statutory framework, and that the ability of the criminal justice system to compensate for communicative disabilities seemed deficient. [source]

Mental Disorders, Comorbidity, and Postrunaway Arrests Among Homeless and Runaway Adolescents

Xiaojin Chen
This study examined the associations between lifetime mental disorder, comorbidity, and self-reported postrunaway arrests among 428 (187 males, 241 females) homeless and runaway youth. The analysis examined the pattern of arrests across five lifetime mental disorders (alcohol abuse, drug abuse, conduct disorder, major depressive episode, and posttraumatic stress disorder). The adolescents, ranging from 16 to 19 years old, were interviewed directly on the streets and in shelters in four Midwestern states using computer-assisted personal interviewing. Extensive self-reports of early life history, behaviors since running away from home, and diagnostic interviewing (UM-CIDI and DISC-R) were used to estimate possible disorders. There was a high level of postrunaway arrests reported by the youth; more than half were arrested at least once after the initial runaway, with the average of 4.4 times. Consistent with the hypotheses, there were differential associations between individual mental disorders and involvement with the criminal justice system. Only externalizing disorders such as substance abuse and conduct disorder were related to arrest. Street youth with multiple externalizing and internalizing disorders were more likely to be arrested than nondisordered youths. [source]

The impact of criminal justice involvement on victims' mental health

Jim Parsons
The aftermath of violent crime can leave victims with persistent emotional and mental health problems. Although research has shown the potential benefits of prosecuting cases through the courts, there is also a substantial literature that suggests that common features of the criminal justice system can exacerbate the impact of the initial crime, leading to a secondary victimization. The authors present a review of the research on the positive and negative impact of criminal justice involvement, and common points of failure in the efforts of justice institutions to meet the needs of victims. They conclude with recommendations for future work, including the need for research on restorative justice, victim impact statements, court notification systems, victim services, and victim advocates. [source]

Beyond the Courtroom Workgroup: Caseworkers as the New Satellite of Social Control

LAW & POLICY, Issue 4 2009
Many jurisdictions nationwide are faced with overcrowded jails, backlogged court dockets, and high rates of recidivism for mostly nonviolent offenders. To address these complex problems, law enforcement officials have institutionalized alternatives to incarceration programs, including work furloughs, electronic monitoring, and treatment courts. These recent trends in legal reform are designed to reduce and prevent criminal behavior by helping to reintegrate defendants back into their local communities. One aspect that has been largely unaddressed in prior research is that jail-alternative programs are primarily staffed by caseworkers with outside nonprofit agencies. This important group of nonlegal actors plays a pivotal role in crafting decisions to divert low-level offenders from the criminal justice system; few studies, however, explore the organizational contexts surrounding caseworkers' everyday decision-making practices. In response, I draw upon ethnographic data to analyze the ways that pretrial release caseworkers in a California county evaluate defendants' entitlement to release on their own recognizance. The results of this study suggest that caseworkers exercise discretion beyond the traditional power structure of the courtroom workgroup. I conclude that caseworkers emerge as the new satellite of social control in contemporary courts. [source]

An Inside View: Professional Judges' and Lay Judges' Support for Mixed Tribunals

LAW & POLICY, Issue 2 2003
Sanja Kutnjak Ivkovi
This paper studies the level of specific and general support for mixed tribunals, a form of lay participation in the government. The analyses focus on the opinions provided by 229 Croatian lay judges and eighty professional judges , the insiders in mixed tribunals. The results indicate that the judge's lay or professional role in the criminal justice system and the type of court exhibit stronger influence on the general level of support than any of the variables measuring specific support. Nevertheless, the perceived frequency of lay judges' comments, the most direct measure of members' crucial activity during trials and deliberations among the specific variables included in the models, is significantly related to the respondents' general opinions about mixed tribunals. [source]

Persons with severe mental illness in jails and prisons: A review

H. Richard Lamb
One of the greatest problems of deinstitutionalization has been the very large number of persons with severe mental illness who have entered the criminal justice system instead of the mental health system. [source]

Socially Sanctioned Coercion Mechanisms for Addiction Treatment

Edgar P. Nace MD
Coercion as a strategy for treatment of addiction is an effective but often negatively perceived approach. The authors review current policies for involuntary commitments and explore coercive dimensions of treating alcohol and drug dependence in the workplace, sports, and through professional licensure. Gender-specific issues in coercion are considered, including evidence for improved treatment retention among pregnant and parenting women coerced via the criminal justice system. Social security disability benefits represent an area where an opportunity for constructive coercion was missed in the treatment of primary or comorbid substance use disorders. The availability of third-party funding for the voluntary treatment of individuals with substance use disorders has decreased. This unmet need, coupled with the evidence for positive clinical outcomes, highlights the call for implementing socially sanctioned mechanisms of coercion. [source]

Public Confidence in Criminal Justice: The Lessons from Miscarriages of Justice

Abstract: This article describes how the media understand miscarriages of justice, and how that understanding is distinct from the understanding of miscarriages of justice that determine the Court of Appeal's decisions and enable it to reach the conclusion that a conviction is unsafe. It demonstrates how at particular times the media construct a story of a ,crisis of public confidence' in the criminal justice system, how such a story is periodic and recurrent, and how attempts to control or reduce the likelihood of such a story being developed tend to be unsuccessful, or even counterproductive. [source]

,Time Out' for Women: Innovation in Scotland in a Context of Change

Abstract: The 218 Centre was set up following consistent concerns about the increasing number of women in prison in Scotland and the high-level needs of many of these women. It is an innovative and high-profile attempt to develop appropriate responses to women in the criminal justice system. It offers women an opportunity for ,time out' of their normal environment without resorting to ,time in' custody, providing both residential and community-based services. This article outlines some of the issues and challenges which characterised the early development and operation of the 218 Centre. It illustrates the ways in which some of the issues that arose during the evaluation resonate with current and ongoing debates within criminology, and draws attention to the difficulties in using the criminal justice system to address other issues. [source]

Sickle Cell Anaemia and Deaths in Custody in the UK and the USA

Sickle cell anaemia is a serious inherited blood disorder disproportionately affecting minority ethnic groups. Sickle cell trait is the genetic carrier state and not an illness. The evidence suggests that the treatment of sickle cell in the criminal justice system is twofold. Justice authorities have misused sickle cell trait to explain away ten sudden deaths, often associated with forced restraint, of African-Caribbean people in custody. Meanwhile, seven deaths have been attributable to lack of provision of health care for those prisoners suffering from the illness sickle cell anaemia. [source]

Cognitive-Behavioural Work with Offenders in the UK: A History of Influential Endeavour

Maurice Vanstone
Programmes premised on the cognitive-behavioural theoretical model have become an important feature of work with people who offend, and the model itself has become a cornerstone of the ,what works' enterprise in the United Kingdom. This has not occurred without critical attention from commentators in both the academic and practice worlds. This article attempts to draw together the strands of that debate, and provide a critical account of the recent history of the model's development and application within the criminal justice system that accords more significance to pioneering work in the United Kingdom than has been hitherto recognised. It is argued that one of the features of the response of the probation service to the pessimistic conclusions of research into the impact of community supervision in the 1970s was a divergence of policy and practice, the former redirecting the efforts of the service towards diversion from custody and the latter retaining its commitment to rehabilitation. While acknowledging the limitations of the cognitive-behavioural model, it is argued that by contributing positively to evidence-based, rehabilitative effort it has given impetus to a reunification of the focus of policy and practice. [source]

Does Community Service Rehabilitate better than Short-term Imprisonment?: Results of a Controlled Experiment

Martin Killias
Community service, along with other new sanctions, has been recommended in many Western countries as an alternative to incarceration over many years. Despite a rich literature on evaluations of so-called alternative sanctions, random assignment has only exceptionally been used in this field, and (short-term) imprisonment has never been an option in such designs. The present study tried to assess the comparative effects of community service and prison sentences of up to 14 days, through a controlled experiment in Switzerland in which 123 convicts have been randomly assigned. The results show no difference with respect to later employment history and social and private life circumstances. However, re-arrest by the police was more frequent among those randomly assigned to prison than among those selected for community service. Prisoners also developed more unfavourable attitudes towards their sentence and the criminal justice system. [source]