Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Adenocarcinoma

  • aggressive digital papillary adenocarcinoma
  • bowel adenocarcinoma
  • breast adenocarcinoma
  • cardia adenocarcinoma
  • cell adenocarcinoma
  • cervical adenocarcinoma
  • clear cell adenocarcinoma
  • clear-cell adenocarcinoma
  • colon adenocarcinoma
  • colonic adenocarcinoma
  • colorectal adenocarcinoma
  • differentiated adenocarcinoma
  • digital papillary adenocarcinoma
  • ductal adenocarcinoma
  • ductal pancreatic adenocarcinoma
  • endocervical adenocarcinoma
  • endometrial adenocarcinoma
  • endometrioid adenocarcinoma
  • esophageal adenocarcinoma
  • gastric adenocarcinoma
  • gastric cardia adenocarcinoma
  • gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma
  • human gastric adenocarcinoma
  • human lung adenocarcinoma
  • invasive adenocarcinoma
  • low-grade adenocarcinoma
  • lung adenocarcinoma
  • metastatic adenocarcinoma
  • mucinous adenocarcinoma
  • oesophageal adenocarcinoma
  • ovarian adenocarcinoma
  • pancreatic adenocarcinoma
  • pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
  • papillary adenocarcinoma
  • polymorphous low-grade adenocarcinoma
  • primary adenocarcinoma
  • primary lung adenocarcinoma
  • prostate adenocarcinoma
  • prostatic adenocarcinoma
  • pulmonary adenocarcinoma
  • rectal adenocarcinoma
  • serous adenocarcinoma
  • small bowel adenocarcinoma
  • uterine adenocarcinoma
  • well-differentiated adenocarcinoma

  • Terms modified by Adenocarcinoma

  • adenocarcinoma case
  • adenocarcinoma cell
  • adenocarcinoma cell line
  • adenocarcinoma component
  • adenocarcinoma metastatic
  • adenocarcinoma mixed subtype
  • adenocarcinoma patient
  • adenocarcinoma tissue

  • Selected Abstracts

    Grading of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus: substantial interobserver variation between general and gastrointestinal pathologists

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 7 2007
    M Kerkhof
    Aims:, To determine interobserver variation in grading of dysplasia in Barrett's oesophagus (BO) between non-expert general pathologists and expert gastrointestinal pathologists on the one hand and between expert pathologists on the other hand. Methods and results:, In this prospective multicentre study, non-expert and expert pathologists graded biopsy specimens of 920 patients with endoscopic BO, which were blindly reviewed by one member of a panel of expert pathologists (panel experts) and by a second panel expert in case of disagreement on dysplasia grade. Agreement between two of three pathologists was established as the final diagnosis. Analysis was performed by , statistics. Due to absence of intestinal metaplasia, 127/920 (14%) patients were excluded. The interobserver agreement for dysplasia [no dysplasia (ND) versus indefinite for dysplasia/low-grade dysplasia (IND/LGD) versus high-grade dysplasia (HGD)/adenocarcinoma (AC)] between non-experts and first panel experts and between initial experts and first panel experts was fair (, = 0.24 and ,,= 0.27, respectively), and substantial for differentiation of HGD/AC from ND/IND/LGD (, = 0.62 and ,,= 0.58, respectively). Conclusions:, There was considerable interobserver variability in the interpretation of ND or IND/LGD in BO between non-experts and experts, but also between expert pathologists. This suggests that less subjective markers are needed to determine the risk of developing AC in BO. [source]


    Kazuyoshi Yagi
    We have been using magnifying endoscopy with narrow band imaging (NBI) to study early differentiated gastric adenocarcinomas and to assess the relationship between microvessel pattern, pit pattern and histological pattern. The magnified view of the cancerous area showed three types of pattern: (i) a mesh pattern, consisting of mesh-like connected microvessels; (ii) a loop pattern, consisting of loop-like microvessels that were not connected and had tubule-like or villus-like mucosal structures along them; and (iii) an interrupted pattern, consisting of interrupted thick or thin vessels without mucosal structures. The mesh type of microvascular pattern showed a round pit pattern in 88.9% of cases (32/36) and the loop type of microvascular pattern showed a non-round pit pattern in 100% of cases. Among lesions that showed a mesh pattern or a loop pattern, 94.9% (56/59) were mucosal cancer and 5.1% (3/59) were submucosal cancer. However, 92.3% (12/13) of lesions that showed an interrupted pattern were submucosal differentiated adenocarcinoma and 7.7% (1/13) were mucosal differentiated adenocarcinoma. The present findings provide basic data on the characteristics of mucosal differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma revealed by magnifying endoscopy with NBI, as well as invasive changes such as submucosal invasion. [source]


    Junko Fujisaki
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Adenocarcinoma in colonic brushing cytology: High-grade dysplasia as a diagnostic pitfall

    Gordon H. Yu M.D.
    Abstract Cytologic evaluation of brushing specimens obtained from the colon may be useful in the diagnosis of neoplastic and inflammatory lesions, as previous studies have reported favorable sensitivity and specificity figures for this procedure. In this study, we report our experience with 80 colonic brushings examined over a 5-yr period. Thirty cases received an atypical or malignant cytologic diagnosis. Nineteen of 20 cases diagnosed cytologically as adenocarcinoma revealed adenocarcinoma on biopsy; one case showed only adenomatous epithelium on biopsy and subsequent resection. Cases diagnosed cytologically as "atypical" or "adenomatous" showed adenocarcinoma, adenoma, and inflammatory conditions upon biopsy. Slides from 30 atypical/malignant cases were retrospectively reviewed for a number of cytomorphologic features and were correlated with the histologic diagnosis. Cases from histologically confirmed adenocarcinoma tended to show greater degrees of altered nuclear polarity, nuclear pleomorphism, membrane irregularities, and chromatin pattern alterations than those from histologically proven adenomatous or inflammatory lesions. The most likely cause of a false-positive diagnosis in this setting is sampling of an adenoma with high-grade dysplasia which fails to meet histologic criteria for adenocarcinoma (invasion of the underlying muscularis mucosae). Thus, in the second part of the study, we examined histologic sections from surgically excised adenomas to determine the frequency with which profound nuclear atypia is at least focally present, potentially resulting in a false-positive cytology diagnosis upon brushing. Slides from 51 cases were reviewed; cytologic atypia beyond that typically observed in adenomas was not observed in 43% of cases. However, profound nuclear atypia was present in 6% of cases; cytologic evaluation of a brushing specimen from these lesions may have resulted in a false-positive diagnosis of adenocarcinoma, despite the histologic diagnosis of adenoma with severe dysplasia. The remaining cases demonstrated intermediate degrees of atypia. These findings serve to quantitate the frequency with which cytohistologic discrepancies might be expected for mass lesions of the colon. Diagn. Cytopathol. 24:364,368, 2001. © 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Adenocarcinoma of the esophagogastric junction: a summary of responses to a questionnaire on adenocarcinoma of the esophagus and the esophagogastric junction in Japan

    T. Nakamura
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Renal Adenocarcinoma with Intramyopericardial and Right Atrial Metastasis, Latter via Coronary Sinus: Report of a Case

    ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY, Issue 4 2005
    Morteza Rohani M.D.
    Primary renal tumors with intracardiac metastasis are not infrequent. Most of the secondary spread is blood-borne and occurs via inferior vena cava. Patients with such a spread often present with cardiac symptoms. We presume that a metastatic spread in the right atrium through coronary sinus has never been reported in the literature according to the result of a Medline search at the time of writing this report. [source]

    The diagnosis of dysplasia and malignancy in Barrett's oesophagus

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2000
    Barrett's metaplasia is associated with an increased risk for adenocarcinoma. Adenocarcinoma develops through a multistep process characterized by defects in genes and morphological abnormalities. The early morphological changes of the process are called ,dysplasia'. Dysplasia is defined as an unequivocal neoplastic (premalignant) transformation confined within the basement membrane. For most Western pathologists malignancy is defined as invasion and characterized by a breach through the basement membrane. Japanese pathologists rely on cytological atypia and complex branching of crypts. Cytological and architectural abnormalities allow identification of dysplasia on routinely stained sections. A distinction is made between low- and high-grade dysplasia. The differential diagnosis between low-grade dysplasia and reactive changes can be difficult. Therefore a second opinion is strongly recommended, not only for high-grade dysplasia but also for low-grade. Immunohistochemistry for p53 and flow cytometry for detection of aneuploidy can support the diagnosis. Identification of dysplasia and malignancy depends on the number of biopsy samples examined. The minimum number of biopsies required has not yet been determined and depends partly on the length of the metaplastic segment. It has been proposed to sample with four quadrant biopsies at 20-mm intervals. New endoscopic techniques can increase the diagnostic yield. Endoscopically visible lesions increase the risk of finding malignancy. The time sequence for the progression of dysplasia is not known but progression from low- to high-grade and cancer has been shown to occur over a period of years although it may not be inevitable. [source]

    Importance of C16 ceramide accumulation during apoptosis in prostate cancer cells

    Aim:, Adenocarcinoma of the prostate is one of the most frequently diagnosed non-cutaneous cancers and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths among men in the United States. To fully understand the role of ceramide during apoptosis induced by androgen ablation, we modified the levels of intracellular ceramide by pharmacological agents as well as through serum deprivation in androgen-dependent and independent cell lines. Methods:, Ceramide levels were modified using N-oleoylethanolamine (NOE), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) as well as through serum deprivation, in LNCaP, DU145 and PC-3 prostate cancer cells. Various methods including nonyl acridine orange staining, propidium iodide staining/cell cycle analysis and lipid analysis were utilized. Results:, Our results demonstrate that the inhibition of acid ceramidase by NOE enhances the intracellular ceramide levels induced by androgen ablation in androgen-dependent LNCaP cells, and is accompanied by an increase in apoptotic cells. Sphingosine 1-phosphate had no effect in rescuing LNCaP cells from apoptosis induced by androgen ablation. Our results also show that serum deprivation causes intracellular ceramide accumulation and apoptosis in androgen-independent prostate cancer cells. Conclusions:, Our studies indicate that the increase in intracellular ceramide itself, but not the balance between ceramide and S1P, determines whether LNCaP cells undergo apoptosis. Our results also show that the increase in intracellular ceramide strongly correlates with apoptosis induced by serum deprivation even in androgen-independent prostate cancer cell lines. [source]

    Adenocarcinoma arising from a mature cystic teratoma of the testis

    Abstract A 52-year-old male diagnosed pathologically with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the skin was referred to our department. Physical examination revealed a right scrotal mass the size of child's head and several skin tumors. Right high orchiectomy and resection of skin tumors were performed. Histopathological examination revealed a well-differentiated, mucinous adenocarcinoma originating from the gastrointestinal epithelium in a mature cystic teratoma (dermoid cyst) of the testis and metastatic mucinous adenocarcinoma of the skin. We made a diagnosis of teratoma with malignant transformation (TMT) of the testis. Combination chemotherapy with low-dose cisplatin/5,-deoxy-5-fluorouridine (CDDP/5,-DFUR) was initiated, but the patient died 8 months after orchiectomy. At autopsy, similar mucinous adenocarcinoma of the testis and the skin were observed at the metastatic sites. [source]

    Adenocarcinoma of the female urethral diverticulum treated by multimodality therapy

    Abstract A 75-year-old female presented with a 7-month history of intermittent macrohematuria and urinary retention. Physical examination revealed a firm, round mass on the anterior vaginal wall. The diagnosis by urethroscopy and radiological evaluation was localized urethral diverticular tumor. Pathological examination of the biopsy specimen revealed adenocarcinoma. The patient received two courses of intra-arterial and systemic chemotherapy using cisplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin, followed by radiation to the urethra. The tumor shrunk markedly after chemotherapy. The patient underwent total urethrectomy and vesicostomy. Two years after the operation, she had no evidence of recurrence. Adenocarcinoma of the female urethral diverticulum is rare and has been treated by surgery and/or radiation. The present case is the first case of it being treated by multimodality therapy including chemotherapy. [source]

    Adenocarcinoma arising from respiratory ciliated epithelium in benign cystic teratoma of the ovary: A case report with analyzes of the CT, MRI, and pathological findings

    Tetsuro Yahata
    Abstract The malignant transformation of mature cystic teratoma is rare, thus occurring in only 1,2% of all cases. The most common malignancy arising in mature cystic teratoma is squamous cell carcinoma. Adenocarcinoma occurs with less frequency. We herein present a patient with an ovarian mature cystic teratoma who demonstrated a malignant transformation to well-differentiated adenocarcinoma. Malignant transformation was diagnosed preoperatively by contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Microscopically and immunohistochemically, the adenocarcinoma was considered to have arisen from the ciliated respiratory epithelium. After a 28-month of follow-up period, she remains free of the disease. This is the third reported case of adenocarcinoma arising in the respiratory epithelium of an ovarian mature cystic teratoma. Contrast enhanced CT and MRI are useful for making a preoperative diagnosis and an immunohistochemical study is helpful for defining its origin. [source]

    Mucinous adenocarcinoma of the temporal region initially diagnosed as temporomandibular disorders: a case report

    Kousuke Honda
    Adenocarcinoma occurring in the temporal region has not previously been reported. We present a case of mucinous adenocarcinoma of the temporal region. A 62-year-old female patient was diagnosed as having temporomandibular disorders because of severe trismus and joint pain. Although trismus progressively worsened, there were no abnormal findings on diagnostic imaging studies including magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and bone scintigraphy. As swelling of the temporal region was observed, biopsy was performed. Histologic examination showed chronic inflammation of the striated muscle. Approximately 6 months later, follow-up MRI demonstrated an ill-defined mass lesion in the infratemporal region extending to the intracranium. Histologic diagnosis of the biopsy showed that this mass lesion was moderately differentiated mucinous adenocarcinoma. [source]

    The effects of RANK blockade and osteoclast depletion in a model of pure osteoblastic prostate cancer metastasis in bone

    Peter G. Whang
    Abstract Adenocarcinoma of the prostate exhibits a clear propensity for bone and is associated with the formation of osteoblastic metastases. It has previously been suggested that osteoclast activity may be necessary for the development of these osteoblastic metastases based on data from lytic and mixed lytic-blastic tumors. Here we investigate the effects of complete in vivo osteoclast depletion via the blockade of receptor activator of NF:,B (RANK) on the establishment and progression of purely osteoblastic (LAPC-9 cells) bone lesions induced by human prostate cancer cells using a SCID mouse intratibial injection model. The subcutaneous administration of the RANK antagonist (15 mg/kg) RANK:Fc did not prevent the formation of purely osteoblastic lesions, indicating that osteoclasts may not be essential to the initial development of osteoblastic metastases. However, RANK:Fc protein appeared to inhibit the progression of established osteoblastic lesions, suggesting that osteoclasts may be involved in the subsequent growth of these tumors once they are already present. In contrast, RANK:Fc treatment effectively blocked the establishment and progression of purely osteolytic lesions formed by PC-3 cells, which served as a positive control. These results indicate that in vivo RANK blockade may not be effective for the prevention of osteoblastic metastasis but may potentially represent a novel therapy that limits the growth of established metastatic CaP lesions in bone. © 2005 Published by Elsevier Ltd. on behalf of Orthopaedic Research Society. [source]

    Isolated Breast Metastases from Primary Gastric Adenocarcinoma

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 1 2000
    Dahlia M. Sataloff MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Adenocarcinoma of the prostate immunostained for carbohydrate antigen 125 and carcinoembryonic antigen

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 3 2003
    H. Kiyokawa
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Concurrent endometrial carcinoma in women with a biopsy diagnosis of atypical endometrial hyperplasia,

    CANCER, Issue 4 2006
    A Gynecologic Oncology Group study
    Abstract BACKGROUND Adenocarcinoma of the endometrium is the most common gynecologic malignancy in the United States, accounting for approximately 36,000 diagnoses of invasive carcinoma annually. The most common histologic type, endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EC), accounts for 75,80% of patients. The objective of this work was to estimate the prevalence of concurrent carcinoma in women with a biopsy diagnosis of the precursor lesion, atypical endometrial hyperplasia (AEH). METHODS This prospective cohort study included women who had a community diagnosis of AEH. Diagnostic biopsy specimens were reviewed independently by three gynecologic pathologists who used International Society of Gynecologic Pathologists/World Health Organization criteria. Study participants underwent hysterectomy within 12 weeks of entry onto protocol without interval treatment. The hysterectomy slides also were reviewed by the study pathologists, and their findings were used in the subsequent analyses. RESULTS Between November 1998 and June 2003, 306 women were enrolled on the study. Of these, 17 women were not included in the analysis: Two patients had unreadable slides because of poor processing or insufficient tissue, 2 patients had only slides that were not endometrial, the slides for 5 patients were not available for review, and 8 of the hysterectomy specimens were excluded because they showed evidence of interval intervention, either progestin effect or ablation. In total, 289 patients were included in the current analysis. The study panel review of the AEH biopsy specimens was interpreted as follows: 74 of 289 specimens (25.6%) were diagnosed as less than AEH, 115 of 289 specimens (39.8%) were diagnosed as AEH, and 84 of 289 specimens (29.1%) were diagnosed as endometrial carcinoma. In 5.5% (16 of 289 specimens), there was no consensus on the biopsy diagnosis. The rate of concurrent endometrial carcinoma for analyzed specimens was 42.6% (123 of 289 specimens). Of these, 30.9% (38 of 123 specimens) were myoinvasive, and 10.6% (13 of 123 specimens) involved the outer 50% of the myometrium. Among the women who had hysterectomy specimens with carcinoma, 14 of 74 women (18.9%) had a study panel biopsy consensus diagnosis of less than AEH, 45 of 115 women (39.1%) had a study panel biopsy consensus diagnosis of AEH, and 54 of 84 women (64.3%) had a study panel diagnosis of carcinoma. Among women who had no consensus in their biopsy diagnosis, 10 of 16 women (62.5%) had carcinoma in their hysterectomy specimens. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of endometrial carcinoma in patients who had a community hospital biopsy diagnosis of AEH was high (42.6%). When considering management strategies for women who have a biopsy diagnosis of AEH, clinicians and patients should take into account the considerable rate of concurrent carcinoma. Cancer 2006. © 2006 American Cancer Society. [source]

    Mortality trends for cervical squamous and adenocarcinoma in the United States,

    CANCER, Issue 6 2005
    Relation to incidence, survival
    Abstract BACKGROUND In the United States, detection of squamous carcinoma in situ (CIS) by screening has led to reduced rates for invasive squamous carcinoma and lower mortality. Adenocarcinoma in situ (AIS) rates also have increased, but invasive cervical adenocarcinoma rates have not declined similarly. To make inferences about the effectiveness of screening, the authors assessed mortality trends for squamous and adenocarcinoma in relation to incidence of these tumors, incidence of their precursors and survival. METHODS Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program (SEER), the authors tabulated incidence per 105 woman-years for invasive carcinomas (1976,2000) and for CIS and AIS (1976,1995) by age (< 50 years, , 50 years) and race (whites, blacks). Cumulative relative survival rates were tabulated for 1976,1995 and mortality rates were estimated for 1986,2000. RESULTS Among all groups, CIS rates approximately doubled whereas rates for invasive squamous carcinoma declined. Among younger whites, mortality declined from 1.12 to 0.93, and for older whites, mortality decreased from 5.02 to 3.82. Among younger blacks, mortality for squamous carcinoma decreased from 2.69 to 1.96. Among older blacks, the mortality rates declined from 14.88 to 9.15. Although AIS rates have increased dramatically among whites (all ages) and younger blacks, adenocarcinoma incidence and mortality rates have not changed greatly. Survival for patients did not change greatly within these age-race groups. CONCLUSIONS The authors concluded that increases in CIS seemed disproportionately large compared with improvements in mortality rates for squamous carcinoma. Despite increased reporting of AIS, declines in mortality for cervical adenocarcinoma have not been demonstrated conclusively. However, future analyses are required to evaluate these trends more completely. Cancer 2005. Published 2005 by the American Cancer Society. [source]

    HER2 Is Frequently Over-expressed in Ovarian Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma: Possible Novel Treatment Modality Using Recombinant Monoclonal Antibody against HER2, Trastuzumab

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 11 2002
    Masaki Fujimura
    Ovarian clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA) is generally chemo-resistant. Recently the poor prognosis and resistance to chemotherapeutic agents of HER2/neu over-expressing tumors have become clear. Thus, we investigated the expression level of HER2 in surgically resected CCA and ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and mucinous adenocarcinoma specimens, as well as CCA cell lines, by an immunohistochemical method. HER2 was over-expressed in 42.9% of CCA (P=0.026, vs. ovarian serous adenocarcinoma), 20.8% of ovarian serous adenocarcinoma, 23.1% of ovarian endometrioid adenocarcinoma, and 30.0% of mucinous adenocarcinoma specimens. Three CCA cell lines, RMG-1, HAC-II and KK were also positively stained for HER2. A flow-cytometric study of HER2 revealed 7.2-, 6.4- and 4.5-fold greater expression of HER2 than that of normal mammary gland, respectively. Trastuzumab, a humanized recombinant monoclonal antibody against HER2 significantly and dose-dependently reduced the growth of CCA cell lines in vitro. The extent of the inhibitory effect of trastuzumab was dependent on the expression level of HER2. Trastuzumab also dose-dependently inhibited the growth of xenografted RMG-1 tumor. The survival period of trastuzumab-treated mice was longer than that of the control group. From these findings, trastuzumab appears to be a candidate as a treatment modality for HER2 over-expressing ovarian CCA. [source]

    Allelotype Analysis of Common Epithelial Ovarian Cancers with Special Reference to Comparison between Clear Cell Adenocarcinoma with Other Histological Types

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 7 2002
    Satoshi Okada
    Determination of the histological type of epithelial ovarian cancer is clinically important to predict patient prognosis. To estimate accurately the chromosomal regions that frequently show loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in each histological type, LOH at 55 loci on 38 chromosomal arms was examined by means of laser capture microdissection and PCR-LOH analysis in 45 epithelial ovarian cancers composed of clear cell adenocarcinoma (CCA), serous adenocarcinoma (SEA), endometrioid adenocarcinoma (EMA) and mucinous adenocarcinoma (MUA). In addition, p53 (exons 5,8) gene mutations and the nuclear immunoreactivity of p53 proteins in these tumors were examined by PCR-SSCP and immunohistochemistry. In CCA, LOH was detected primarily on 1p (69%) followed by 19p (45%) and 11q (43%). On the other hand, in SEA, LOH was detected in at least 50% of cases on 1p, 4p, 5q, 6p, 8p, 9q, 12q, 13q, 15q, 16p, 17p, 17q, 18p, 18q, 19p, 20p and Xp. The incidences of LOH on 5q, 12q, 13q and 17p were significantly lower in CCA than in SEA (P=0.019, 0.031, 0.0035 and 0.012). EMA showed a tendency for frequent LOH on 7p, whereas MUA showed significantly high occurrence of LOH at 17p13.1. The incidences of p53 mutation and p53 nuclear immunoreactivity also differed between CCA and SEA: 0% and 7% in the former and 64% and 45% in the latter (P=0.0006 and 0.039). These findings clarify that there are differences in LOH distribution patterns among different histological subtypes of epithelial ovarian cancer. In CCA, p53 tumor-suppressor gene (TSG) is not involved in carcinogenesis and tumor-suppressor genes located on 1p are considered to play an important role in tumor development. [source]

    Uterine Adenocarcinoma in N -Ethyl- N -nitro- N -nitrosoguanidine-treated Rats with High-dose Exposure to p-tert-Octylphenol during Adulthood

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2002
    Shin-ichi Katsuda
    Since many risk factors are associated with the development of uterine adenocarcinomas in humans, the etiology is unclear in most cases, although it has been pointed out that estrogen may play essential roles. To clarify the effects of exposure to p-tert-octylphenol (OP), an environmental xenoestrogen, on uterine carcinogenesis, adult Donryu rats were initiated with a single intrauterine treatment of N -ethyl- N -nitro- N -nitrosoguanidine (ENNG) at 11 weeks of age and exposed thereafter to 100 mg/kg OP by s.c. injection until 15 months of age. Adult ovariectomized (OVX) rats were also treated in a similar way. OP had no effect on occurrence of persistent estrus in middle age, although uterotrophic effects were obvious in OVX rats. At the termination, development of uterine adenocarcinomas was significantly increased in animals exposed to OP during adulthood. No tumors, but a few focal hyperplasias, developed in OVX rats. These findings suggest that OP has tumor-promoting effects on ENNG-treated endometrium of rats, possibly due to direct action on the uterus, as indicated by the uterotrophic effect when a high dose of OP was given. The results provide clues to the mechanisms of influence of hormonal disrupters on uterine carcinogenesis. [source]

    Inactivation of O6 -Methylguanine-DNA Methyltransferase in Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Relates to High-grade Histology and Worse Prognosis among Smokers

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2002
    Hiroyuki Hayashi
    To evaluate the significance of O6 -methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) activity in the development of human lung adenocarcinoma (AC), we investigated promoter hypermethylation of the MGMTx gene by methylation-specific PCR, and the expression of MGMT protein by immuno-histochemistry in relation to smoking history of the patients. In total, 31 of 87 AC patients (35.5%) showed hypermethylation of the MGMT gene, and no significant difference was observed between smokers (37.3%) and non-smokers (33.3%). However, hypermethylation of the MGMT gene increased in parallel with lesser differentiation grade of tumors among smokers (well, 16.7%; moderately, 42.1%; poorly, 57.1%; P=0.022), although this trend was not observed among non-smokers. Almost all the tumors with promoter hypermethylation of the MGMT gene showed consistently negative MGMT staining by immunohistochemistry. When the prognosis of stage-I patients was compared among smokers, it was apparent that the prognosis of patients with inactivated MGMT was worse than that of MGMT-positive patients (P=0.036). Such differences in the prognoses were not observed among non-smokers. In conclusion, MGMT inactivation is related to the differentiation grade and the prognosis of lung AC patients among smokers. Although further studies are required, we speculate that smoking may induce hypermethylation, not only of the MGMT gene, but also of other important tumor suppressor genes. [source]

    Enhanced Formation of Azoxymethane-induced Colorectal Adenocarcinoma in ,, T Lymphocyte-deficient Mice

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 8 2001
    Shunji Matsuda
    T cell receptor (TCR) ,, -positive T lymphocytes, which are localized mostly within the intraepithe-lial space of intestinal epithelium, have been suggested to play a role in maintaining the normal configuration of intestinal epithelium. However, the role of TCR,, -positive T lymphocytes in the formation and progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma that originates from colorectal epithelial cells remains to be elucidated. In this study, TCR,, and TCR,, -positive T lymphocyte-deficient mice (homozygous TCR, and TCR,-gene knockout mice) and the background wild-type mice were administered azoxymethane, and the formation of macroscopic tumors and microscopic aberrant crypt foci in colorectal mucosa were compared among the three types of mice. Well-differentiated adenocarcinoma appeared 5 months after 5 administrations of azoxymethane (10 mg/kg weight) only in a few TCR,-gene knockout mice and the frequency of the carcinoma-bearing mice was increased at 7 and 9 months after the administration. Aberrant crypt foci were also detected in the colorectal mucosa of TCR,-gene knockout mice to a greater extent than in colorectal mucosa of TCR,-gene knockout mice 1 month after the azoxymethane administration. These results suggest that TCR,, -positive T lymphocytes, which are present mainly in the intraepithelial space, play a role in suppression of the formation and progression of colorectal adenocarcinoma in mice. [source]

    Establishment of Cell Lines with High- and Low-metastatic Potential from PC-14 Human Lung Adenocarcinoma

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2001
    Nobuko Shindo-Okada
    This article reports the establishment of variant cell lines with high and low metastatic potential by repeated selection and the dilution plating technique. Five clones with high metastatic potential, Lu-2, Lu-7, Lu-4, Lu-1 and Lu-5, and four clones with low metastatic potential, 3S, 7S, 8S and 13S, were established from PC-14 human lung adenocarcinoma. The high-metastatic cell lines produced enhanced lung metastases, but the low-metastatic cell lines did not produce lung metastasis by injection into the tail vein of 5-week-old BALB/c nude mice. The high-metastatic cell lines produced enhanced tumors on both visceral and parietal pleurae, and enhanced metastases to the mediastinum and contralateral pleural cavity. The low-metastatic cell lines produced reduced tumors on both visceral and parietal pleurae and reduced metastases to the mediastinum and contralateral pleural cavity after injection into the left preceral cavity of the nude mice. When the nine variant cell lines and original PC-14 cells were embedded in collagen gels, the PC-14 cells and the low-metastatic cell lines gave rise to colonies with a dendritic morphology, and cells were tightly associated. The high-metastatic cell lines were more loosely associated and scattered into three-dimensional colonies. These nine cloned cell lines originated from heterogeneous populations of the parental PC-14 cells should be useful tools for studying the process of metastasis of lung cancer. [source]

    Adenocarcinoma complicating restorative proctocolectomy for ulcerative colitis with mucosectomy performed by Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator®

    COLORECTAL DISEASE, Issue 4 2009
    B. C. Branco
    Abstract This is a report of adenocarcinoma arising in an ileal pouch after restorative proctocolectomy (RPC) with rectal mucosal stripping performed by Cavitron Ultrasonic Surgical Aspirator (CUSA®) for ulcerative colitis. The CUSA® was introduced to simplify and optimize ileal pouch,anal anastomosis with mucosectomy and has been shown to shorten the operative time and reduce blood loss. Its use however, may increase the number of pathology specimens made uninterpretable on account of tissue ablation. In the present case, even though preoperative colonoscopy had clearly shown dysplasia, the surgical pathology report could not detect any neoplasia in the specimen; hence, the patient was not surveyed for pouch cancer. Six years later, the patient presented with intestinal obstruction caused by cancer. While protocols for universal pouch surveillance remain somewhat controversial, we conclude on the basis of this case and a review of the literature that in RPC with mucosectomy performed by CUSA®, pouch cancer surveillance is particularly important because remnants of rectal epithelium may have been left behind and tissue ablation may have made the surgical pathology report uninterpretable. [source]

    Dextran sodium sulfate strongly promotes colorectal carcinogenesis in ApcMin/+ mice: Inflammatory stimuli by dextran sodium sulfate results in development of multiple colonic neoplasms

    Takuji Tanaka
    Abstract The mouse model for familial adenomatous polyposis, ApcMin/+ mouse, contains a truncating mutation in the Apc gene and spontaneously develops numerous adenomas in the small intestine but few in the large bowel. Our study investigated whether dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) treatment promotes the development of colonic neoplasms in ApcMin/+ mice. ApcMin/+ and Apc+/+ mice of both sexes were exposed to 2% dextran sodium sulfate in drinking water for 7 days, followed by no further treatment for 4 weeks. Immunohistochemistry for cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, ,-catenin, p53, and nitrotyrosine, and mutations of ,- catenin and K- ras and loss of wild-type allele of the Apc gene in the colonic lesions were examined. Sequential observation of female ApcMin/+ mice that received DSS was also performed up to week 5. At week 5, numerous colonic neoplasms developed in male and female ApcMin/+ mice but did not develop in Apc+/+ mice. Adenocarcinomas developed in ApcMin/+ mice that received DSS showed loss of heterozygosity of Apc and no mutations in the ,- catenin and K- ras genes. The treatment also significantly increased the number of small intestinal polyps. Sequential observation revealed increase in the incidences of colonic neoplasms and dysplastic crypts in female ApcMin/+ mice given DSS. DSS treatment increased inflammation scores, associated with high intensity staining of ,-catenin, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase and nitrotyrosine. Interestingly, strong nuclear staining of p53 was specifically observed in colonic lesions of ApcMin/+ mice treated with DSS. Our results suggest a strong promotion effect of DSS in the intestinal carcinogenesis of ApcMin/+ mice. The findings also suggest that strong oxidative/nitrosative stress caused by DSS-induced inflammation may contribute to the colonic neoplasms development. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Cross-Sectional Imaging Characteristics of Pituitary Adenomas, Invasive Adenomas and Adenocarcinomas in Dogs: 33 Cases (1988,2006)

    Rachel E. Pollard
    Background: Pituitary tumors in dogs can be adenomas, invasive adenomas, or adenocarcinomas. In people, invasive adenomas and pituitary adenocarcinomas carry a worse prognosis than adenomas. Hypothesis/Objective: To identify differentiating features on cross-sectional imaging in dogs with pituitary adenomas, invasive adenomas, and adenocarcinomas. Animals: Thirty-three dogs that had computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed and a necropsy diagnosis of pituitary adenoma (n= 20), invasive adenoma (n= 11), or adenocarcinoma (n= 2). Methods: Medical records were retrospectively reviewed for signalment, history, and diagnosis. CT and MR images were reviewed for characteristics of pituitary tumors. Results: Mean (± standard deviation) age for dogs with pituitary adenomas (10.6 ± 2.9 years) was greater than that of those with invasive adenomas (8.3 ± 2.7 years, P= .04). Eighteen out of 20 (90%) dogs with adenomas had contrast-enhancing masses. Thirteen out of 20 (65%) had homogeneous enhancement. Mean adenoma height was 1.2 ± 0.7 cm. Eight out of 20 (40%) adenomas were round and 8/20 (40%) compressed surrounding brain. Eleven out of 11 dogs (100%) with invasive adenomas had contrast-enhancing masses. Seven out of 11 (64%) masses were homogeneous. Mean invasive adenoma height was 1.8 ± 0.7 cm, which was significantly greater than adenomas (P= .03). Mass shape varied from round to oval to irregular. Six out of 11 (55%) masses compressed surrounding brain. Clinical and imaging features were variable for 2 dogs with adenocarcinomas. Conclusions and Clinical Relevance: Invasive adenoma should be suspected if a dog with a pituitary tumor is <7.7 years of age and has a mass >1.9 cm in vertical height. Adenocarcinomas are uncommon and metastatic lesions were not seen with imaging. [source]

    Occupation and risk of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma,

    Lawrence S. Engel PhD
    Abstract Background Adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia have risen dramatically in incidence over the past few decades, however, little research has been conducted on the occupational risk factors for these cancers. Methods In this population-based case-control study, lifetime job histories were compared between cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma (n,=,283), gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (n,=,259), and population controls (n,=,689). Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for ever employment and by duration in various occupational and industrial categories were calculated using unconditional logistic regression. Results The risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma was elevated for persons ever employed in administrative support (OR,=,1.5; 95%CI,=,1.0,2.1); financial, insurance, and real estate (OR,=,1.6; 95%CI,=,1.0,2.4); and health services (OR,=,2.2; 95%CI,=,1.2,3.9). The risk of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma was increased among transportation workers (OR,=,1.7; 95%CI,=,1.1,2.6), as well as among carpenters (OR,=,1.8; 95%CI,=,0.9,3.9) and workers in the furniture manufacturing industry (OR,=,2.4; 95%CI,=,0.9,6.3). However, we observed few duration,response relations between length of employment in any category and cancer risk. Conclusions This study revealed associations of esophageal adenocarcinoma with employment in administrative support, health services, and a category of financial, insurance, and real estate industries, and of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma with transportation and certain woodworking occupations. Some of these findings may be due to the play of chance associated with the multiple comparisons made in this study. Our results suggest that, overall, workplace exposures play a minor role in the etiology and upward trend of esophageal and gastric cardia adenocarcinomas. Am. J. Ind. Med. 42:11,22, 2002. Published 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Chemokine Receptor CXCR4 is More Frequently Expressed in Breast Compared to Other Metastatic Adenocarcinomas in Effusions

    THE BREAST JOURNAL, Issue 5 2008
    Ben Davidson MD
    Abstract:, This objective of this study was to investigate the expression of chemokine receptors in tumor cells and leukocytes in breast carcinoma effusions. The expression of leukocyte markers (CD3/4/8/14/16/19) and chemokine receptors (CXCR1/4, CCR2/5/7) was studied in 21 breast carcinoma effusions using flow cytometry. Breast carcinoma cells expressed CXCR4 in 7/21 (33%) effusions, with less frequent expression of CXCR1, CCR5, and CCR7. CXCR2 and CCR2 were absent. Lymphocytes showed frequent CXCR4, CCR5, and CCR7 expression, while CXCR1, CXCR2, CCR2 were rarely or never detected. Macrophages expressed all six receptors except for CXCR2. Comparative analysis of breast carcinoma effusions with previously studied ovarian and cervical/endometrial adenocarcinomas (ACs) showed significantly higher CXCR4 expression in breast carcinoma cells compared to the other gynecological ACs (p = 0.001). Breast and cervical/endometrial carcinoma effusions showed different expression of chemokine receptors in lymphocytes (lower CXCR1, higher CXCR4 and CCR7 levels; p = 0.012, p = 0.005, p < 0.001, respectively) and macrophages (higher CCR7 levels; p < 0.001), as well as lower CD8 counts (p < 0.001) and higher CD19 counts (p = 0.001) compared to ovarian carcinoma effusions. Higher numbers of CD8-positive lymphocytes (p = 0.080) and higher CCR7 monocyte expression (p = 0.087) were associated with a trend for shorter disease-free survival. In conclusion, breast carcinoma cells express CXCR4, a unique feature among metastatic ACs in effusions, with rare expression of other chemokine receptors. Chemokine receptor expression in leukocytes and lymphocyte counts significantly differ from those of ovarian carcinoma effusions. The prognostic role of CCR7 expression in monocytes and CD8 counts in breast carcinoma effusions merits further research. [source]

    Small bowel tumours: a 10 year experience in four sydney teaching hospitals

    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 9 2004
    David S. Rangiah
    Background: Small bowel tumours are uncommon and can have a long delay prior to diagnosis. The present study aims to compare the use of computed tomography (CT) and contrast small bowel series (SBS) in their diagnosis and to outline the clinical features of small bowel tumours. Methods: A retrospective, case note study was conducted between 1990 and 2000 in four Sydney teaching hospitals. The data collected included clinical features, investigations and tumour characteristics. Results: One hundred and sixty-six people with small bowel tumours were identified (91 malignant; 75 benign). Malignant tumours consisted of adenocarcinomas (31%), carcinoid tumours (12%), lymphomas (7%) and leiomyosarcomas (5%). Benign tumours consisted of adenomas (22%), hamartomas (13%), leiomyomas (4%), inflammatory polyps (4%) and hyperplastic polyps (2%) and a benign schwannoma (1%). Adenocarcinomas were mainly located in the duodenum (P < 0.001) and carcinoid tumours in the ileum (P < 0.001). Malignant tumours were associated with a higher proportion of symptoms (P < 0.01), signs (P < 0.001) and episodes of small bowel obstruction (P < 0.01). Abdominal CT scans demonstrated a greater sensitivity (87.7%) than SBS (72.9%) with a slightly improved sensitivity when both investigations were used (89.3%). Abdominal ultrasound had a lower sensitivity than both of the above investigations of 65%. Gastroduodenoscopy had a sensitivity of 90% for diagnosing duodenal tumours. Operative procedures were performed on 92 patients with a preoperative diagnosis made in 77%. Metastatic spread of malignant tumours was evident in 46%. The sites of spread were to lymph nodes (23%), liver (21%) and distant locations (2%) at diagnosis. Conclusions: Malignant small bowel tumours are more likely to produce symptoms and signs than benign tumours, particularly caused by small bowel obstruction. Abdominal CT is the best radiological investigation for small bowel tumours and has a slight complimentary effect with SBS in improving the chances of detection. Gastroduodenoscopy remains the best investigation of duodenal tumours. [source]

    Sole Expression of Laminin ,hain in Invading Tumor Cells and Its Association with Stromal Fibrosis in Lung Adenocarcinomas

    CANCER SCIENCE, Issue 2 2001
    Yuumi Kagesato
    Laminin-5 (LN-5), an important basement membrane (BM) protein consisting of laminin ,3, ,3 and ,2 chains, has been suggested to be involved in tumor cell invasion and tissue repair. In this study, the distribution of the LN-5 subunits in atypical adenomatous hyperplasia (AAH)and different types of adenocarcinomas of the lung was examined by immunohistochemical analysis. In AAH and non-sclerosing, well-differentiated adenocarcinomas, the LN ,2 chain was frequently detected along with the continuous BMs. These BMs were also positive for both LN,3 and ,3 chains, suggesting that LN-5 had been deposited. In contrast, the cytoplasmic staining for the LN,2 chain was frequently observed in tumor cells of sclerosing, well-differentiated adenocarcinomas, as well as of moderately and poorly differentiated adenocarcinomas, without any evidence of co-expression of the LN,3 and ,3 chains. This staining pattern of the LN,2 chain was prominent in carcinoma cells invading into interstitial stroma and was associated with the formation of a central scar in the tumor tissues. These results suggest that the LN,2 chain monomer could be an important indicator of progression of lung adenocarcinoma. [source]