Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Coping

  • active coping
  • adaptive coping
  • adequate coping
  • avoidance coping
  • disengagement coping
  • emotion-focused coping
  • maladaptive coping
  • parental coping
  • positive religious coping
  • problem-focused coping
  • religious coping
  • repressive coping

  • Terms modified by Coping

  • coping ability
  • coping behavior
  • coping behaviour
  • coping effort
  • coping inventory
  • coping mechanism
  • coping methods
  • coping process
  • coping questionnaire
  • coping repertoire
  • coping resource
  • coping response
  • coping scale
  • coping skill
  • coping strategy
  • coping strategy used
  • coping style
  • coping theory

  • Selected Abstracts


    ABSTRACT:,This article examines how urbanism and local governance address group differences in cities of nationalistic conflict. I investigate four settings,Basque Country and Barcelona (Spain) and Sarajevo and Mostar (Bosnia-Herzegovina),that have experienced intergroup conflict, war, and major societal transformations. Findings come primarily from over 100 interviews with urban professionals (both governmental and nongovernmental), community officials, academics, and political leaders in these cities. I find that urban areas can constitute unique and essential peace-building resources that can be used to transcend nationalist divides. Urban interventions aimed at creating inter-group coexistence can play distinct roles in societal peace building and constitute a bottom-up approach that supplements and catalyzes top-down diplomatic peace-making efforts. I discuss why some cities play a progressive role in shaping new societal paths while others do not, how this peace-constitutive city function is actualized, and how this type of urbanism can be misplaced or neglected. [source]


    The paper derives and compares historical and real-time estimates of the UK natural unemployment rate and shows that real-time estimates are fraught with noise and should be treated with scepticism. A counterfactual exercise shows that, for most of the 1990s, the Bank of England tracked changes in the natural rate relatively successfully, albeit with some recognition lag which, at times, might have led to excessively cautious policy. A careful scrutiny of the minutes of the monetary policy committee meetings reveals that such ,cautiousness' should be taken as evidence of awareness of the real-time informational limitations that monetary policy is facing. [source]

    Coping With Missing Attribute Values Based on Closest Fit in Preterm Birth Data: A Rough Set Approach

    Jerzy W. Grzymala-Busse
    Data mining is frequently applied to data sets with missing attribute values. A new approach to missing attribute values, called closest fit, is introduced in this paper. In this approach, for a given case (example) with a missing attribute value we search for another case that is as similar as possible to the given case. Cases can be considered as vectors of attribute values. The search is for the case that has as many as possible identical attribute values for symbolic attributes, or as the smallest possible value differences for numerical attributes. There are two possible ways to conduct a search: within the same class (concept) as the case with the missing attribute values, or for the entire set of all cases. For comparison, we also experimented with another approach to missing attribute values, where the missing values are replaced by the most common value of the attribute for symbolic attributes or by the average value for numerical attributes. All algorithms were implemented in the system OOMIS. Our experiments were performed on the preterm birth data sets provided by the Duke University Medical Center. [source]

    Coping with plagiarism and grading load: Randomized programming assignments and reflective grading

    Diomidis Spinellis
    Abstract Programming assignments often suffer from plagiarism and lack of feedback. The Jarpeb system creates individually randomized assignments, grades the students' programs by utilizing Java's reflective evaluation capabilities, and allows students to submit their grade through the web by signing their grade with a cryptographically strong checksum. Jarpeb's empirical evaluation included as the dependent variables important learners' dimensions: plagiarism, understanding, learning, fairness, difficulty, fun, and interest. The results indicate that Jarpeb contributes to the reduction of plagiarism, increases the understanding, and learning of the course subject while also increasing the perceived fairness, fun, and interest of the learners. The system, however, proved to increase the difficulty of the related exercises. We discuss the implications for educators and outline specific future research directions. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ. 15: 113,123, 2007; Published online in Wiley InterScience (; DOI 10.1002/cae.20096 [source]

    Coping with Crisis,Smoke, Drought, Flood and Currency: Iban Households in West Kalimantan, Indonesia

    Professor Reed L. Wadley
    First page of article [source]

    Urban Service Partnerships, ,Street-Level Bureaucrats' and Environmental Sanitation in Kumasi and Accra, Ghana: Coping with Organisational Change in the Public Bureaucracy

    Richard Crook
    This is an empirical case study of ,street-level' officials in a classic ,regulatory' public agency: the Environmental Health Department in Kumasi and Accra, Ghana, where privatisation and contracting-out of sanitary services have imposed new ways of working on Environmental Health Officers. Both internal and external organisational relationships are analysed to explain the extent to which these officers have adapted to more ,client-oriented' ways of working. Their positive organizational culture is credited with much of the positive results achieved, but was not sufficient to cope with the negative impact of politically protected privatisations on the officials' ability to enforce standards. Nor could it entirely overcome the deficiencies in training and incentive structures which should have accompanied the changes in service delivery. [source]

    Development and validation of the Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ) to assess obstacles in living with Type 2 diabetes

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 8 2007
    H. Hearnshaw
    Abstract Aims To develop and validate an easy-to-use questionnaire to identify obstacles to self management in Type 2 diabetes. Methods The Diabetes Obstacles Questionnaire (DOQ) was developed from earlier research and the literature. It was completed by 180 people with Type 2 diabetes, recruited from 22 general practices in the UK. Responders also completed a quality-of-life questionnaire (ADDQoL) and the Problem Areas in Diabetes (PAID) scale. Results From analysis of the 176 usable questionnaires, 36 items of the original 113 items were deemed redundant. The remaining 77 items were assembled into eight sub-scales covering Medication, Self Monitoring, Knowledge and Beliefs, Diagnosis, Relationships with Health-Care Professionals, Lifestyle Changes, Coping, and Advice and Support. Each sub-scale had a factor structure of no more than three factors, had Cronbach's alpha of more than 0.75, and a Kaiser,Meyer,Olkin of more than 0.75. Each sub-scale correlated significantly with the PAID scale (P < 0.01), demonstrating criterion validity. Construct validity was shown by significant correlation between HbA1c and the sub-scales which relate to managing blood glucose levels: Self Monitoring, Relationship with Health-Care Professionals, Lifestyle Changes and Coping. Construct validity was further shown by significant correlation between QoL scores and Medication, Lifestyle Changes and Coping. Discussion The DOQ, comprising eight sub-scales, is a usable, valid instrument for both clinical and research settings. It helps to identify in detail the obstacles which an individual finds in living with Type 2 diabetes. [source]

    Coping with academic failure, a study of Dutch children with dyslexia

    DYSLEXIA, Issue 4 2008
    Elly Singer
    Abstract This paper reports the results of a study of strategies that Dutch children with dyslexia employ to cope with recurrent academic failure. All of the students in the study had developed strategies for protecting their self-esteem. Using Harter's theory of coping with discrepancies between performance and standards, we distinguish four strategies: (1) working hard and committing to standards, (2) lowering standards, (3) seeking support from significant others (i.e. parents and teachers), and (4) avoiding comparisons with significant others (i.e. peers). Although self-talk emerged as an important component of all four strategies, it was employed both adaptively (e.g. to preserve the students' belief in their own academic capacities) and maladaptively (e.g. to devalue the importance of learning). The students relied most strongly on support from their parents; teachers and peers were more likely to be seen as threats to self-esteem. Strategies of teachers and parents to encourage adaptive coping with recurrent academic failure are confirming the student's self-worth, explaining dyslexia, showing faith in the student's capacities, fostering adaptive self-talk, providing educational treatment, and preventing teasing and bullying. Besides that, teachers and parents should cooperate. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Coping with Rational Prodigals: A Theory of Social Security and Savings Subsidies

    ECONOMICA, Issue 289 2006
    The rational prodigality argument, which often serves to justify social security, is considered in a second-best tax framework with endogenous labour supply. Rational prodigality renders the familiar policies time-inconsistent. I analyse time-consistent policies and show that a wage tax suffices to rule out prodigality as a rational strategy. However, by using savings subsidies the solution can be improved upon. The subsidies are shown to be decreasing in income. A social security system with increasing contributions is not needed in either case. [source]

    Patients' health beliefs and coping prior to autologous peripheral stem cell transplantation

    E. FRICK md
    The aim of this study was to determine the associations between health locus of control (LoC), causal attributions and coping in tumour patients prior to autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation. Patients completed the Questionnaire of Health Related Control Expectancies, the Questionnaire of Personal Illness Causes (QPIC), and the Freiburg Questionnaire of Coping with Illness. A total of 126 patients (45% women; 54% suffering from a multiple myeloma, 29% from non-Hodgkin lymphomas, and 17% from other malignancies) participated in the study. Cluster analysis yielded four LoC clusters: ,fatalistic external', ,powerful others', ,yeah-sayer' and ,double external'. Self-blaming QPIC items were positively correlated with depressive coping, and ,fate or destiny' attributions with religious coping (P < 0.001). The highest scores were found for ,active coping' in the LoC clusters ,powerful others' and ,yeah-sayer'. External LoC and an active coping style prevail before undergoing autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation, whereas the depressive coping is less frequent, associated with self-blaming causal attributions. Health beliefs include causal and control attributions, which can improve or impair the patient's adjustment. A mixture between internal and external attributions seems to be most adaptive. [source]

    To what extent does frontal type executive impairment affect coping strategies in Parkinson's disease?

    S. Montel
    Background and purpose:, Given the frequency of executive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD), we wonder to what extent this fact might influence the coping strategies which are used. Methods:, A total of 135 PD patients with no dementia were divided into two groups according to their cognitive status (,with frontal type executive impairment' or ,without frontal type executive executive impairment'). All patients were seen for a semi-structured interview to collect sociodemographic and clinical information and to assess their cognitive and mental states (DSM-IV-TR, frontal assessment battery and Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale). Then, all patients completed two self-report questionnaires concerning their coping strategies (Ways of Coping Checklist and Coping with Health, Injuries and Problems Scale). Results:, After controlling the depression, we noticed a significant effect of cognitive status on positive re-evaluation (P = 0.02). Interestingly, except for instrumental strategies, patients with frontal type executive impairment used significantly more coping strategies than did patients without frontal type executive impairment. Conclusion:, Our results suggest that neither executive impairment nor depression prevents patients from using coping strategies extensively. [source]

    Coping as a mediator between personality and stress outcomes: a longitudinal study with cataract surgery patients

    Nina Knoll
    Personality and coping were specified as predictors of emotional outcomes of a mildly stressful medical procedure. Situation-specific coping was examined in contrast to dispositional coping, and it was tested whether one or the other would mediate the relationship between higher-order personality factors and stress outcomes. Cataract patients (N=110) participated at four measurement points in time during a six-week period surrounding their scheduled surgery. Dispositional coping did not mediate the personality,outcome relationship. In contrast, situation-specific coping acquired a mediator status between personality and adaptational criteria and accounted for independent outcome variance once personality traits were included as predictors in the models. Thus, the data suggest that whether or not coping mediates between personality factors and affective outcomes may be related to the methodological approaches of its operationalization. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Attachment to "Place" and Coping with Losses in Changed Communities: A Paradox for Aging Adults

    Christine C. Cook
    This article explores the meaning of place and connection to location among aging adults in America's Heartland. Focus groups were conducted in a rural and urban county with participants age 65 to 84 years, and age 85 years and older. A keen sense of place among participants was revealed, poignantly portrayed as "loss" among rural participants who described changes to the landscape, economic restructuring, and the loss of farming as a way of life. Changes in urban settings were depicted as a shrinking of space over which participants' exerted control (e.g., steering clear of freeway driving, limiting driving at night, traversing well-known surface streets). These losses in community are balanced against a strong desire to age in place in familiar settings in which there are known social and resource connections. The investigation illustrates the power of place for aging adults, and the need to recognize its importance in public policy, practice, advocacy, and research. [source]

    Coherent Accounts of Coping with a Chronic Illness: Convergences and Divergences in Family Measurement Using a Narrative Analysis

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2003
    Researchers and clinicians have shown increasing interest in family narratives as an avenue for accessing the family meaning-making process. In this study, we examine the convergences and divergences between narrative assessment, family self-report, and verbal accounts of family climate. Sixty-two families with a child with pediatric asthma were interviewed about the impact that asthma had on family life. These interviews were coded for narrative coherence, relationship expectations, and engagement with the interviewer. Primary caregivers were also interviewed using the Five Minute Speech sample (FMSS) and completed self-report assessments of family functioning (Family Assessment Device [FAD] Impact on the Family Scale [IOF]). Contrary to prediction. Narrative coherence was higher in those cases where Emotional Over-involvement (EOI) was present on the FMSS. Narrative coherence and engagement with the interviewer were positively related to self-report of family problem solving, communication, and affective responsiveness as measured on the FAD. Divergences and convergences between different types of family measurement are discussed in light of meaning-making processes associated with coping with a chronic illness. [source]

    Do Parental Stressors and Avoidance Coping Mediate Between Parental Depression and Offspring Depression?

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2010
    A 23-Year Follow-Up
    We examined whether parents' stressors and avoidance coping when offspring were children helped to explain associations between parent depression at baseline and offspring's avoidance coping and depression in adulthood. Self-report data were collected at baseline and 1 year from parents (N = 326) and at 23 years from adult offspring (N = 326). Associations between parents' depression symptoms at baseline, and their adult offspring's depression symptoms and avoidance coping 23 years later, were partially explained by parents' reliance on avoidance coping in response to negative events at 1 year after baseline. [source]

    Dimensions of Ambiguous Loss in Couples Coping With Mild Cognitive Impairment,

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2007
    Rosemary Blieszner
    Abstract: We applied the theory of ambiguous loss to couples with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), an age-related decline in memory and other cognitive processes assumed not to interfere with daily activities or the maintenance of personal relationships. Face-to-face interviews with 67 older married couples revealed that lack of understanding about the behavioral manifestations of MCI resulted in much ambiguity in their lives. Fluctuations in the elders' functioning required spouses to alter their daily activities and responsibilities. As a result, couples often experienced distress that affected their emotional involvement with one another. Findings advance theoretical implications of ambiguous loss and provide educators and practitioners with suggestions for working with couples experiencing mild memory loss. [source]

    Coping with job stress in industries: A cognitive approach

    Sun-Kyu Lee
    This study examined the roles of the coping strategies used by individuals to cope with job stress. The coping strategy was formed throughout the cognitive appraisal of the stressful events. It was found that direct action coping strategy shows negative relations with job stressors, whereas there are positive relations between stressors and other coping strategies. This implies that direct action coping strategy is used to alleviate the job stress by affirmatively changing the deleterious effects of job stressors in the work environment, while other coping strategies led to the positive impact on job stress or negative impact on job performance. To secure the usability and applicability of the model in practice, more considerations in the future should be made on the mediating variables such as personality type and social support, which are possible variables impacting the selection of coping strategy. © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Nursing-Sensitive Outcome Implementation and Reliability Testing in a Tertiary Care Setting

    Julia G. Behrenbeck
    PURPOSE To describe the NOC outcomes most relevant for specialty nursing practice and in selected field sites representing the continuum of care; to assess the adequacy of measures (reliability, validity, sensitivity, specificity, practicality); and to describe the linkages among nursing diagnoses, interventions, and outcomes in clinical decision making. METHODS Data were collected on 434 patients during the 12-month data collection period at a tertiary care center: cardiac surgery intensive care (n= 76), cardiac transplant unit (n= 153), and medical unit (n= 205). Medical diagnoses of patients on the two cardiac units were related to cardiac disease. Medical diagnoses of patients on the medical unit were extremely varied (ranging from e.g., gout to pneumonia). Data were collected on 65 separate outcome labels for a total of 633 ratings. FINDINGS In the cardiac transplant ICU, data were collected on 42 outcomes: 30 had an average interrater reliability of ,85%, and 16 had an absolute agreement interrater reliability of ,85%. In the cardiac surgery ICU, data were collected on 30 outcomes: 25 had an average interrater reliabilty of ,85%, 6 had an absolute agreement interrater of ,85%. In the medical unit, data were collected on 45 outcomes: 41 had an average interrater reliability of ,85%, 14 had an absolute agreement interrater reliability of ,85%. Four outcomes have been implemented into the documentation system for all patients: Tissue Integrity: Skin and Mucous Membranes, Mobility Level, Knowledge: Disease Process, and Coping. CONCLUSIONS Overall, nursing staff were very positive about having the opportunity to participate in nursing research. Staff were able to think about the relative status of their patient and how nursing care contributes to the patient's recovery. They appreciated the opportunity to discuss this with a colleague during the interrater exercise. Increased familiarity with NOC allows staff members to determine which outcomes comprise core nursing-sensitive outcomes for their clinical setting. [source]

    Coping with long,term unemployment: economic security, labour market integration and well,being.

    Results from a Danish panel study
    On the basis of a Danish panel study of the long,term unemployed 1994,1999, the article challenges core premises underlying labour market reforms, assigning too high a priority to work and work incentives, and too little priority to social protection. Economic hardship has become widespread among long,term unemployed even in Denmark, and this is a more serious threat against well,being than unemployment as such. Generous social security, denounced as ,passive support', enables the unemployed to cope with their situation, and there are no signs of any ,dependency culture'. Incentives in terms of economic hardship may stimulate active job seeking but the panel study reveals that it has no positive effect on subsequent labour market integration. [source]

    Spirituality in African-American Mothers Coping With a Seriously Ill Infant

    Sonja M. Wilson
    ISSUES AND PURPOSE. To describe how African-American mothers' spirituality helped them cope during the time of their infants' hospitalization for a serious illness. DESIGN AND METHODS. Fourteen mothers whose infants were seriously ill in the early months of life were interviewed for this retrospective, descriptive study. RESULTS. The core theme related to prayer. Four mothers reported a strengthened faith, while two mothers continued to have difficulty relating to God or attending church. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS. These findings support the importance of understanding and respecting the spiritual needs and expressions of spirituality in African-American mothers who are coping with a serious illness in one of their children. [source]

    Negative Life Events, Patterns of Positive and Negative Religious Coping, and Psychological Functioning

    Religious coping may or may not be adaptive depending upon whether such coping is positive or negative. We investigated the potential moderating effects of positive and negative religious coping patterns on the relationship between negative life events and psychological functioning. Questionnaires included measures of negative life events, positive and negative religious coping, and psychological functioning, and were completed by 336 adult, Protestant church members. Even after controlling for religious participation, negative events were related to increased use of positive and negative religious coping and decreased psychological functioning. Moreover, negative events and positive religious coping produced an interaction effect on depression, such that the high use of positive religious coping buffered the deleterious effects of negative events. [source]

    Coping with type-2 diabetes: the role of sense of coherence compared with active management

    Birgitta Sandén-Eriksson PhD
    Coping with type-2 diabetes: the role of sense of coherence compared with active management Changes in lifestyle, particularly in dietary and exercise habits, are necessary for the majority of patients with type-2 diabetes but are difficult to carry out. However, Antonovsky describes a salutogenic health perspective grounded in patients' developing what he terms ,a sense of coherence' (SOC). Can a strong SOC help diabetes patients to control the disease? The aim of this study was to analyse the relationship between SOC and treatment results measured as glucolysed haemoglobine (HbA1c) in patients with type-2 diabetes. The aim was further to test the relationship between treatment results and an index of patients' participation in active management and emotional state. Eighty-eight patients answered a questionnaire containing 13 statements about sense of coherence (SOC-13), questions about self-assessed health, diabetes activity such as self-management of diet, exercise and self-control of blood sugar and emotional acceptance. There was no direct relationship between SOC-13 and treatment results measured as HbA1c but there was a positive correlation between SOC-13, self-assessed health and HbA1c (P < 0·02). Self-assessed health was seen as a mediating factor. The better patients' estimation of their own health, the higher were SOC-13 scores and the lower HbA1c. There was also a strong positive correlation between low levels of HbA1c and high levels of an index of active management and emotional acceptance of diabetes (P < 0·001). [source]

    Coping strategies and health-related quality of life among spouses of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis, and transplant patients

    Ragny Lindqvist RN PhD
    Coping strategies and health-related quality of life among spouses of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, haemodialysis and transplant patients In the study reported here 55 spouses of patients living with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) were investigated with respect to coping strategies and health-related quality of life. Findings from the study were compared to two random samples of the Swedish general population (n = 454, and n = 1200). The study design was correlational and comparative. Coping was measured by the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and quality of life (QoL) by the Swedish Health-Related Quality of Life Survey (SWED-QUAL). Data were analysed using a number of statistical tests including Pearson's product moment correlations, Student's t -test and two way ANOVAs. The combined sample of spouses used significantly more optimistic and palliative coping than the general population, but less confrontative, self-reliant, evasive and emotive coping. In the study fatalistic, evasive and emotive coping was associated with low perceived efficiency in handling various aspects of the partners' situation. The male spouses used significantly less optimistic, supportive and palliative coping than did the female spouses. The spouses of transplant patients had better overall quality of life than the continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis and haemodialysis spouse groups, most likely due to the lower age of the former group. The study findings suggest that emotive, evasive and fatalistic coping are less than optimal ways to deal with problems occasioned by the partner's treatment. [source]

    Staff Morale in Day Care Centres for Adults with Intellectual Disabilities

    Katerina Mascha
    Background, Levels of burnout, job satisfaction and intended turnover of staff working in day care centres for adults with intellectual disabilities are investigated in relation to role clarity, staff support and supervision, and coping strategies used by staff. Materials and methods, Thirty six direct-care staff of four day care centres in the UK were administered the Maslach Burnout Inventory, The Staff Support Questionnaire (SSQ), and The Shortened Ways of Coping (Revised) Questionnaire (SWC-R). Results, Although staff reported high levels of job satisfaction, they experienced moderate degrees of emotional exhaustion and personal accomplishment and reported a high propensity to leave the service. Factors identified as relating to staff morale were staff support and supervision, role clarity, wishful thinking, staff cooperation, and other practical issues regarding the day-to-day running of the service. Conclusions, Staff in day care services for people with intellectual disabilities experience similar stressors to those experienced by staff in residential facilities with the informal culture of the service being of most importance to staff morale. Suggestions for the enhancement of staff morale are provided. [source]

    Repressive Coping and Blood Measures of Disease Risk: Lipids and Endocrine and Immunological Responses to a Laboratory Stressor,

    Steven D. Barger
    Relations between repressive coping and a variety of health-related variahles including insulin, lipids, catecholamines, and cellular immune components, were investigated in a laboratory study of acute stress among a sample of healthy male college students (N - 83). Compared to nonrepressors, at baseline, repressors had fewer numbers of circulating CD4 (T-helper) cells, greater numbers of natural killer (NK) cells. lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL), a higher total/HDL cholesterol ratio, and higher fasting insulin levels. In response to an acute laboratory stressor (Stroop Color Word Conflict Test). repressors demonstrated an attenuated increase in the number of circulating NK cells compared to nonrepressors. Confounds such as physical activity, age, and smoking were unrelated to the dependent measures. [source]

    Stress and coping among families of patients with traumatic brain injury: a review of the literature

    Sofie Verhaeghe MSc
    Aims and objectives., This literature review aims to structure the available information on the psychological reactions of family members confronted with traumatic brain injury. The stress,coping theory and the systems theory provide the theoretical framework for this review. Method., Literature review. Results., The level of stress experienced by the family members of patients who have traumatic brain injury is such that professional intervention is appropriate, even after 10,15 years. Not the severity of the injury but the nature of the injuries determines the level of stress. Partners experience more stress than parents. Children have specific difficulties. Young families with little social support, financial, psychiatric and/or medical problems are the most vulnerable. Coping with traumatic brain injury can be described in phases. The better family members can cope with the situation, the better the patient's recovery. There are functional and non-functional coping mechanisms and coping is influenced by such factors as gender, social and professional support and the possibility to have reciprocal communication or an affective relation with the patient. Relevance to clinical practice., Support from professionals reduces the stress being experienced and encourages people to cope effectively. Conflicts with professional carers should be avoided. Every attempt should be made to develop models of long-term support and care that alleviate sources of burden on relatives. Further research is necessary to develop such models. [source]

    The relationship of some negative events and psychological factors to periodontal disease in an adult Swedish population 50 to 80 years of age

    A. Hugoson
    Abstract Background: Clinical observations and epidemiological studies suggest that experiences of negative life events, especially those manifested as depression, may contribute to an increased susceptibility to periodontal disease. Objective: In the present study, the prevalence of some negative life events and psychological factors and their relation to periodontal disease were investigated. The sample consisted of individuals 50,80 years of age from an extensive cross-sectional epidemiological study performed in 1993 in the city of Jönköping, Sweden. Method: 298 dentate individuals from the Jönköping study were randomly selected. Clinical and radiographic examinations included registration of the number of existing teeth, plaque index, gingival index, pocket depth, and alveolar bone loss. In addition, a questionnaire about socioeconomic status, life events, and psychological and stress-related factors was used. Results: The results revealed that, in addition to the well-documented periodontal disease risk factors such as increased age, oral hygiene status, and smoking, the loss of a spouse (being a widow or widower) and the personality trait of exercising extreme external control were also associated with severe periodontal disease. Conclusion: The findings support recent studies suggesting that traumatic life events such as the loss of a spouse may increase the risk for periodontal disease. Above all, the present results indicate that an individual's ability to cope with stressful stimuli (coping behavior), as measured by the beliefs of locus of control of reinforcements may play a role in the progression of periodontal disease. Zusammenfassung Hintergrund: Klinische Beobachtungen und epidemiologische Studien legen den Schluss nahe, dass negative Ereignisse im Laufe des Lebens, insbesondere solche, die sich in Depression manifestieren, zu einer erhöhten Empfänglichkeit für Parodontitis beitragen. Zielsetzung: Untersuchung der Prävalenz von negativen Ereignissen im Lebenslauf sowie psychologischen Faktoren und deren Beziehung zu Parodontalerkrankungen in einer Population im Alter zwischen 50 und 80 Jahren, die im Rahmen einer extensiven epidemiologischen Querschnittsstudie im Jahre 1993 in der Stadt Jönköping in Schweden untersucht worden war. Material und Methoden: 298 bezahnte Personen wurden randomisiert aus der Jönköping-Studie ausgewählt. Die klinischen und röntgenologischen Untersuchungen umfassten die Erhebung der vorhandenen Zähne, der Plaque Index, Gingival Index, Sondierungstiefen und alveolärem Knochenabbau. Zusätzlich wurden durch Befragung sozioökonomischer Status, Lebensereignisse sowie psychologische und stressbezogene Faktoren erfasst. Ergebnisse: Die Resultate ergaben, dass zusätzlich zu den bekannten Parodontitisrisikofaktoren wit Alter, Mundhygienestatus und Rauchen der Verlust des Ehepartners, also eine Witwe oder ein Witwer zu sein, und das Persönlichkeitsmuster extreme externe Kontrolle auszuüben, mit schwerer Parodontitis assoziiert waren. Schlussfolgerungn: Diese Ergebnisse unterstützen neuere Studien, die Hinweise dafür gegeben haben, dass traumatische Lebensereignisse wie der Verlust eines Ehenpartners das Risiko an Parodontitis zu erkranken erhöhen. Darüber hinaus legen die Ergebnisse den Schluss nahe, dass die individuelle Fähigkeit mit Stress umzugehen (Coping), die in dieser Studie durch die Erfragung der Überzeugung über die Lokalisation der Kontrolle von Verstärkungen erfasst wurde, eine Rolle in der Progression der Parodontitis spielen. Résumé Origine: Des observations cliniques et des études épidémiologiques suggèrent que des évènements négatifs, particulièrement ceux manifestés par une dépression, puisse contribuer à une susceptibilité augmentée à la maladie parodontale. But: Dans cette étude, la prévalence de ces évènements négatifs et les facteurs psychologiques et leurs relations avec la maladie parodontale ont été recherchés. L'échantillon était composé de personnes âgées de 50 à 80 ans issues d'une étude épidémiologique extensive croisée réalisé en 1993 dans la ville de Jonkoping en Suède. Méthode: 298 individus dentés de cette étude furent sélectionnés au hasard. Les examens cliniques et radiographiques comprenaient l'enregistrement du nombre de dents présentes, l'indice de plaque, l'indice gingival, la profondeur de poche et la perte osseuse alvéolaire. De plus, un questionnaire sur le statut socio économique, les évènements de la vie et les facteurs psychologiques en relation avec le stress, fut utilisé. Résultats: Les résultats montrèrent qu'en plus des facteurs de risque bien documentés de maladie parodontale comme l'âge, l'hygiène orale et le tabagisme, la perte d'un époux (que l'on soit veuf ou veuve) et le trait de personnalité de pouvoir exercer un contrôle externe extrême étaient aussi associés avec une maladie parodontale sévère. Conclusion: Ces résultats soutiennent de récentes études qui suggèrent que des évènements traumatisant de la vie quotidienne comme la perte d'un époux puisse augmenter le risque pour la maladie parodontale. Par-dessus tout, ces résultats indiquent que la capacité d'un individu à gérer des stimuli stressants, (comportement gestionnel), mesurés par les convictions de contrôle des renforcements pourrait jouer un rôle dans la progression de la maladie parodontale. [source]

    Coping With Uncertainties in Advance Care Planning

    Stephen C. Hines
    This essay extends problematic integration theory and related theories of uncertainty management to communication about serious illness and death. These extensions (a) note that theorizing must focus on multiple, interrelated uncertainties rather than a single such uncertainty; (b) explain how communication with others often problematizes efforts to cope with illness-related uncertainties; and (c) identify specific factors that may influence how persons choose to cope with these uncertainties. The essay describes implications for ongoing efforts to improve communication with persons nearing death. Specifically, they point to 5 incorrect assumptions that limit the effectiveness of current efforts to encourage persons to talk about their end-of-life preferences with others in a process referred to as advance care planning and then suggest concrete changes derived from this framework that can improve the advance care planning process and enhance the quality of end-of- life care. [source]

    Coping and responses to stress in Navajo adolescents: Psychometric properties of the Responses to Stress Questionnaire

    Martha E. Wadsworth
    This study tested the factor structure of coping and stress responses in Navajo adolescents and examined the reliability and validity of the Responses to Stress Questionnaire (RSQ; Connor-Smith, Compas, Wadsworth, Thomsen, & Saltzman, 2000) with this population. Confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a correlated five-factor model of stress responses using the five factors of the RSQ fit the data well for this group of adolescents. The factor structure of the RSQ did not differ by gender. Internal consistency of the RSQ scales and factors was acceptable, and convergent and discriminant validity were moderate to high. Primary and secondary control engagement coping responses were associated with fewer depressive symptoms in the sample, whereas disengagement coping and involuntary engagement responses were associated with more depressive symptoms. The promising implications for stress and coping research with American Indian adolescents are emphasized. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comm Psychol 32: 391,411, 2004. [source]

    Coping with the Tragedy of the Commons: Game Structure and Design of Rules

    Nicolas Faysse
    Abstract., The paper provides an assessment of some recent results of the large amount of New Institutional Economics analyses investigating a common-pool resource setting, with a specific focus on game theory models. Most of the studies have used a noncooperative approach in order to explain how under-provision for the resource or its over-use , the so-called Tragedy of the Commons , can be avoided, within given management rules. They show how the characteristics of the game (payoff matrix, repetition) or of the users (group size, wealth, heterogeneity and moral norms) may give incentives for the latter to play in a way that benefits all users. By contrast, much fewer articles have used a formalized approach to assess the possibility for players to design new rules to overcome the initial Tragedy of the Commons. The article ends with some proposals of directions for future research. [source]