Criminal Behaviour (criminal + behaviour)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Behavioural Genetics: Why Eugenic Selection is Preferable to Enhancement

abstract Criminal behaviour is but one behavioural tendency for which a genetic influence has been suggested. Whilst this research certainly raises difficult ethical questions and is subject to scientific criticism, one recent research project suggests that for some families, criminal tendency might be predicted by genetics. In this paper, supposing this research is valid, we consider whether intervening in the criminal tendency of future children is ethically justifiable. We argue that, if avoidance of harm is a paramount consideration, such an intervention is acceptable when genetic selection is employed instead of genetic enhancement. Moreover, other moral problems in avoiding having children with a tendency to criminal behaviour, such as the prospect of social discrimination, can also be overcome. [source]

Association of criminal convictions between family members: Effects of siblings, fathers and mothers

Marieke van de Rakt
Background,Crime runs in families. Previous research has shown the existence of intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Aim,The aim of the present study was to investigate the extent to which variation in criminal convictions may be explained by the criminality of siblings and by the intergenerational transmission of criminal behaviour. Method,Data from the Dutch Criminal Career and Life-course Study (CCLS) were used to analyse cross-tabulations and to conduct multi-level logistic regression analyses. Results,The results indicate that criminal convictions of other family members are indeed correlated with individual conviction risk. The criminal history of siblings is most strongly correlated with the convictions of focal respondents. Results furthermore show that parental convictions only account modestly for the association of criminal convictions between siblings. Conclusions,These findings indicate that a direct influence between siblings is plausible, providing support for learning or imitation theories. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Appraising, researching and conceptualizing criminal thinking: a personal view

Background,It is argued that current interest in the concept of criminal thinking has its roots in traditional theories of criminology and criminal justice such as Sutherland's differential association model, neutralization theory, and Yochelson and Samenow's criminal personality. Aim,The purpose of this paper is to briefly review and summarize theory, research, and practice on criminal thinking as it relates to the author's work in this area. Conclusions,Three self-report inventories , the Criminal Sentiments Scale (CSS), the Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS), and the Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA); three principal areas of research , criminal thinking as a predictor of criminal behaviour, offence as a moderator of criminal thinking, and changes in criminal thinking leading to changes in criminal behaviour; and a general theory of criminal thinking are briefly reviewed in this paper. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Delinquency and the profile of offences among depressed and non-depressed adolescents

Background,Depression has previously been found to be closely connected to adolescent delinquency, but little is known about how depression is related to different types of delinquency. Aim,To investigate patterns of criminal behaviour according to depression among repeatedly delinquent adolescents. Method,The sample was 14- to 16-year-old repeatedly delinquent adolescents (n 3679) taking part in the Finnish School Health Promotion Study, surveyed for versatility and specialization of delinquency in relation to depression. Results,Patterns of criminal behaviour differed between depressed and non-depressed delinquent adolescents. The delinquent behaviour of depressed adolescents was more versatile than that of non-depressed adolescents who mainly specialized in one offence type. Non-depressed delinquent boys had most often specialized in violence. Most depressed delinquent boys had committed a variety of offences, but among those who did specialize the specialist category was violent offences. Non-depressed delinquent girls had specialized in shoplifting. Among depressed delinquent girls vandalism was the most typical offence. Conclusion,Differences in the delinquent behaviour of depressed and non-depressed delinquent adolescents suggest the value of including clinical assessment, and treatment for some, in an appropriately comprehensive pattern of management. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Impact of assertive community treatment and client characteristics on criminal justice outcomes in dual disorder homeless individuals

Dr Robert J. Calsyn PhD
Background People with severe mental illness and substance use disorders (dual disorder) often have considerable contact with the criminal justice system. Aims To test the effects of client characteristics on six criminal justice outcomes among homeless (at intake) people with mental illness and substance misuse disorders. Methods The sample was of participants in a randomized controlled trial comparing standard treatment, assertive community treatment (ACT) and integrated treatment (IT). Data were analysed using hierarchical logistic regression. Results Half the sample was arrested and a quarter incarcerated during the two-year follow-up period. The regression models explained between 22% and 35% of the variance of the following criminal justice measures: (1) major offences, (2) minor offences, (3) substance-use-related offences, (4) incarcerations, (5) arrests, and (6) summons. Prior criminal behaviour was the strongest predictor of all of the dependent variables; in general, demographic and diagnostic variables were not. Similarly, neither the type nor the amount of mental health treatment received predicted subsequent criminal behaviour. Conclusion Elsewhere the authors have shown that ACT and IT had advantages for health and stability of accommodation but these analyses suggest that more specialized interventions are needed to reduce criminal behaviour in dual disorder individuals. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Protective factors for youth considered at risk of criminal behaviour: does participation in extracurricular activities help?

Jodi M. Burton
Background There is a lack of research investigating the potential protective effect of participation in extracurricular activities on youth who are at risk of engaging in delinquent activity. Aim This study examined the potential for participation in extracurricular activities to act as a protective factor for youth deemed at risk of engaging in delinquent activity. Method One hundred and sixty-nine secondary students from Glasgow, Scotland completed two questionnaires (the Youth Self-Report and an additional information sheet) requesting information about their participation in extracurricular and delinquent activities as well as their possible risk factors. Activities included sports, non-sports (hobbies and games), current activities (youth clubs and other organisations) and previous involvement in activities. Risk factors included residing in a broken home, having four or more siblings, academic failure and lacking a nonparental very important person. Delinquent activities included rule-breaking and aggressive behaviours. Results Independent samplest-tests found that females participated in significantly more non-sports and previous activities than males and that males participated in significantly more rule-breaking behaviour than females. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that gender and participation in sports were strong predictors of rule-breaking behaviour. A significant positive correlation was found between participation in sports and involvement in aggressive behaviour. Conclusion The results suggest that participation in extracurricular activities does not act as a protective factor for youth, regardless of whether or not they are considered to be at risk of engaging in delinquent activity. The significant correlation found between participation in sports and involvement in aggressive behaviour suggests that youth participation in sports may act as a risk factor. Copyright © 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Precursors and correlates of criminal behaviour in women

Dr Julie Messer
Background The precursors and correlates of criminal behaviour in women were examined in this longitudinal study of women in their late thirties. Methods The sample consisted of a high-risk group of women (n = 86) and a comparison group ( n = 97): the former had been raised in institutional care. Questionnaire measures of childhood behaviour problems and detailed interview data from two time points in adulthood were obtained, along with official records of offending. Results In terms of childhood precursors, antisocial behaviour, institutional rearing, hyperactivity and adolescent conduct disorder were found to be significantly related to offending. Later adolescent factors were also found to be important: mixing with deviant peers and leaving school without any qualifications or plans for work. Correlates of offending in adulthood included difficulties in mental health, drug use, marriage and parenting. Further analysis was undertaken to clarify the associations by using ex-care status and conduct disorder as covariates. Discussion Well-established predictors of offending in male samples seem quite as important for women and girls. The findings also suggested strong links between offending and problems in parenting. Copyright © 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Mental health patients in criminal justice populations: needs, treatment and criminal behaviour

J. Keene PhD Professor of Primary Care
Background Government policy requires that health and social care agencies work more closely together and in partnership with the criminal justice system. There is a well-established relationship between crime and mental disorder. Method The Tracking Project provides for the first time in England the means of collating and analysing data on mental disorder (defined as receiving secondary care as patients of a Mental Health Trust) and crime (defined as all those charged with an offence). Data were collected over a three-year period for all individuals who had contact with the criminal justice system and mental health services in an English county. Results In a county population of 800,400, some 30,329 were offenders. More than a third had used a health or social care service during the three-year period; 8.0% were mentally disordered. Those offenders aged 25,64 and who contacted the police more than once were significantly more likely to be mentally disordered. Type of offence was also a relevant variable. The probation service showed broadly similar results. Discussion The research has provided for the first time substantive quantitative evidence of the relationship between crime and mental disorder. The results can be used as the basis for further work to target assessment and risk reduction measures at those most at risk. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Alcohol use and negative affect in the offence cycle

Andrew Day
Introduction It is commonly acknowledged that, for many offenders, alcohol use is strongly associated with criminal behaviour. The belief held by many professionals that the two phenomena are associated, probably in a causal way, has led to the inclusion of alcohol use as a ,criminogenic need' in many settings where rehabilitation programmes are used to reduce recidivism. However, the mechanisms and pathways involved in the alcohol,crime link remain poorly understood. Argument and conclusion This paper reviews the literature relating to alcohol,offending links and draws some inferences about the role of alcohol use as a criminogenic need in offender rehabilitation. It is proposed that the bi-directional relationship between alcohol use and negative affective states is important in understanding the offence cycle, and that deficits in self-regulation not only characterize both alcohol misuse and negative affect but are also implicated in the offending behaviour itself. Copyright © 2003 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Childhood predictors of adult criminality: are all risk factors reflected in childhood aggressiveness?

L. Rowell Huesmann
Background Early aggressive behaviour is one of the best predictors of adult criminality. Aim To assess the degree to which family background variables, parental beliefs and behaviour and child intelligence predict child aggression and adult criminality. Method Data were used from the Colombia County Longitudinal Study, a longitudinal study of 856 children in third grade in New York, in 1959,60. Adult measures of criminal behaviour, child measures taken at age eight, child peer-nominated aggression, child's peer-nominated popularity, child's IQ and parental measures at eight years were used. Results Aggressive children were less intelligent, less popular, rejected more by their parents, had parents who believed in punishment, were less identified with their parents' self-image and were less likely to express guilt. As adults, more aggressive children with parents who were less well educated, experienced more marital disharmony and who seldom attended church were most at risk for arrest. However, after the effect of early aggression was controlled, most effects disappeared and only parents having a strong belief in punishment added significantly to risk of arrest by age 30; the only fact that then reduced the risk of arrest was having parents who attended church often. Both parental authoritarianism and child IQ reduced the risk of conviction for arrested children. Discussion Level of aggression at age eight is the best predictor of criminal events over the next 22 years. A clear implication is that the risk for criminality is affected by much that happens to a boy before he is eight years old. Preventive interventions need to target risk factors that appear to influence the development of early aggression. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Does self-control account for the relationship between binge drinking and alcohol-related behaviours?

Alex R. Piquero
Introduction Gottfredson and Hirschi's theory that there is an underlying factor accounting for all sorts of antisocial behaviour has attracted widespread theoretical and empirical attention. One of their most controversial statements is a ,generality' hypothesis, a notion that criminal, deviant and reckless acts are highly correlated because they are caused by individual differences in self-control. In this paper, we examine the extent to which self-control accounts for the relationship between two behaviours: binge drinking and involvement in alcohol-related behaviours, including criminal behaviour. Method Questionnaires were given to students at a southern US university. A final sample of 241 students (35% males, 91% whites, aged 17,40). One question concerned binge-drinking, 11 others related to other alcohol-related behaviour; a 24-item scale measured self-control and sex was recorded. A probit model was used to test the effect of low self-control on binge drinking and on other alcohol-related behaviours. It was found that self-control exhibits a positive effect on both. But binge drinking and other alcohol-related behaviours are correlated, so a further analysis using a bivariate probit model was undertaken using a naïve model (no covariates), an unconstrained model (allowing self-control to exert a unique effect on both outcomes), and a constrained model forcing self-control to be the same for both outcomes. Results Our results suggest that while low self-control is a significant predictor of both binge drinking and alcohol-related problems, it does not fully account for the relationship between the two outcomes. In addition, separate estimation for each sex reveal a substantively different pattern of results. Discussion Further research is needed to disentangle the differences between the sexes. Situational factors, especially in males, may account for adverse alcohol-related behaviours. Other measures of self-control are also needed. Copyright © 2002 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Child behaviour and adult personality: comparisons between criminality groups in Finland and Sweden

Professor Lea Pulkkinen
Background; Lately there has been an increasing interest in whether personality traits are associated with criminal behaviour in male and female subjects. Criminality and alcohol abuse are often associated. Delinquent adolescents are impulsive and danger seeking. Childhood aggression may be a precursor of adult criminality. Method Using longitudinal data, adult personality and childhood behaviours were examined for groups of non-criminals and criminals of Finnish (n = 268) and Swedish (n + 169) samples, and crime groups were compared in the two cultures. Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP) were given at adult age and the participants had been observed and rated by their teachers in respect of behaviour in childhood (at age 8 years and 13 years, respectively). Results Male offenders with alcohol problems (Finnish and Swedish) had significantly higher scores on psychopathy-related personality traits in adulthood than other subgroups, as indicated by higher impulsivity, muscular tension and lower socialization. They also displayed higher scores on teacher-rated aggressiveness in childhood than the non-criminal groups. The female subgroup displaying criminal activity was small. It did not differ significantly from non-offenders in adult personality characteristics. Female offenders, however, showed early indications of lower sociability (in Finland) and higher aggressiveness and disharmony in childhood than non-offenders (in Sweden). Discussion The study suggests that early problem behaviours are precursors of subsequent criminal activity in at least two cultures. The results emphasize the importance of longitudinal research programmes. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Criminal cognitions and personality: what does the PICTS really measure?

Dr Vincent Egan
Introduction The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is a measure of the criminal cognitions and thinking styles that maintain offending. The scale comprises 8 a priori thinking styles and two validation scales, the validation scales having been found to be unreliable. Owing to the large amount of apparently shared variance in the original validation study, this data matrix needs re-analysis. Results from the PICTS were examined in relation to general measures of individual differences, in order to link the PICTS to the broader literature on the characteristics of offenders. Method The original PICTS data-matrix was re-analysed using a more parsimonious method of analysis. The PICYS was also given to 54 detained, mentally disordered offenders along with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS), the Attention Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA) and, as a measure of general intelligence, the Standard Progressive Matrices. Results Principal components analysis suggested that the PICTS really comprised two factors: a lack of thoughtfulness (i.e. lack of attention to one's experience), and wilful hostility, with the first factor being most well defined. Intelligence was not associated with any factor of criminal thinking style. High scores on the ADSA and Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility subscales of the SSS were associated with much greater endorsement of criminal sentiments; high Neuroticism, low Extroversion, and low Agreeableness were slightly lower correlates. Discussion The issues involved in criminogenic cognitions need clarification and to be linked to the broader literature on cognitive distortions and personality. Interventions targeted at dismantling impulsive destructive behaviour, whether it be thoughtlessness or wilful hostility, may be effected by increasing thinking skills, so breaking down the cognitions that maintain criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Drug misuse and acquisitive crime among clients recruited to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS)

Duncan Stewart
Background Criminal activity among drug-misusing populations can result in considerable costs. This paper examines the relationship between acquisitive criminal behaviour and drug use among a cohort of 1075 clients recruited to the National Treatment Outcome Research Study (NTORS). Method Clients were recruited from 54 drug misuse treatment programmes in England. A structured interview was administered by clinical staff. The majority of clients were opiate-dependent poly-drug users. Results 27 000 acquisitive criminal offences were reported by the cohort in the three months prior to starting treatment, of which shoplifting was the most common offence. There was marked variation in the amount of acquisitive crime reported; just 10% of the sample were responsible for three-quarters of the crimes committed. Two other groups were identified: low-rate offenders, and those who did not commit an acquisitive crime. Multivariate analyses revealed that frequency of illicit drug use was associated with increased levels of criminal behaviour. Compared with the no-crime group, the high-rate offenders were 11 times more likely to be regular users of heroin, and three times more likely to have used cocaine regularly. Discussion These findings suggest that the most dependent and problematic drug misusers present treatment services with the greatest challenge in terms of reducing levels of criminality. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Challenges to antagonist blockade during sustained-release naltrexone treatment

ADDICTION, Issue 9 2010
Nikolaj Kunøe
ABSTRACT Aims Naltrexone is a competitive opioid antagonist that effectively blocks the action of heroin and other opioid agonists. Sustained-release naltrexone formulations are now available that provide long-acting opioid blockade. This study investigates the use of heroin and other opioids among opioid-dependent patients receiving treatment with long-acting naltrexone implants, their subjective experience of drug ,high' after opioid use, and factors associated with opioid use. Methods Participants (n = 60) were opioid-dependent patients receiving treatment with naltrexone implants. Outcome data on substance use, drug ,high', depression and criminal activity were collected over a 6-month period. Blood samples were taken to monitor naltrexone plasma levels, and hair samples to verify self-reported opioid use. Findings More than half [n = 34 or 56%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 44,68%)] the patients challenged the blockade with illicit opioids during the 6-month treatment period; 44% (n = 26; 95% CI 32,56%) were abstinent from opioids. Mean opioid use was reduced from 18 [standard deviation (SD)13] days during the month preceding treatment to 6 days (SD 11) after 6 months. Of the respondents questioned on opioid ,high' (n = 31), nine patients (30%; 95% CI 16,47%) reported partial drug ,high' following illicit opioid use, and three (12%; 95% CI 3,26%) reported full ,high'. Opioid use was associated with use of non-opioid drugs and criminal behaviour. Conclusions Challenging naltrexone blockade with heroin on at least one occasion is common among sustained-release naltrexone patients, but only a minority of patients use opioids regularly. Challenges represent a warning sign for poor outcomes and often occur in the context of polydrug use and social adjustment problems. [source]

Mental health nurses: De facto police

Jacklin E. Fisher
ABSTRACT:, This paper examines the consequences for nursing staff and patients when police bring to hospital a person they assess to have a mental illness who exhibits violent or criminal behaviour. In particular, the impact on the nurse,patient relationship and the occupational health and safety of patients and staff is explored. Tensions between the conflicting roles for nurses of controlling the behaviour of this small minority of patients, while providing care and therapy, are examined within the context of health policy, bed shortages, and staffing problems. Recent Australian government and non-government reports are examined to assess the capacity of current health services in the State of New South Wales, to adequately and safely control behaviour while also provide therapeutic care for patients who are seeking help for their mental illness and emotional distress. [source]

Behavioural Genetics: Why Eugenic Selection is Preferable to Enhancement

abstract Criminal behaviour is but one behavioural tendency for which a genetic influence has been suggested. Whilst this research certainly raises difficult ethical questions and is subject to scientific criticism, one recent research project suggests that for some families, criminal tendency might be predicted by genetics. In this paper, supposing this research is valid, we consider whether intervening in the criminal tendency of future children is ethically justifiable. We argue that, if avoidance of harm is a paramount consideration, such an intervention is acceptable when genetic selection is employed instead of genetic enhancement. Moreover, other moral problems in avoiding having children with a tendency to criminal behaviour, such as the prospect of social discrimination, can also be overcome. [source]

To link or not to link: a test of the case linkage principles using serial car theft data

Matthew Tonkin
Abstract The purpose of the present study is to test the case linkage principles of behavioural consistency and behavioural distinctiveness using serial vehicle theft data. Data from 386 solved vehicle thefts committed by 193 offenders were analysed using Jaccard's, regression and Receiver Operating Characteristic analyses to determine whether objectively observable aspects of crime scene behaviour could be used to distinguish crimes committed by the same offender from those committed by different offenders. The findings indicate that spatial behaviour, specifically the distance between theft locations and between dump locations, is a highly consistent and distinctive aspect of vehicle theft behaviour; thus, intercrime and interdump distance represent the most useful aspects of vehicle theft for the purpose of case linkage analysis. The findings have theoretical and practical implications for understanding of criminal behaviour and for the development of decision-support tools to assist police investigation and apprehension of serial vehicle theft offenders. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

A latent Markov model for detecting patterns of criminal activity

Francesco Bartolucci
Summary., The paper investigates the problem of determining patterns of criminal behaviour from official criminal histories, concentrating on the variety and type of offending convictions. The analysis is carried out on the basis of a multivariate latent Markov model which allows for discrete covariates affecting the initial and the transition probabilities of the latent process. We also show some simplifications which reduce the number of parameters substantially; we include a Rasch-like parameterization of the conditional distribution of the response variables given the latent process and a constraint of partial homogeneity of the latent Markov chain. For the maximum likelihood estimation of the model we outline an EM algorithm based on recursions known in the hidden Markov literature, which make the estimation feasible also when the number of time occasions is large. Through this model, we analyse the conviction histories of a cohort of offenders who were born in England and Wales in 1953. The final model identifies five latent classes and specifies common transition probabilities for males and females between 5-year age periods, but with different initial probabilities. [source]

The association between substance use co-morbidity in adolescence and adult criminal behaviour

Ellen KjelsbergArticle first published online: 26 MAR 200
The impact of substance use co-morbidity in adolescence on criminal behaviour in adulthood was investigated in a long-term follow-up study of former adolescent psychiatric in-patients. A nationwide representative sample of 1,,095 adolescents (46% females) was followed up 15-33 years after admission to the National Centre for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Oslo, Norway. At index hospitalisation in adolescence, 32% fulfilled the DSM-IV criteria for a co-morbid substance use disorder (SUD). At follow-up, 63% of all males and 39% of all females had received a court conviction. SUD in adolescence seemed to be a sine qua non for later registered overall criminality in females but not in males. The association between substance use co-morbidity and later violent offending was strong in both genders. Substance use was closely associated with life-course-persistent criminality and more serious criminal careers in both genders. Substance use was also associated with increased mortality. Analysing secular trends in criminal activity during the last several decades, we found that substance use co-morbidity remained an independent predictor for violent and drug related offences in both genders after controlling for cohort membership. The findings could help identify high-risk populations in need of preventive interventions. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Murderers' and sexual offenders' experiences of police interviews and their inclination to admit or deny crimes,,

Ulf Holmberg M.D.
This research concerns murderers' and sexual offenders' experiences of Swedish police interviews and their attitudes towards allegations of these serious crimes. The explorative study is based on a questionnaire answered by 83 men convicted of murder or sexual offences. Results show that when police officers interview murderers and sexual offenders, the individuals perceive attitudes that are characterized by either dominance or humanity. Logistic regression shows that police interviews marked by dominance are mainly associated with a higher proportion of denials, whereas an approach marked by humanity is associated with admissions. When suspects feel that they are respected and acknowledged, they probably gain more confidence and mental space, allowing them to admit criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]