Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Contest

  • beauty contest

  • Terms modified by Contest

  • contest behaviour
  • contest competition
  • contest outcome

  • Selected Abstracts

    Community engagement for counterterrorism: lessons from the United Kingdom

    This article explores the development of community engagement within the UK's strategy to tackle international terrorism linked to and inspired by Al-Qaeda, commonly known as CONTEST. It focuses mostly on the ,Prevent' strand of the strategy which seeks to prevent radicalization towards violence, reduce tacit support for violence, and increase the resilience of communities to tackle radicalization and extremist messages themselves. Community engagement for counterterrorism also relates to certain aspects of the ,Pursue' strand of CONTEST, and these are highlighted. The article outlines the case for a community-based approach to counterterrorism and outlines a number of the key developments in its emergence from 2005 onwards. It analyses the performance of this aspect of the counterterrorism strategy, pointing to a number of shortcomings in relation to the establishment of partnerships, the integration of the approach, capacity shortfalls at the local level, and the wider challenges of a hostile political and media environment. Written as the new UK coalition government announces a review of the ,Prevent' strategy, it offers a number of recommendations for the future direction of this area of policy. It calls for an overhaul in working styles, a focus on people rather than projects, and the need to draw a much clearer line between downstream and targeted ,Prevent' work and the broader and longer-term community development work, with the latter encapsulated within the government's Big Society Programme and aimed at all fragile communities, not just Muslims. [source]


    Dana Sisak
    Abstract Multiple-prize contests are important in various fields of economics ranging from rent seeking over labour economics, patent and R&D races to tendering for (governmental) projects. Hence it is crucial to understand the incentive effects of multiple prizes on effort investment. This survey attempts to outline, compare and evaluate the results from the literature. While a first prize always results in a positive incentive to invest effort, second and later prizes lead to ambiguous effects. Depending on the objective function, the characteristics of the individuals and the type of contest a different prize allocation is optimal. [source]

    "God Has Chosen Us": Re-Membering Christian Realism, Rescuing Christendom, and the Contest of Responsibilities during the Cold War*

    DIPLOMATIC HISTORY, Issue 1 2009
    Mark Edwards
    First page of article [source]

    ACTFL 2003 Member-Get-A-Member Contest!

    Prizes, Rules
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ACTFL 2003 Member-Get-A-Member Contest!

    Prizes, Rules
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    ACTFL 2003 New-Member-Get-A-Member Contest

    Article first published online: 31 DEC 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    HBM functional imaging analysis contest data analysis in wavelet space

    HUMAN BRAIN MAPPING, Issue 5 2006
    John A.D. Aston
    Abstract An analysis of the Functional Imaging Analysis Contest (FIAC) data is presented using spatial wavelet processing. This technique allows the image to be filtered adaptively according to the data itself, rather than relying on a predetermined filter. This adaptive filtering leads to better estimation of the parameters and contrasts in terms of mean squared error. It will be shown that by introducing a slight bias into the estimation, a large reduction in the variance can be achieved, leading to better overall mean squared error estimates. As no single filter needs to be preselected, results containing many scales of information can be found. In the FIAC data, it is shown that both small-scale and large-scale (smoother, more dispersed) effects occur. The combination of small- and large-scale effects detected in the FIAC data would be easy to miss using conventional single filter analysis. Hum Brain Mapp, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Keynesian Beauty Contest, Accounting Disclosure, and Market Efficiency

    ABSTRACT This paper examines the market efficiency consequences of accounting disclosure in the context of stock markets as a Keynesian beauty contest, an influential metaphor originally proposed by Keynes [1936] and recently formalized by Allen, Morris, and Shin [2006]. In such markets, public information plays an additional commonality role, biasing stock prices away from the consensus fundamental value toward public information. Despite this bias, I demonstrate that provisions of public information always drive stock prices closer to the fundamental value. Hence, as a main source of public information, accounting disclosure enhances market efficiency, and transparency should not be compromised on grounds of the Keynesian-beauty-contest effect. [source]

    Nipple preference and contests in suckling kittens of the domestic cat are unrelated to presumed nipple quality

    Robyn Hudson
    Abstract We studied the development of suckling behavior and weight gain in 11 litters (52 kittens) of free-ranging domestic cats until postnatal day 28 just before the start of weaning. In six of these litters, we also recorded milk intake and contests for access to nipples. Already within 12 hr of birth kittens showed a preference for posterior nipples, and by postnatal day 3 each had developed a preference for particular nipples. In fact, 86% of kittens used one particular nipple most often, and even when the mother changed the side she lay on to nurse. Contests for access to nipples occurred throughout the study period at an average rate of one to two contests per kitten per hour of nursing. Contrary to suggestions in the literature that kittens compete for more productive nipples, we found no relation between kittens' use of particular nipples and their weight gain, milk intake, or involvement in contests during suckling. We suggest that kittens' preference for posterior nipples as well as their establishment of an individual "teat order" might function to optimize the number of nipples remaining productive across lactation, and to reduce energetically costly scrambles and potentially injurious contests among littermates. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Dev. Psychobiol 51: 322,332, 2009. [source]

    The Deterring Role of the Medium of Payment in Takeover Contests: Theory and Evidence from the UK

    Philippe Cornu
    The deterring role of the medium of payment in a takeover contest is analysed from the point of view of the bidder. Cash, debt and equity are considered as alternative mediums of payment, and the bidder equilibrium strategies are specified following the Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium requirements for a signalling game. The model predicts notably that cash offers signal a high-valuing bidder, strongly determined to acquire the target firm. Moreover, cash offers deter competition better than debt or equity offers. The theoretical results are validated with data from the UK over 1995,96. [source]

    Making Order Out of Trouble: Jurisdictional Politics in the Spanish Colonial Borderlands

    LAW & SOCIAL INQUIRY, Issue 2 2001
    Lauren Benton
    Jurisdictional fluidity was a central feature of early modem Iberian law, and jurisdictional tensions were exacerbated by overseas conquest and colonization. Contests over the legal status of conquered peoples featured both jurisdictional jockeying among colonial factions and widespread preoccupation with the symbols and rituals marking cultural and legal difference. This article examines the dynamics of jurisdictional politics in seventeenth-century New Mexico, where church and state officials carried on a bitter feud over legal authority during most of the century. Rather than viewing this contest as either transparently political or a mask for deeper processes defining hegemony, the article argues that seemingly dry legal distinctions were the focus of passionate and persistent struggle precisely because they merged institutional and cultural concerns of missionaries, settler elites, and Indians. The analysis leads to broader, more speculative claims about the role of jurisdictional fluidity in creating an "orderly disorder" that spanned diverse regions within Spanish America and, more broadly, across colonial regimes in the early modern world. [source]

    Triangular Contests and Caucus Rhetoric at the 1885 General Election*

    This article explores the role played by late-Victorian political associations during parliamentary election campaigns. The central hypothesis is that party organisation, known popularly as the ,caucus', is best understood as a rhetorical device used by politicians and the press to gain legitimacy in the new context created by an expanded and quasi-democratic electorate. The hypothesis is tested by examining the 1885 general election campaigns in Nottingham West and Sheffield Central. Both constituencies witnessed a triangular contest whereby an ,additional' candidate, standing on a radical platform, entered the campaign and pursued a distinctly ,anti-caucus' agenda that was aimed primarily at the local Liberal Party Association. The manner in which the ,caucus' issue was articulated by all sides involved throws new light on the role played by party organisation during this period. While all sides described their association in a way that both defended and asserted its legitimacy, they equally used ,anti-caucus' rhetoric to diminish the credibility of their opponent's organisation, even though they were emulating the deeds they were denouncing. Indeed, it was those within official Liberalism that indulged in the most virulent ,anti-caucus' rhetoric. Thus, it is suggested that, with regard to the attitude of radicals towards official Liberalism, this ,anti-caucus' rhetoric reflected not a real popular resistance against party organisation or ,party', but simply intense competition and imitation between rival ,caucuses'. [source]

    The Role of Information Revelation in Elimination Contests,

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 536 2009
    Jun Zhang
    In this article, we investigate how information revelation rules affect the existence and the efficiency of equilibria in two-round elimination contests. We establish that no symmetric separating equilibrium exists under the full revelation rule and find that the non-existence result is very robust. We then characterise a partially efficient separating equilibrium under the partial revelation rule when players' valuations are uniformly distributed. We finally investigate the no revelation rule and find that it is both most efficient and optimal in maximising the total efforts from the contestants. Within our framework, more information revelation leads to less efficient outcomes. [source]

    Suspense: Dynamic Incentives in Sports Contests,

    THE ECONOMIC JOURNAL, Issue 534 2009
    William Chan
    In a dynamic model of sports competition, if spectators care only about contestants' efforts, incentive schemes depending linearly on the final score difference dominate rank order schemes based only on who wins. If spectators also care about suspense, defined as valuing more contestants' efforts when the game is closer, rank order schemes can dominate linear score difference schemes, and this will be the case when the demand for suspense is sufficiently high. Under additional assumptions, we show that the optimal rank order scheme dominates a broad class of incentive schemes. [source]

    Auctions Versus Beauty Contests: The Allocation of UMTS Licences in Europe

    L. Cartelier
    The deployment of the so-called UMTS 3rd generation mobile networks is a step of vital importance for the promotion of competition in the telecommunications sector. The provision of high-traffic services presupposes that operators have access to the hertzian spectrum. The hertzian spectrum is a natural resource whose scarcity derives from the fact that only part of it is usable, for both technical and economic reasons. While the resource was sufficient to meet users' needs, the hertzian spectrum was allocated for little or no charge, on the principle of ,first come, first served'. However, with the explosion of technical progress in transmission technologies, new applications and new forms of use appeared, leading to a drastic increase in potential demand. It is in this context that the idea of charging for use of the spectrum arose, so as to discourage uneconomical use of the resource (e.g. stockpiling, wastage), to ensure a fair allocation between competing users and to forestall congestion. The purpose of this paper is first to examine the procedures for the allocation of hertzian spectrum operating licences, from the points of view of efficiency, transparency and sharing of the surplus. We shall then compare the results from the two approaches that were actually used in Europe: the open ascending auction and the beauty contest, before turning our attention to new forms of public action that result from the process of liberalization. [source]

    CODE IS SPEECH: Legal Tinkering, Expertise, and Protest among Free and Open Source Software Developers

    ABSTRACT In this essay, I examine the channels through which Free and Open Source Software (F/OSS) developers reconfigure central tenets of the liberal tradition,and the meanings of both freedom and speech,to defend against efforts to constrain their productive autonomy. I demonstrate how F/OSS developers contest and specify the meaning of liberal freedom,especially free speech,through the development of legal tools and discourses within the context of the F/OSS project. I highlight how developers concurrently tinker with technology and the law using similar skills, which transform and consolidate ethical precepts among developers. I contrast this legal pedagogy with more extraordinary legal battles over intellectual property, speech, and software. I concentrate on the arrests of two programmers, Jon Johansen and Dmitry Sklyarov, and on the protests they provoked, which unfolded between 1999 and 2003. These events are analytically significant because they dramatized and thus made visible tacit social processes. They publicized the challenge that F/OSS represents to the dominant regime of intellectual property (and clarified the democratic stakes involved) and also stabilized a rival liberal legal regime intimately connecting source code to speech. [source]

    Fred Wilson, PTSD, and Me: Reflections on the History Wars

    Ken Yellis
    But if history is destined to be contested, where should museums be in that contest and how do we get there? Fred Wilson's Mining the Museum has turned out to be a path not taken; Enola Gay was a cautionary tale. But we should have these fights in museums, where the national narrative is blocked out and staged, because of how museums teach us, opening hidden windows on cloaked realities. Museums can start by becoming clearer about what they think they are doing when they make an exhibition. Exhibitions can have a profound effect on visitors at many levels but it doesn't happen very often. Is that because visitors seek another kind of experience from what we typically offer? [source]

    Othello and the Geography of Persuasion

    Catherine Nicholson
    Othello is a revealing commentary on the unstable geographic underpinnings of early modern English theories of persuasion, which vacillate between affirming the authority of the commonplace and recognizing the allure of the novel and the strange. Thomas Rymer attacks the play as a tissue of improbabilities: Rymer's rigidly Aristotelian critique has been dismissed as a willfully insensitive and racist misreading, but his insistence on conflating credibility with racial identity coincides with Othello's own representation of its hero as doubly far-fetched. Othello's strangeness is both the key to his eloquence and the root of his vulnerability to Iago's skillful deployment of insider knowledge and plausible fictions. The play's racial dynamics thus play out rhetorically: Brabantio's locally-specific likelihoods may yield to Othello's exotic figures of speech, but Iago's commonplaces triumph in the end. This contest between plausibility and extravagance doesn't merely echo the play's geographic plotting, it points to the inextricability of early modern ideas about eloquence and about place. (C.N.) [source]

    Effects of Rapid Broadband Trills on Responses to Song Overlapping in Nightingales

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 4 2010
    Philipp Sprau
    In communication, animals often use complex signals with different traits carrying different information. In the song of some songbirds, both trills and song overlapping signal arousal or the readiness to escalate a contest in male-male interactions, yet they also differ inherently from each other. Song overlapping is restricted to interactions and has a clear directive function as the songs are timed specifically to the songs of a counterpart. Trills, however, can be used without opponents actively singing and do not have such a directional character unless when combined with directed traits. This difference raises the question whether trills can enhance the agonistic function of song overlapping when being used simultaneously. Here, we exposed male nightingales (Luscinia megarhynchos) prior to pairing to overlapping playback treatments differing in the presence or absence of rapid broadband trills. Males responded differently to the two playback treatments suggesting that song overlapping and rapid broadband trills have some synergistic effects. Consequently, the separate or simultaneous use of trills and of song overlapping may allow males to adjust information encoded in their singing on a fine scale. Furthermore, males that remained unpaired throughout the breeding season responded differently to the playbacks than did subsequently paired males, emphasizing the implications of differences in territory defence behaviour on males subsequent pairing success. [source]

    Ontogeny of Acoustic and Feeding Behaviour in the Grey Gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 3 2005
    M. Clara P. Amorim
    Although sound production in teleost fish is often associated with territorial behaviour, little is known of fish acoustic behaviour in other agonistic contexts such as competitive feeding and how it changes during ontogeny. The grey gurnard, Eutrigla gurnardus, frequently emits knock and grunt sounds during competitive feeding and seems to adopt both contest and scramble tactics under defensible resource conditions. Here we examine, for the first time, the effect of fish size on sound production and agonistic behaviour during competitive feeding. We have made sound (alone) and video (synchronized image and sound) recordings of grey gurnards during competitive feeding interactions. Experimental fish ranged from small juveniles to large adults and were grouped in four size classes: 10,15, 15,20, 25,30 and 30,40 cm in total length. We show that, in this species, both sound production and feeding behaviour change with fish size. Sound production rate decreased in larger fish. Sound duration, pulse duration and the number of pulses increased whereas the peak frequency decreased with fish size, in both sound types (knocks and grunts). Interaction rate and the frequency of agonistic behaviour decreased with increasing fish size during competitive feeding sessions. The proportion of feeding interactions accompanied by sound production was similar in all size classes. However, the proportion of interactions accompanied by knocks (less aggressive sounds) and by grunts (more aggressive) increased and decreased with fish size, respectively. Taken together, these results suggest that smaller grey gurnards compete for food by contest tactics whereas larger specimens predominantly scramble for food, probably because body size gives an advantage in locating, capturing and handling prey. We further suggest that sounds emitted during feeding may potentially give information on the motivation and ability of the individual to compete for food resources. [source]

    Strophe Length in Spontaneous Songs Predicts Male Response to Playback in the Hoopoe Upupa epops

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2004
    Manuel Martín-Vivaldi
    Hoopoe (Upupa epops, Coraciformes) males produce a very simple song during the breeding season in order to attract females and repel intruders. Strophes vary in length (i.e. number of elements) both within and between males, and previous studies have shown that this song cue is positively correlated with male condition and breeding success. In the present study we tested whether strophe length of males influences male behaviour during intra-sexual contests, in a colour-ringed population in southeast Spain. Paired males were presented with a recorded song with long strophes during the pre-laying period, while they were near their mates, in order to provoke male mate-defence behaviour. Most males responded to the playback, but the strategy of defence adopted depended on their own strophe length in spontaneous songs recorded before the experiments. While singing responses were common to most of the males, only those using long strophes adopted the most risky strategy of approaching the loudspeaker. However, the males that approached produced abnormal songs during playback, that were shorter and with fewer strophes than those of males that did not approach, and used shorter strophes in comparison with spontaneous songs before the experiment. These differences in quality of the song produced in response to the playback suggest that long-strophe males were basing their response mainly on attacking rather than singing, while short-strophe males tried to resolve the contest at a distance by means of their song. These results show that strophe length reflects some component of the competitive ability of males (either physical strength or aggressiveness) in the hoopoe, which together with previous results regarding its role for female choice, show that it is a sexual signal with dual function. [source]

    Does Lateral Presentation of the Palmate Antlers During Fights by Fallow Deer (Dama dama L.) Signify Dominance or Submission?

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    Dómhnall J. Jennings
    A central aim of the study of animal communication is to identify the mode and content of information transferred between individuals. The lateral presentation of the antler palm between male fallow deer has been described as either a signal of individual quality or an attempt to avoid fighting. In the first case two phenotypic features have been proposed by which transmission of individual quality may be facilitated. These are antler size and antler symmetry. The alternative hypothesis proposes that the lateral presentation of antlers occurs as a consequence of averting a threatening posture and may signify a reluctance to fight. We examined whether mature fallow deer use lateral palm presentation as a display during fights to indicate antler size and symmetry. We found no relationship between presentation rate of the antler and antler size and symmetry. Furthermore, males did not preferentially present their larger antler to their opponent. We also investigated whether the rate at which males presented antlers laterally during a fight was related to their ability to win the fight. Our results show that the male who performed more presentations during a fight was more likely to lose it. There were behavioural differences in the way in which a bout of presentation ended; subsequent losers tended to turn their body away from their opponent and subsequent winners tended to lower their antlers to an opponent which we interpret as an invitation to continue fighting. We conclude that the lateral palm presentation serves to de-escalate fighting between mature fallow deer. It is not a mechanism by which to communicate individual quality but rather an indication that a male is less committed to continuing investment in the current contest. [source]

    The Deterring Role of the Medium of Payment in Takeover Contests: Theory and Evidence from the UK

    Philippe Cornu
    The deterring role of the medium of payment in a takeover contest is analysed from the point of view of the bidder. Cash, debt and equity are considered as alternative mediums of payment, and the bidder equilibrium strategies are specified following the Perfect Bayesian Equilibrium requirements for a signalling game. The model predicts notably that cash offers signal a high-valuing bidder, strongly determined to acquire the target firm. Moreover, cash offers deter competition better than debt or equity offers. The theoretical results are validated with data from the UK over 1995,96. [source]

    Foreign Policy Making Under Koizumi: Norms and Japan's Role in the 2003 Iraq War

    Yukiko Miyagi
    Japan's policy toward the 2003 Iraq War is a test of the constructivist argument about the weight of norms as opposed to material systemic factors in foreign policy making. Constructions of external threats and interests were contested between a largely realist-minded elite around prime minister Koizumi bent on Japan's remilitarization and those still holding to antimilitarist norms. This contest is traced in an analysis of the policy-making process, including the role of bureaucratic and political institutions, the opposition parties and the public. Indicative of the power of norms, Koizumi was forced to compromise his ambition to use the Iraq crisis to help make Japan a "normal" great power. [source]

    Territorial behaviour and immunity are mediated by juvenile hormone: the physiological basis of honest signalling?

    FUNCTIONAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Jorge Contreras-Garduño
    Summary 1The role of the juvenile hormone (JH) as a potential mediator in the trade-off between male,male competition and immune response has not been tested, but its study could reveal a potential mechanism that mediates resource allocation between these two traits. 2Controlling for body size, we tested whether males of the territorial damselfly Calopteryx virgo administrated with methoprene acid, an analog of the JH (JHa), compared to control males, increased their aggression and occupation time on territories but decreased their phenoloxidase (PO) activity (a key enzyme used during immune response after a bacterial challenge). We found an increase in aggression in JHa treated males compared to control males, but the opposite was found for PO activity. 3As fat load and muscle mass are also important traits during a contest, we tested whether JHa males compared to control males showed more fat and muscle content 2 h after JHa administration. Our results did not show a significant difference between both male groups, suggesting that JHa only increased aggression. 4These results and a review of other published articles, which have documented an effect of JH on a variety of functions in insects, suggest that JH may be a target of sexual selection: this hormone not only promotes the expression of secondary sexual characters but also seems condition-dependent and so its titers may indicate male condition. [source]

    British Masculinities on Trial in the Queen Caroline Affair of 1820

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 2 2008
    Louise Carter
    This article uses the deluge of pamphlets, public addresses, newspaper articles and sermons addressing the Queen Caroline Affair to construct a case study of the opposing constructions of British masculinity vying for dominance in 1820. The literature surrounding the attempted royal divorce reveals a contest between the libertine example of manhood characterised by George IV and the more sober, chivalrous and respectable image of masculinity increasingly espoused as the British ideal. This episode, therefore, offers an unusually rich insight into contemporary constructions of masculinity and the way in which they were utilised within the public sphere. Moreover, this article argues that such gendered concerns were not only as crucial to motivating opposition to the king's actions as political issues, but that gender concerns and political issues were indivisible, as appropriate manly behaviour in both public and private increasingly came to be seen as a core component of a man's overall reputation and fitness to exercise authority. [source]

    ,Are You Going to be MISS (or MR) Africa?'Contesting Masculinity in Drum Magazine 1951,1953

    GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 1 2001
    Lindsay Clowes
    DrumDrum magazine was first published in March 1951. Like other magazines, it both reflected and shaped the society from which its audience emerged. During 1951, its audience, mainly urban black readers, was able to push the publication away from its original rural focus towards an urban emphasis. Town living, however, meant different things to different people. Thus, while readers were successful in shifting the focus of the magazine, they were less successful in influencing the way the publication presented urban life. This paper explores the struggle between readers, journalists and editors over the Miss Africa beauty contest announced at the beginning of 1952. Although the magazine reluctantly admitted men to the contest, it discriminated against male entrants in a variety of ways over the course of the year, and subsequent competitions barred male contestants entirely. Despite opposition from male readers who wished to be considered beautiful, the men of Drum were largely successful in asserting their own deeply gendered cultural vision of urban life. [source]

    Constructing the Deviant Other: Mothering and Fathering at the Workplace

    Clarissa Kugelberg
    Gender stereotyping is a widely described and documented process that permeates working life in western societies. It is characterized by ascribing greatly simplified attributes to women and men and forging a dualistic view of gender in which women and men are conceptualized as antipodes to each other. Through this ongoing reproduction of simplistic views; contradictions, variations and complexities are concealed, together with the richness of individuals' competence and experiences. Intimately related to this gender stereotyping are assumptions that distinct kinds of jobs and positions fit either men or women. In this article I investigate the constructions of motherhood and fatherhood as important elements in the processes of gender stereotyping. I argue that the production of stereotypes is part of an inter-discursive contest which has a significant impact on gender relations and women's opportunities. My discussion derives from an anthropological study of one workplace. [source]

    Exelon engages employees in climate-change challenge

    Howard N. Karesh
    Exelon Corporation, one of the first U.S. utilities to advocate for federal climate-change legislation, has moved into uncharted territory as it seeks to fully engage employees in its ambitious goal for significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by 2020 and its roadmap to a low-carbon future. Despite a multipronged internal communications program, enterprise-level efforts did not sustain the employee enthusiasm that accompanied the July 2008 launch of the Exelon 2020 low-carbon roadmap, and the company went back to the drawing board. The Exelon 2020 Engagement Team,this time rechartered around action rather than conversation about employee environmental initiatives,has driven a second round of efforts. The early success of an employee film festival, a contest around at-home energy conservation, and empowering local green councils to run with the ball has fueled cautious optimism that employees are finally jumping aboard. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

    Slavery and the Founding

    Matthew Mason
    One of the oldest but hottest debates over the U.S. Constitution has concerned its relationship to slavery, a dispute that goes right to the heart of the meaning of the founding of the republic. Some observers have portrayed slavery as a , even the , vital problem of the Founding, and denounced the Constitution as a proslavery document. Other scholars contend that this picture unduly elevates the importance of slavery in the contest over the Constitution and distorts the intent of the Founders. This essay reviews recent entries in this debate to frame its argument that slavery figured largely as a weapon that Federalists and Antifederalists wielded to press their more primary points. It examines the debates over , and using , the various slavery clauses in the document to conclude that slavery was a versatile tool in rather than a core concern of the Constitutional Convention and ratification debates. [source]