Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Convention

  • european convention
  • framework convention
  • international convention
  • nation convention
  • nation framework convention
  • social convention
  • therapeutic convention
  • un convention
  • unite nation convention
  • unite nation framework convention

  • Selected Abstracts


    ECONOMIC AFFAIRS, Issue 1 2004
    Paul Robinson
    The EU's leaders are not taking constitutional reform seriously. An analysis of the history of the development of federal states suggests that they are unlikely to do so until a crisis precipitates action. The current constitutional arrangements and those proposed by the constitutional convention are a recipe for continued integration. Paradoxically, a brief, well-drafted federal constitution might stop the process of integration. [source]


    FAMILY COURT REVIEW, Issue 1 2006
    Hon. Alastair Nicholson
    In this article I discuss the failure of most democratic countries to accept or properly implement the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, despite, except in the case of the United States, having ratified it. I consider the domestic implementation of treaties. I discuss, from an Australian perspective, that country's failure to enact a Bill of Rights and argue that children in Australia have suffered as a result. I also discuss judicial approaches to international law and compare the situation in countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Canada, and New Zealand and suggest that even in those countries that do have a Bill of Rights, it is not oriented toward children and therefore does not properly recognize their rights. [source]


    First page of article [source]


    Yitzhak Benbaji
    My claim is that despite powerful arguments to the contrary, a coherent moral distinction between the jus in bello code and the jus ad bellum code can be sustained. In particular, I defend the traditional just war doctrine according to which the independence between the in bello and ad bellum codes reflects the moral equality between just and unjust combatants and between just and unjust non-combatants. In order to establish this, I construe an in bello proportionality condition which can be satisfied by just and unjust combatants alike. [source]

    Expanding the Global Network of Protected Areas to Save the Imperiled Mediterranean Biome

    análisis de disparidad; áreas protegidas; biodiversidad; ecosistemas Mediterráneos; pérdida de hábitat Abstract:,Global goals established by the Convention on Biological Diversity stipulate that 10% of the world's ecological regions must be effectively conserved by 2010. To meet that goal for the mediterranean biome, at least 5% more land must be formally protected over the next few years. Although global assessments identify the mediterranean biome as a priority, without biologically meaningful analysis units, finer-resolution data, and corresponding prioritization analysis, future conservation investments could lead to more area being protected without increasing the representation of unique mediterranean ecosystems. We used standardized analysis units and six potential natural vegetation types stratified by 3 elevation zones in a global gap analysis that systematically explored conservation priorities across the mediterranean biome. The highest levels of protection were in Australia, South Africa, and California-Baja California (from 9,11%), and the lowest levels of protection were in Chile and the mediterranean Basin (<1%). Protection was skewed to montane elevations in three out of five regions. Across the biome only one of the six vegetation types,mediterranean shrubland,exceeded 10% protection. The remaining vegetation types,grassland, scrub, succulent dominated, woodland, and forest,each had <3% protection. To guard against biases in future protection efforts and ensure the protection of species characteristic of the mediterranean biome, we identified biodiversity assemblages with <10% protection and subject to >30% conversion and suggest that these assemblages be elevated to high-priority status in future conservation efforts. Resumen:,Las metas globales establecidas por la Convención sobre Diversidad Biológica estipulan que 10% de las regiones ecológicas del mundo deberán estar conservadas efectivamente en 2010. Para alcanzar esa meta en el bioma mediterráneo, por lo menos 5% más de superficie debe estar protegida formalmente en los próximos años. Aunque las evaluaciones globales identifican al bioma mediterráneo como una prioridad, sin unidades de análisis biológicamente significativas, datos de resolución más fina y los correspondientes análisis de priorización, las inversiones futuras en conservación pudieran conducir a la protección de más superficie sin incrementar la representación de los ecosistemas mediterráneos únicos. Utilizamos unidades de análisis estandarizadas y seis tipos potenciales de vegetación natural estratificados en tres zonas de elevación en un análisis global de disparidad que exploró sistemáticamente las prioridades de conservación en el bioma mediterráneo. Los niveles de protección más altos se localizaron en Australia, África del Sur y California-Baja California (de 9,11%) y los niveles de protección más bajos se localizaron en Chile y la Cuenca del mediterráneo (<1%). La protección estaba sesgada hacia elevaciones altas en tres de las cinco regiones. En todo el bioma, solo uno de los seis tipos de vegetación,matorral mediterráneo,excedió 10% de protección. Los tipos de vegetación restantes,pastizal, matorral, dominio de suculentas, y bosques,tenían <3% de protección cada uno. Para evitar sesgos en futuros esfuerzos de protección y asegurar la protección de especies características del bioma mediterráneo, identificamos ensambles de biodiversidad con <10% de protección y sujetos a >30% de conversión y sugerimos que estos ensambles sean elevados a un estatus de alta prioridad en esfuerzos de conservación en el futuro. [source]

    Quantification of Extinction Risk: IUCN's System for Classifying Threatened Species

    definición de prioridades de conservación; especies amenazadas; Lista Roja UICN; riesgo de extinción Abstract:,The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species was increasingly used during the 1980s to assess the conservation status of species for policy and planning purposes. This use stimulated the development of a new set of quantitative criteria for listing species in the categories of threat: critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable. These criteria, which were intended to be applicable to all species except microorganisms, were part of a broader system for classifying threatened species and were fully implemented by IUCN in 2000. The system and the criteria have been widely used by conservation practitioners and scientists and now underpin one indicator being used to assess the Convention on Biological Diversity 2010 biodiversity target. We describe the process and the technical background to the IUCN Red List system. The criteria refer to fundamental biological processes underlying population decline and extinction. But given major differences between species, the threatening processes affecting them, and the paucity of knowledge relating to most species, the IUCN system had to be both broad and flexible to be applicable to the majority of described species. The system was designed to measure the symptoms of extinction risk, and uses 5 independent criteria relating to aspects of population loss and decline of range size. A species is assigned to a threat category if it meets the quantitative threshold for at least one criterion. The criteria and the accompanying rules and guidelines used by IUCN are intended to increase the consistency, transparency, and validity of its categorization system, but it necessitates some compromises that affect the applicability of the system and the species lists that result. In particular, choices were made over the assessment of uncertainty, poorly known species, depleted species, population decline, restricted ranges, and rarity; all of these affect the way red lists should be viewed and used. Processes related to priority setting and the development of national red lists need to take account of some assumptions in the formulation of the criteria. Resumen:,La Lista Roja de Especies Amenazadas de la UICN (Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza) fue muy utilizada durante la década de l980 para evaluar el estatus de conservación de especies para fines políticos y de planificación. Este uso estimuló el desarrollo de un conjunto nuevo de criterios cuantitativos para enlistar especies en las categorías de amenaza: en peligro crítico, en peligro y vulnerable. Estos criterios, que se pretendía fueran aplicables a todas las especies excepto microorganismos, eran parte de un sistema general para clasificar especies amenazadas y fueron implementadas completamente por la UICN en 2000. El sistema y los criterios han sido ampliamente utilizados por practicantes y científicos de la conservación y actualmente apuntalan un indicador utilizado para evaluar el objetivo al 2010 de la Convención de Diversidad Biológica. Describimos el proceso y el respaldo técnico del sistema de la Lista Roja de la IUCN. Los criterios se refieren a los procesos biológicos fundamentales que subyacen en la declinación y extinción de una población. Pero, debido a diferencias mayores entre especies, los procesos de amenaza que los afectan y la escasez de conocimiento sobre la mayoría de las especies, el sistema de la UICN tenía que ser amplio y flexible para ser aplicable a la mayoría de las especies descritas. El sistema fue diseñado para medir los síntomas del riesgo de extinción, y utiliza cinco criterios independientes que relacionan aspectos de la pérdida poblacional y la declinación del rango de distribución. Una especie es asignada a una categoría de amenaza si cumple el umbral cuantitativo por lo menos para un criterio. Los criterios, las reglas acompañantes y las directrices utilizadas por la UICN tienen la intención de incrementar la consistencia, transparencia y validez de su sistema de clasificación, pero requiere algunos compromisos que afectan la aplicabilidad del sistema y las listas de especies que resultan. En particular, se hicieron selecciones por encima de la evaluación de incertidumbre, especies poco conocidas, especies disminuidas, declinación poblacional, rangos restringidos y rareza; todas estas afectan la forma en que las listas rojas deberían ser vistas y usadas. Los procesos relacionados con la definición de prioridades y el desarrollo de las listas rojas nacionales necesitan considerar algunos de los supuestos en la formulación de los criterios. [source]

    Discrepancies in Reported Levels of International Wildlife Trade

    aduanas; CITES; especies en peligro; programa de aranceles armonizados Abstract:,The international wildlife trade is a principal cause of biodiversity loss, involving hundreds of millions of plants and animals each year, yet wildlife trade records are notoriously unreliable. We assessed the precision of wildlife trade reports for the United States, the world's largest consumer of endangered wildlife, by comparing data from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) with U.S. Customs data. For both U.S. imports and exports, CITES and Customs reported substantially different trade volumes for all taxa in all years. Discrepancies ranged from a CITES-reported volume 376% greater than that reported by Customs (live coral imports, 2000) to a Customs' report 5202% greater than CITES (conch exports, 2000). These widely divergent data suggest widespread inaccuracies that may distort the perceived risk of targeted wildlife exploitation, leading to misallocation of management resources and less effective conservation strategies. Conservation scientists and practitioners should reexamine assumptions regarding the significance of the international wildlife trade. Resumen:,El comercio internacional de vida silvestre es una causa principal de la pérdida de biodiversidad, ya que involucra a cientos de millones de plantas y animales cada año; no obstante eso, los registros del comercio son notoriamente poco confiables. Evaluamos la precisión de los registros de comercio de vida silvestre de Estados Unidos, el mayor consumidor de vida silvestre en peligro en el mundo, mediante la comparación de datos del Convenio Internacional para el Comercio de Especies de Flora y Fauna Silvestre en Peligro (CITES) con datos de la Aduana de E.U.A. Tanto para importaciones como exportaciones, CITES y Aduana reportaron volúmenes de comercio de todos los taxa sustancialmente diferentes en todos los años. Las discrepancias abarcaron desde un volumen reportado por CITES 376% más grande que el reportado por la Aduana (importaciones de coral vivo, 2000) hasta un reporte de la Aduana 5202% mayor que el de CITES (exportaciones de caracol, 2000). Estos datos ampliamente divergentes sugieren imprecisiones generalizadas que pueden distorsionar el riesgo percibido por la explotación de vida silvestre, lo que conducirá a la incorrecta asignación de recursos para la gestión y a estrategias de conservación menos efectivas. Los científicos y profesionales de la conservación deberían reexaminar sus suposiciones respecto al significado del comercio internacional de vida silvestre. [source]

    The ecosystem approach in corporate environmental management , expert mental models and environmental drivers in the Finnish forest industry

    Petteri Vihervaara
    Abstract The ecosystem approach has been adopted as the framework of the Convention on Biological Diversity, and is recommended to be used widely in the integrated management of land, water and living resources, to promote conservation and sustainable use in an equitable way, also in corporations. The forest industry is a resource-intensive branch with various impacts on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Our aims in this study were to examine (i) how the ecosystem approach is implemented in the Finnish forest industry; and (ii) to outline the mental models of environmental experts of corporations, and their conceptualization of some key terms of ecosystem thinking. We interviewed 12 experts about their opinions on the main future challenges, the risks, the mistakes of the past, the possibilities and the successes confronting the forest industry. The results were analyzed using the DPSIR (Driving forces-Pressures-State-Impacts-Responses) framework model. Finally, we give several recommendations as to how the ecosystem approach can be integrated into corporate environmental management. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


    ABSTRACT The aim of this paper is to show that any process of benefit sharing that does not guarantee the representation and participation of women in the decision-making process, as well as in the distribution of benefits, contravenes a central demand of social justice. It is argued that women, particularly in developing countries, can be excluded from benefits derived from genetic research because of existing social structures that promote and maintain discrimination. The paper describes how the structural problem of gender-based inequity can impact on benefit sharing processes. At the same time, examples are given of poor women's ability to organise themselves and to achieve social benefits for entire communities. Relevant international guidelines (e.g. the Convention on Biodiversity) recognise the importance of women's contributions to the protection of biodiversity and thereby, implicitly, their right to a share of the benefits, but no mechanism is outlined on how to bring this about. The authors make a clear recommendation to ensure women's participation in benefit sharing negotiations by demanding seats at the negotiation table. [source]

    Supporting Adaptation to Climate Change: What Role for Official Development Assistance?

    Jessica M. Ayers
    The formal financial mechanisms for managing adaptation to climate change under the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) are falling significantly short of meeting needs in the most vulnerable countries. Given the close relationship between development and adaptation, it is tempting to use existing channels of development assistance to fill this gap. However, it is imperative that development assistance is not seen as a substitute for specific adaptation finance. This article therefore attempts to distinguish between the two roles, and considers how development assistance might support and complement adaptation funding and action under the Convention, rather than competing with or substituting it. [source]

    Interactions between microvascular and macrovascular disease in diabetes: pathophysiology and therapeutic implications

    Andrew J. Krentz
    Convention partitions the complications of diabetes into two main subtypes. First are the diabetes-specific microvascular complications of retinopathy, nephropathy and neuropathy; second are the atherothrombotic macrovascular complications that account for the majority of premature deaths. Pathological interactions between microvascular and macrovascular complications, for example, nephropathy and macrovascular disease, are common. Similar mechanisms and shared risk factors drive the development and progression of both small and large vessel disease. This concept has therapeutic implications. Mounting evidence points to the need for multifactorial strategies to prevent vascular complications in subjects with diabetes and/or the metabolic syndrome. We advocate a combined therapeutic approach that addresses small and large vessel disease. Preferential use should be made of drug regimens that (i) maximize vascular protection, (ii) reduce the risk of iatrogenic vascular damage and (iii) minimize the increasing problem of polypharmacy. [source]

    Global factors shaping the future of food aid: the implications for WFP

    DISASTERS, Issue 2007
    Daniel Maxwell
    Food aid is a key component of a humanitarian response but its use in other programming contexts is subject to numerous criticisms. Even in humanitarian emergencies food aid is often late, unreliable and out of proportion to other elements of the response. Three major factors will shape the future of food aid. First, mechanisms of food aid governance are being reviewed and may undergo major changes,particularly the Food Aid Convention now that hopes have diminished for an Agreement on Agriculture at the World Trade Organisation. The second significant factor is donor agency trends. Overall levels of food aid have dropped fairly steadily in recent decades and there are several discernible trends in resource allocation, procurement and the use of food aid. The third factor is an emerging body of best practice that will define acceptable standards of food aid programming in the future. [source]

    Case studies of tobacco dependence treatment in Brazil, England, India, South Africa and Uruguay

    ADDICTION, Issue 10 2010
    Martin Raw
    ABSTRACT Aims The aims of this study are to describe the tobacco dependence treatment systems in five countries at different stages of development of their systems, and from different income levels and regions of the world, and to draw some lessons from their experiences that might be useful to other countries. Methods and data sourses Data were drawn from an earlier survey of treatment services led by M.R. and A.M., from Party reports to the Secretariat of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, and from correspondents in the five countries. These data were entered onto a standard template by the authors, discussed with the correspondents to ensure they were accurate and to help us interpret them, and then the templates were used as a basis to write prose descriptions of the countries' treatment systems, with additional summary data presented in tables. Results Two of the middle-income countries have based their treatment on specialist support and both consequently have very low population coverage for treatment. Two countries have integrated broad-reach approaches, such as brief advice with intensive specialist support; these countries are focusing currently upon monitoring performance and guaranteeing quality. Cost is a significant barrier to improving treatment coverage and highlights the importance of using existing infrastucture as much as possible. Conclusions Perhaps not surprisingly the greatest challenges appear to be faced by large, lower-income countries that have prioritized more intensive but low-reach approaches to treatment, rather than developing basic infrastructure, including brief advice in primary care and quitlines. [source]

    Trends in the state of nature and their implications for human well-being

    ECOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 11 2005
    Andrew Balmford
    Abstract Two major international initiatives , the Convention on Biological Diversity's target to reduce the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010, and the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment , raise the profile of ecological data on the changing state of nature and its implications for human well-being. This paper is intended to provide a broad overview of current knowledge of these issues. Information on changes in the status of species, size of populations, and extent and condition of habitats is patchy, with little data available for many of the taxa, regions and habitats of greatest importance to the delivery of ecosystem services. However, what we do know strongly suggests that, while exceptions exist, the changes currently underway are for the most part negative, anthropogenic in origin, ominously large and accelerating. The impacts of these changes on human society are idiosyncratic and patchily understood, but for the most part also appear to be negative and substantial. Forecasting future changes is limited by our poor understanding of the cascading impacts of change within communities, of threshold effects, of interactions between the drivers of change, and of linkages between the state of nature and human well-being. In assessing future science needs, we not only see a strong role for ecological data and theory, but also believe that much closer collaboration with social and earth system scientists is essential if ecology is to have a strong bearing on policy makers. [source]

    Options for global tobacco control beyond the Framework Convention in Tobacco Control

    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Tobacco dependence treatment and the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    How reactions to cigarette packet health warnings influence quitting: findings from the ITC Four-Country survey

    ADDICTION, Issue 4 2009
    Ron Borland
    ABSTRACT Objectives To examine prospectively the impact of health warnings on quitting activity. Design Five waves (2002,06) of a cohort survey where reactions to health warnings at one survey wave are used to predict cessation activity at the next wave, controlling for country (proxy for warning differences) and other factors. These analyses were replicated on four wave-to-wave transitions. Setting and participants Smokers from Australia, Canada, the United Kingdom and the United States. Samples were waves 1,2: n = 6525; waves 2,3: n = 5257; waves 3,4: n = 4439; and waves 4,5: n = 3993. Measures Warning salience, cognitive responses (thoughts of harm and of quitting), forgoing of cigarettes and avoidance of warnings were examined as predictors of quit attempts, and of quitting success among those who tried (1 month sustained abstinence), replicated across four wave-to-wave transitions. Results All four responses to warnings were independently predictive of quitting activity in bivariate analyses. In multivariate analyses, both forgoing cigarettes and cognitive responses to the warnings predicted prospectively making quit attempts in all replications. However, avoiding warnings did not add predictive value consistently, and there was no consistent pattern for warning salience. There were no interactions by country. Some, but not all, the effects were mediated by quitting intentions. There were no consistent effects on quit success. Conclusions This study adds to the evidence that forgoing cigarettes as a result of noticing warnings and quit-related cognitive reactions to warnings are consistent prospective predictors of making quit attempts. This work strengthens the evidence base for governments to go beyond the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control to mandate health warnings on tobacco products that stimulate the highest possible levels of these reactions. [source]

    Prevalence and correlates of purchasing contraband cigarettes on First Nations reserves in Ontario, Canada

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2009
    Rita Luk
    ABSTRACT Aims Non-First Nations people purchasing cigarettes on First Nations reserves do not pay applicable taxes. We estimated prevalence and identified correlates of purchasing contraband cigarettes on reserves; we also quantified the share of contraband purchased on reserves relative to reported total cigarette consumption and the associated financial impact on taxation revenue. Design Data from the Ontario Tobacco Survey, a regionally stratified representative population telephone survey that over-samples smokers. Setting Ontario, Canada. Participants A total of 1382 adult current smokers. Measurements Reported status of purchasing cigarettes on reserves and the quantity of cigarettes bought on reserves. The prevalence of purchasing cigarettes on reserves was assessed with descriptive statistics. A two-part model was used to analyse correlates of having recently purchased contraband. Findings A total of 25.8% reported recent purchasing and 11.5% reported usual purchasing. Heavy smoking, having no plans to quit and lower education were correlated with recent purchasing. Heavy smoking and not having plans to quit were also correlated with buying more packs of cigarettes on reserves. Contraband purchases on reserves accounted for 14.0% of the reported total cigarette consumption and resulted in an estimated tax loss of $122.2 million. Conclusions There was substantial purchasing of contraband cigarettes on reserves in Ontario, resulting in significant losses in tax revenues. The availability of these cheap cigarettes undermines the effectiveness of tobacco taxation to reduce smoking. Wherever indicated, governments should strengthen their contraband prevention and control measures, as recommended by the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, to ensure that tobacco taxation achieves its intended health benefits and that tax revenues are protected. [source]

    A survey of tobacco dependence treatment services in 36 countries

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
    Martin Raw
    ABSTRACT Aims This paper reports the results of a survey of national tobacco dependence treatment services in 36 countries. The objective was to describe the services and discuss the results in the context of Article 14 of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, which asks countries to promote adequate treatment for tobacco dependence. Design, setting and participants A questionnaire on tobacco dependence treatment services was e-mailed to a convenience sample of contacts in 2007. Completed questionnaires were received from contacts in 36 countries. Measurements The survey instrument was a 10-item questionnaire asking about treatment policy and practice, including medications. Findings According to our informants, fewer than half the countries in our survey had an official written policy on (44%), or a government official responsible for (49%), treatment. Only 19% had a specialized national treatment system and only 24% said help was easily available in general practice. Most countries (94%) allowed the sale of nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion (75%) and varenicline (69%) but only 40% permitted NRT on ,general sale'. Very few countries responding to the question fully reimbursed any of the medications. Fewer than half (45%) fully reimbursed brief advice and only 29% fully reimbursed intensive specialist support. Only 31% of countries said that their official treatment policy included the mandatory recording of patients' smoking status in medical notes. Conclusion Taken together, our findings show that few countries have well-developed tobacco dependence treatment services and that, at a national level, treatment is not yet a priority in most countries. [source]

    An international survey of training programs for treating tobacco dependence

    ADDICTION, Issue 2 2009
    Nancy A. Rigotti
    ABSTRACT Aims The World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) requires countries to implement tobacco dependence treatment programs. To provide treatment effectively, a country needs trained individuals to deliver these services. We report on the global status of programs that train individuals to provide tobacco dependence treatment. Design Cross-sectional web-based survey of tobacco treatment training programs in a stratified convenience sample of countries chosen to vary by WHO geographic region and World Bank income level. Participants Key informants in 48 countries; 70% of 69 countries who were sent surveys responded. Measurements Program prevalence, frequency, duration and size; background of trainees; content (adherence to pre-defined core competencies); funding sources; challenges. Findings We identified 61 current tobacco treatment training programs in 37 (77%) of 48 countries responding to the survey. Three-quarters of them began in 2000 or later, and 40% began after 2003, when the FCTC was adopted. Programs estimated training 14 194 individuals in 2007. Training was offered to a variety of professionals and paraprofessionals, but most often to physicians and nurses. Median program duration was 16 hours, but programs' duration, intensity and size varied widely. Most programs used evidence-based guidelines and reported adherence to core tobacco treatment competencies. Training programs were less frequent in low-income countries and in Africa. Securing funding was the major challenge for most programs; current funding sources were government (58%), non-government organizations (23%), pharmaceutical companies (17%) and, in one case, the tobacco industry. Conclusion Training programs for tobacco treatment providers are diverse and growing. Most upper- and middle-income countries have programs, and most programs appear to be evidence-based. However, funding is a major challenge. In particular, more programs are needed for non-physicians and for low-income countries. [source]

    The European Union in international environmental negotiations: an analysis of the Stockholm Convention negotiations

    Tom Delreux
    Abstract This article focuses on the way the European Union acted as a negotiating party during the international negotiations leading to the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants (1998,2000). Starting from a principal,agent model, the article discusses how the EU participated in these negotiations and how the internal decision-making process developed. It argues that the EU was able to negotiate in a unified and influential way by defending a common position, which was expressed by a flexible negotiation arrangement, at the international level. Three features of the EU decision-making process engendered such a strong EU negotiation arrangement: homogeneous preferences among the actors in the EU, symmetrically distributed information among them and a cooperative and institutionally dense decision-making context. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    Authority through synergism: the roles of climate change linkages

    Björn-Ola Linnér
    Abstract This article examines the conceptual basis of synergies between the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) and other international organizations and agreements. It discusses why synergies are made, what kinds there are and their potential consequences. Considering actors' divergent goals, synergies do not necessarily imply win,win outcomes. The article distinguishes between positive and negative synergetic effects, which should be explicated at different levels, such as the differing goals of various agreements, institutions, parties and social groups. Efforts of international organizations to increase synergy can be regarded as attempts to build authority. Yet, synergy is also used by countries to influence this process. Current synergetic efforts may profoundly affect the relocation of authority in global environmental governance, not only by streamlining mandates, practices and objectives, but also by leading to more powerful international organizations (e.g. WTO) increasingly taking precedence over climate change agreements. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

    The implementation of international nature conservation agreements in Europe: the case of the Netherlands

    Graham Bennett
    Nature conservation policy in European countries is increasingly determined by the requirements of a wide range of international agreements. The most important are two EU directives (the Birds Directive and the Habitats Directive) and four conventions (the Ramsar Convention, the Bern Convention, the Bonn Convention and the UN Convention on Biological Diversity). The main foci of these instruments are habitats and species that are of international importance or require international cooperation to secure their effective conservation. Despite the importance of these habitats and species, implementation of the instruments has been uneven. The Netherlands provides a interesting example of implementation issues. The legislation necessary to enable the government to legally designate areas that have to be protected under the Birds Directive was only adopted in 1998, 17 years after the deadline fixed by the directive. This legislation has enabled the government to nominate areas for designation under the Birds and Habitats Directive. However, not all the sites that fall under the criteria of the Directives have been included in the list, and the legislation does not include the required provision concerning compensation for areas that are protected under the Habitats Directive and then damaged by activities that are authorized in the public interest. In the case of the Ramsar Convention, the government is planning to increase the number of designated sites, but the total number of sites will still represent inadequately the types of wetland of international importance that are found in the Netherlands. Despite this uneven implementation, the instruments , particularly the EU Directives , are having far-reaching effects on nature conservation in Europe. The most important consequences are that ecological considerations are the sole and absolute criteria for determining whether a site should be protected under the EU Directives and that many areas that until now only enjoyed limited protection under the spatial planning system now have to be legally protected from virtually all forms of damage. However, in practice many development plans take only limited account of the biodiversity conservation requirements implied by international conventions. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. and ERP Environment [source]

    AIChE offers technological insights to the public policy debate on global climate change

    David E. Gushee
    Global climate change has been a major issue on the national political agenda since 1988. Several Committees on Capitol Hill conducted hearings concerning the heat waves then searing the nation. Testimony by several well-regarded scientists at those hearings that "we ain't seen nothing yet" led to impressive headlines in the national media. Since then, unusually high temperatures, a succession of forecasts of serious negative impacts from the projected continued warming, and well-publicized Congressional hearings led to the creation of the United Nation's Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) and its Kyoto Protocol. As a result, climate change is on just about every technology organization's agenda. In 1996, the American Institute of Chemical Engineers joined the list of organizations formally responding to the issue. The Government Relations Committee (GRC) formed a Task Force on Climate Change, made up of Institute members active in a number of aspects of the issue area. The charge to the Task Force: Look for opportunities for the Institute to contribute to the public policy debate on the issue and frame position papers accordingly. The first major conclusion of the Task Force was that AIChE is not in a position to state whether or not global climate change is a real public policy problem. However, to the extent that the public policy process treats climate change as an issue, the Institute is well positioned to comment on the technical merits of proposed policy responses. The Task Force recommended this posture to the GRC, which agreed. [source]

    Long-range transport of organic chemicals in the environment

    Martin Scheringer
    Abstract The long-range transport (LRT) of organic chemicals in the environment is reviewed, with particular focus on the role of environmental fate and transport models and the relationship between model results and field data. Results from generic multimedia box models, spatially resolved multimedia box models, and atmospheric transport models are highlighted, including conceptual investigations of cold-trap effect and global fractionation as well as results for particular chemicals, such as hexachlorocyclohexanes, DDT, polychlorinated biphenyls, perfluoroocctanoic acid, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers. Comparison of model results to field data shows that in many cases environmental fate models provide a good description of the distribution dynamics observed in the field, with deviations between measured and modeled concentrations around a factor of five. Sorption to atmospheric aerosols as a key process influencing the LRT of semivolatile organic chemicals (SOCs) is discussed, and the need for more measurements of the aerosol,air partitioning of SOCs and of the reactivity of particle-bound chemicals is pointed out. Key findings from field campaigns measuring legacy persistent organic pollutants (POPs) as well as new POPs are summarized. Finally, the relationship between science and politics in the field of POPs is addressed. Research into the LRT of organic chemicals has always occurred in interaction with political activities aiming to reduce the emissions of POPs. Since the late 1990s, the Stockholm Convention and the Aarhus Protocol on POPs have formed an important political context for research concerning POPs; the implementation of these international treaties creates a demand for ongoing research into the LRT of organic chemicals. [source]

    International issues in the supply of tobacco: recent changes and implications for alcohol

    ADDICTION, Issue 12s4 2000
    Frank J. Chaloupka
    This paper reviews international issues in the supply of tobacco and tobacco products, including trade liberalization and globalization. The paper begins with a brief discussion of the theoretical foundations for trade and trade restrictions. This is followed by a description of the treatment of tobacco and tobacco products in recent multi-lateral, regional and bilateral trade agreements, as well as a short discussion of the recent globalization of the tobacco industry. Included in this description is a review of the empirical evidence on the impact of trade liberalization on tobacco use. The implications of two recently proposed international agreements - the Multilateral Agreement on Investments and the Framework Convention for Tobacco Control - are then discussed. The paper concludes by summarizing the theoretical and empirical evidence that shows clearly that trade liberalization has significantly increased tobacco use, particularly in low and middle-income countries, and follows this with a discussion of the lessons learned from tobacco for controlling alcohol supply. [source]

    A Comparative Analysis of the Drafting of European Private Law

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 5 2009
    Bastiaan Van Zelst
    The development of the ,Common Frame of Reference' is a highly prominent topic on the agenda of European integration. However, its underlying procedures have had only limited investigation. This article discusses the European private law project by inquiring into the drafting experiences of four other private law legislative processes, with a focus on sales law. These instruments concern Article 2 (on sales) of the American Uniform Commercial Code, the Vienna Sales Convention, the Dutch Civil Code and the Directive on Consumer Sales and Associated Guarantees. Ultimately, the article asks what can the European project learn from these experiences. [source]

    Between Immigration and Policing: Cross Recognition

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 2 2004
    Andrew Nicol
    The Dublin Convention of 1990 addressed some of the problems which this policy created, but left others unresolved. Domestic legislation has progressively reduced the opportunities for challenging safe third-country removals, especially to an EU state. The incorporation of the European Convention on Human Rights into UK law has generated new possibilities for challenging safe third-country decisions where removal might damage physical or mental health. Articles 3 and 8 have been invoked in particular. The Dublin machinery established ,rules' to decide which member state was responsible for considering the asylum claim and the procedure to be followed. The article examines why the UK courts have said that these provisions are not justiciable in the English courts. Finally the article considers whether the experience with Dublin provides any useful guidance as to the approach that will be taken to European arrest warrants and extradition requests. [source]

    Reforming Europe's Common Foreign and Security Policy

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1 2004
    Daniel Thym
    To the great surprise of many observers the much lamented absence of a common European response to the war in Iraq did not prevent the Convention from agreeing upon an ambitious reform package in the foreign-policy field. This article explores the legal implications of the new institutional balance for European foreign policy envisaged by the Convention against the background of the achievements and deficiencies of Europe's existing foreign policy regime. Thereby, we shall see in how far the Convention has met the original goal set by the Laeken European Council to consider reform steps to strengthen the Union's ability to ,shoulder its responsibilities in the governance of globalisation.'1 [source]

    Process, Responsibility and Inclusion in EU Constitutionalism

    EUROPEAN LAW JOURNAL, Issue 1 2003
    Jo Shaw
    This paper it looks at some of the normative questions which frame debates about the EU constitutional architecture. Its main objective is to identify the core facets of a ,responsible and inclusive EU constitutionalism', and to argue for a focus on process, freedom, fairness and democracy as well as formal constitution,building within the debates inside and outside the Convention running up to the Intergovernmental Conference anticipated for 2003/2004. A model using the work of Canadian political theorist James Tully is constructed. The paper applies this framework in order to analyse some aspects of the work of the Convention on the Future of the Union, looking especially at questions of autonomy, representativity, internal dynamics, deliberation, receptiveness, and decision,making. The interim conclusion is drawn that the Convention method contains within itself the seeds of a critical and reflexive approach to EU constitutionalism. [source]