Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Constructs

  • adenoviral construct
  • bone construct
  • cartilage construct
  • chimeric construct
  • cognitive construct
  • control construct
  • cultural construct
  • deletion construct
  • different construct
  • distinct construct
  • dna construct
  • expression construct
  • fusion construct
  • gene construct
  • independent construct
  • key construct
  • latent construct
  • luciferase reporter construct
  • multidimensional construct
  • mutant construct
  • new construct
  • other construct
  • performance construct
  • personal construct
  • personality construct
  • plasmid construct
  • promoter construct
  • psychological construct
  • relate construct
  • reporter construct
  • reporter gene construct
  • same construct
  • separate construct
  • social construct
  • theoretical construct
  • tissue construct
  • tissue-engineered construct
  • underlying construct
  • unidimensional construct

  • Terms modified by Constructs

  • construct consisting
  • construct containing
  • construct meaning
  • construct validation
  • construct validity

  • Selected Abstracts


    The major purpose of this study was to determine whether empirically keyed, cross-validated biodata scales accounted for incremental variance over that accounted for by the five factor model (FFM) of personality and GMA predictors. A concurrent validation study was employed using 376 employees in a clerical job (222 in the developmental sample and 154 in the cross-validation sample). Results for the cross-validation sample provided support for the hypothesis that biodata predictors accounted for substantial incremental variance beyond that accounted for by the FFM predictors and GMA for 3 of the 4 criteria. Support was also found for the hypothesized zero-order correlations between GMA, FFM, and biodata predictors and the 4 criteria. Theoretical and practical implications are discussed. [source]

    Re-Framing the Question: How Can We Construct a Theology of Religions?

    DIALOG, Issue 4 2007
    Ted Peters
    Abstract:, The existing framework,the typology of exclusivism, inclusivism, and pluralism,seems inadequate for resolving the dilemma Lutheran theologians confront: how to show respect for believers of the world's religions while still retaining the Christian commitment to mission. A substitute typology is proffered that distinguishes confessional exclusivism, confessional universalism, and supra-confessional universalism. The option of confessional universalism provides a path for affirming a specific religious commitment,that in Jesus Christ God has been revealed as gracious,that is universally applicable; yet, holders of this position can demonstrate respect for, and cooperate with, members of other religious traditions who see matters differently. [source]

    Untangling the Intuition Mess: Intuition as a Construct in Entrepreneurship Research

    J. Robert Mitchell
    Entrepreneurs often use intuition to explain their actions. But because entrepreneurial intuition is poorly defined in the research literature: the "intuitive" is confused with the "innate," what is systematic is overlooked, and unexplained variance in entrepreneurial behavior remains high. Herein we: (1) bound and define the construct of entrepreneurial intuition within the distinctive domain of entrepreneurship research; (2) apply a levels-of-consciousness logic and process dynamism approach to; (3) organize definitions, antecedents, and consequences; and (4) produce propositions that lead to a working definition of entrepreneurial intuition. Our analysis renders intuition more usable in entrepreneurship research, and more valuable in practice. [source]

    The Historiography of a Construct: "Feudalism" and the Medieval Historian

    Richard Abels
    Between 1974 and 1994, two influential critiques of feudalism were published, an article in 1974 by Elizabeth A. R. Brown and a book by Susan Reynolds in 1994, that crystallized doubts about the construct of feudalism harbored by many historians of the Middle Ages. Over the last few years textbooks have begun to reflect the new consensus. Medieval historians responsible for chapters on the Middle Ages in Western Civilization and World Civilization textbooks now shy away from the term ,feudalism'. This reticence is less evident in civilization textbooks lacking a medievalist among the collaborators. In several of these we still find the ,feudal Middle Ages' presented without apology, as well as comparisons drawn between Japanese, Chinese, and medieval Western feudalisms. Whether or not the assigned textbook mentions ,feudalism', most Western civilization instructors probably continue to use the term because it is familiar to them and to their students. This article presents an overview of the historiography of one of the key concepts for the study of the Middle Ages, and an assessment of where the state of the question now stands. The author concludes that, although the critique of feudalism is powerful and necessary, the pendulum is threatening to swing too far in the other direction, away from the vertical ties and power relations that once dominated discussions of medieval politics and society, and toward a new paradigm of horizontal bonds, consensus making, and community. [source]

    Toward a Multidimensional Construct of Social Support: Implications of Provider's Self-Reliance and Request Characteristics

    Anat Drach-Zahavy
    The two studies reported here sought to propose a multidimensional taxonomy for providing social support, and to use an attachment-theory framework to investigate provision of support at work. Additionally, the studies sought to explore the distinct contextual considerations that affect decisions on the type of support provided. In Study 1, case studies were presented to 164 hospital nurses, who, taking the role of the head nurse, were asked to deal with a distressed staff nurse who was either high or low tenured, and whose cause of distress was either personal or job-related. In the second study, 55 nurses with various job tenures described the support behaviors of their superiors. In both studies, support interventions and attachment styles were measured. Results provided partial evidence of the multidimensionality of social support, and indicated that it contains 4 distinct support behaviors: helping, maintenance, referral, and encouragement of self-coping. Furthermore, the distinct support behaviors were affected by different attachment styles and contextual considerations. [source]

    Uncertainty in Breast, Prostate, and Colorectal Cancer: Implications for Supportive Care

    Maya Shaha
    Purpose:The aim of this paper was to identify and explore the literature for key aspects of uncertainty experienced by patients who have been diagnosed with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer. Organizing Construct: Throughout the cancer journey important decisions are made about treatments, symptom control, and supportive care and many approaches have been adopted to examine coping and uncertainty associated with a cancer diagnosis. Uncertainty and its associated attributes, such as stress or anxiety, fluctuate across the disease trajectory. To appreciate the changing nature of uncertainty one should consider its effect on specific patient groups by considering the available evidence. Methods: A comprehensive literature search that was focused on reviews and studies about uncertainty in cancer patients was conducted in PubMed and CINAHL. In total, 40 articles were identified that indicated uncertainty in patients with breast, prostate, or colorectal cancer, although the emphasis in each differed according to the nature and treatment of the disease. Findings: Uncertainty was found to comprise three main themes: uncertainty because of limited or lack of information, uncertainty concerning the course and treatment choices related to the disease, and uncertainty related to everyday life and coping with the disease. Conclusions: Uncertainty influences patients' experiences of their cancer and their coping. Whilst it might be impossible to avoid uncertainty entirely, its negative effects might be ameliorated by understanding patients' specific needs along the disease trajectory of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer. [source]

    Cultural Perspectives of International Breast Health and Breast Cancer Education

    Karen Dow Meneses
    Purpose: To (a) describe teaching,learning strategies to foster cultural exchange among participants in the Train-The-Trainer (TTT) International Breast Health Program; (b) describe participants' perceptions of cultural influences on breast health and breast cancer; and (c) explore lessons learned about cultural influences on breast health TTT educational programs. Organizing Construct: The TTT curriculum was grounded in the belief that nurses can effectively deliver breast health and breast cancer education, that educational programs must be culturally relevant and sensitive to the needs of the target population, and that an urgent need exists worldwide to reduce the burden of breast cancer. Methods: A total of 32 nurses from 20 countries participated in three TTT programs held before the biennial meetings of the International Society of Nurses in Cancer Care (ISNCC) since 2000, with follow-up by E-mail survey. Narrative descriptions of their perspectives and experiences are reported. Results: Teaching,learning strategies incorporated cultural values into a TTT program to engage participants in sharing their individual and collective experiences about women with breast cancer. Conclusions: Developing countries are increasingly multicultural. Developed countries have large immigrant populations that generally maintain the cultural values and practices about breast cancer from the country of origin. These "lessons learned" are important in planning other educational programs. [source]

    A Review of Nursing Research on Blood Pressure

    Sue Ann Thomas
    Purpose: To provide this second 10-year review of nursing research on blood pressure (BP) and to focus attention on incorporating biopsychosocial factors affecting BP in nursing research. Organizing Construct: Blood pressure is a dynamic, multidimensional, cardiovascular indicator of a person's state rather than a one-dimensional static measurement. Methods: This 10-year literature review 1990,1999 included 54 nursing research articles with BP as an outcome measure. Four nursing research journals were reviewed to identify all nurse-authored articles investigating BP as an outcome variable in adult populations. Inclusion of individual characteristics, environmental factors, dynamic nature of blood pressure, and interpersonal aspects of blood pressure were assessed for each article. Findings: Age, gender, and health status were mentioned consistently in both decades. Reporting of socioeconomic, occupational, educational, activity, and martial status remained low. Descriptions of environments increased, and automated devices were the most common method for BP assessment. Less than half of the articles included a description of the person measuring the BP. Measurement of BP under multiple conditions increased, but measurement within conditions did not. Conclusions: Advances in technology and data analysis have increased knowledge of the dynamic nature of BP, but recognition of the complex nature of BP has not progressed rapidly over the last 2 decades. [source]

    Early Risk Indicators of Substance Abuse Among Nurses

    Margaret Mary West
    Purpose: To investigate early risk factors that led to substance-related disorders and to predict group differences between substance-impaired (SI) and nonimpaired (NI) registered nurses. Organizing Construct: Donovan's multifactorial model of impairment, and Rogers'Science of Unitary Human Beings. Methods: Data were gathered from 100 previously SI and 100 NI nurses located through use of the Internet. Three questionnaires were used: the Zuckerman Sensation Seeking Scale (ZSSS), the Efinger Alcohol Risk Survey (EARS), and the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST). Findings: Independent t-test scores showed the two groups differed significantly on all three instruments' total scores. Discriminate analysis indicated a correct prediction of 87% for SI and 95% for NI nurses, with an overall rate of 91%. EARS scores were the best predictor of nurses with substance-related disorders (.99), followed by ZSSS (.44) and CAST (.42) scores. Conclusions: The three variables indicate early risk factors for substance-abuse impairment. Identification of nurses at risk for impairment will allow for earlier intervention and possible prevention. Methods to reduce the number of modifiable risk factors are recommended. [source]

    An International Imperative for Gender-Sensitive Theories in Women's Health

    Eun-Ok Im
    Purpose: To propose gender-sensitive theories as a future direction for theoretical development of women's health. Few theories pertain to women's health and illness experiences, with gender issues embedded in social, cultural, and historical contexts. Organizing Construct: Significance, definition, and philosophical bases of gender-sensitive theories. Findings: Six major components should be incorporated in the development of gender-sensitive theories: (a) gender as a major feature, (b) women's own words and experiences, (c) nature of women's experiences, (d) theorists' perspectives, (e) contexts, and (f) guidelines for actions. Conclusions: We believe that the development of gender-sensitive theories in nursing could enable researchers to transcend androcentric and ethnocentric views on women's health, decrease gender inequity in health care, enhance women's well being, and ultimately contribute to knowledge development in nursing. [source]

    A Representational Approach to Patient Education

    Heidi Scharf Donovan
    Purpose: To describe the theoretical basis for a representational approach to patient education and the application of this approach to the development, implementation, and preliminary evaluation of a representational intervention for pain management. Organizing Construct: Leventhal's common sense model (CSM) was a guide for this approach to patient education. The CSM is based on the idea that people have common sense beliefs, or representations, that guide how they cope with health problems. Theoretically based interventions derived from the CSM have not been reported. Methods: Steps included: (a) designing a general approach to educational interventions, centered on illness representations; (b) specifying an intervention (RIDPAIN) to facilitate coping with cancer pain; (c) pilot-testing and revising the intervention; and (d) testing feasibility and acceptability of the intervention with 61 patients in a Midwestern American city. Findings: The RIDPAIN intervention was useful in eliciting misconceptions of pain and pain management from patients experiencing cancer pain. Many patients found RIDPAIN to be meaningful and useful, and they perceived it to have an effect on pain-related beliefs and behaviors. Conclusions: This theory-driven approach should be effective and widely applicable because it includes patients as active participants in all phases of the learning continuum, from information acquisition to behavior change. [source]

    Professional Development of Nursing in Saudi Arabia

    Gail Tumulty
    Purpose: To describe the development of nursing in Saudi Arabia and to recommend further directions for development of professional nursing in that country. Organizing Construct: A comprehensive needs assessment was performed in 1996 by an onsite consultant to: (a) evaluate the existing nursing system at the ministry, regional, and hospital levels, (b) describe the functional interrelationships of a nursing division within the Ministry of Health, and (c) prepare a work plan outlining the program elements that a nursing division could address to foster high-quality health care in the public sector. Methods: The needs assessment was conducted through direct observation, interviews, and review of existing documents in the Ministry of Health and representative hospitals, health centers, and health institutes. Data were collected about six factors as they pertained to the Ministry of Health Nursing Services: (a) key organizational and managerial activities, (b) the external environment, (c) the social system, (d) employees, (e) nursing services and research, and (f) formal organizational arrangements. Findings and Conclusions: The data showed a young country and an equally young nursing profession struggling to meet the needs of a growing population. The highest priority for the advancement of nursing in Saudi Arabia is the creation of a kingdom-wide system of nurse regulation. Pressing needs include regulation of professional standards, licensure of all nurses practicing in the Kingdom, accreditation of educational programs, and formation of a national nurses association. [source]

    A Gender Perspective on Conflict Management Strategies of Nurses

    Patricia E.B. Valentine
    Purpose: To apply a gender perspective to synthesis of research findings on conflict management. Organizing Construct: The Thomas-Kilmann Mode Instrument (TKI), for measuring five conflict-handling strategies: avoiding, compromising, collaborating, accommodating, and competing. Method: Nursing research studies with the TKI and other studies are synthesized from perspectives in three gender theories. Conclusions: Findings were that two conflict management strategies, avoiding and compromising, were used predominantly by all categories of nurses. Possible reasons for over- and underuse of the remaining three strategies (collaborating, accommodating, competing) are described. Implications of these findings for nurses and nursing organizations are discussed. [source]

    A Taxonomy of Passive Behaviors in People with Alzheimer's Disease

    Kathleen Byrne Colling
    Purpose: To construct a taxonomy of passive behaviors for understanding people with Alzheimer's disease. Passive behaviors are those associated with decreased motor movements, decreasing interactions with the environment, and feelings of apathy and listlessness. Little is known about behaviors associated with passivity, and these behaviors have not been categorized. Organizing Construct: Taxonomy construction. Passive behaviors in people with Alzheimer's disease were conceptualized as disturbing behaviors, patterns of personality change, and negative symptoms. Methods: The taxonomy was developed using critical reviews of 15 empirical studies published 1985 through 1998. Procedures included listing behaviors; clustering behaviors into inductively derived groupings; conducting an expert panel-review, making revisions, and conduting a second review; establishing global and category-by-category reliability using Cohen's Kappa. Findings: The nonhierarchic, natural taxonomy indicated five categories of behaviors associated with passivity in Alzheimer's disease: diminutions of cognition, psychomotor activity, emotions, interactions with people, and interactions with the environment. Analysis indicated substantial agreement beyond chance and showed statistically significant agreement among the six nurse-expert raters. Areas of synchrony between the taxonomy and the Need-Driven Dementia Compromised Behavior Model were identified. Conclusions: This taxonomy of passive behaviors in patients with Alzheimer's disease showed empirical rigor and compatibility with a middle-range theory and can be viewed as a sensitizing analytic scheme to guide future practice, research, and theory development. [source]

    Fracture Resistance of Fiber-Reinforced PMMA Interim Fixed Partial Dentures

    Tamer A. Hamza BDS
    Purpose: To compare different fiber reinforcements on fracture toughness of interim polymethyl methacrylate materials and then use the best combination to determine the optimal position for fiber placement in an interim 3-unit fixed partial denture (FPD). Materials and Methods: In the first stage of the study, five groups of notched fracture toughness specimens were fabricated and loaded to failure (Instron): (1) unreinforced (control); (2) reinforced with pre-impregnated silanized E-glass fibers (Fibrestick); (3) cold plasma-treated woven polyethylene fibers (Ribbond triaxial); (4) pre-impregnated silanized plasma-treated woven polyethylene fibers (Construct); and (5) 1.0-mm-diameter stainless steel wire. In the second stage, the optimal position (occlusal, middle, or cervical third of pontic) for reinforcement with glass fibers (regimen 2) was tested by loading a 3-unit FPD to failure. All groups were compared with analysis of variance (, < 0.05). Results: The fracture toughness (in MPam1/2) for each reinforced group (Fibrestick 2.74 ± 0.12, Construct fibers 2.59 ± 0.28, Ribbond triaxial 2.13 ± 0.20, and orthodontic wire 1.66 ± 0.09) was statistically greater (p< 0.05) than for the unreinforced group (control = 1.25 ± 0.006). Fracture loads for FPDs were greatest when the fiber reinforcements were placed in the cervical third (cervical = 1165 N). Conclusions: The use of fiber and, to a lesser extent, orthodontic wire is an effective method to reinforce interim restoration resins. [source]

    The Apparent-Time Construct and stable variation: Final /z/ devoicing in northwestern Indiana1

    Brian José
    As real-time language data becomes increasingly available for sociolinguistic research, a growing number of studies are benefitting from it in order to study language changes in progress, some of which even explicitly seek to scrutinize the Apparent-Time Construct itself. Vanishingly few real-time studies, however, have focused specifically on stable sociolinguistic variables, leaving an important gap in our understanding of the Apparent-Time Construct's abilities to model real-time facts. In an effort to address this gap, the present study analyzes a presumably stable sociolinguistic variable , final /z/ devoicing , in extreme northwestern Indiana through real and apparent time. A series of Varbrul analyses indicate that this variable is, indeed, stable throughout the 20 years of real time covered by the data and that its stability is successfully modeled in apparent time. Additionally, similarities in /z/ devoicing between this community and some other communities where it has also been studied are identified and discussed. [source]

    Responsiveness-to-Intervention: Definitions, Evidence, and Implications for the Learning Disabilities Construct

    Douglas Fuchs
    Longstanding concern about how learning disabilities (LD) are defined and identified, coupled with recent efforts in Washington, DC to eliminate IQ-achievement discrepancy as an LD marker, have led to serious public discussion about alternative identification methods. The most popular of the alternatives is responsiveness-to-intervention (RTI), of which there are two basic versions: the "problem-solving" model and the "standard-protocol" approach. The authors describe both types, review empirical evidence bearing on their effectiveness and feasibility, and conclude that more needs to be understood before RTI may be viewed as a valid means of identifying students with LD. [source]

    Reflection and moral maturity in a nurse's caring practice: a critical perspective

    NURSING PHILOSOPHY, Issue 3 2010
    Jane Sumner PhD
    Abstract The likelihood of nurse reflection is examined from the theoretical perspectives of Habermas' Theory of Communicative Action and Moral Action and Sumner's Moral Construct of Caring in Nursing as Communicative Action, through a critical social theory lens. The argument is made that until the nurse reaches the developmental level of post-conventional moral maturity and/or Benner's Stage 5: expert, he or she is not capable of being inwardly directed reflective on self. The three developmental levels of moral maturity and Benner's stages are presented with discussion on whether or not there can be self-reflection because of an innate vulnerability that leads to self-protective behaviours. It is only when the confidence from mastery of practice has been achieved can the nurse be comfortable with reflection that enables him or her to become enlightened, emancipated, and empowered. The influences and constraints of the knowledge power between nurse and patient are acknowledged. The power hierarchy of the institution is recognized as constraining. [source]

    Resilience: A Many-Splendored Construct?

    Anthony N. Maluccio DSW
    First page of article [source]

    The Russian Empire as Cultural Construct*

    James Cracraft
    First page of article [source]

    Same-Sex Marriage: A Construct in a Quest for Ecological Validity

    Carlton W. Parks Jr.
    The Kitzinger and Wilkinson's ASAP paper serves as the foundation for this discussion of the same-sex marriage construct. The major focus of this discussion is, "What needs to occur in order for ecological validity to be achieved?" First, there needs to be some concerted attention paid to the entire spectrum of close relationships (at both the positive and the negative end of the continuum) before the same-sex marriage construct is fully embraced. Next, some attention needs to be paid to the diversity of viewpoints/beliefs/attitudes that exists concerning same-sex marriage within the ethnically and culturally diverse LGBT communities. [source]

    Assessment Center for Pilot Selection: Construct and Criterion Validity and the Impact of Assessor Type

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Marc Damitz
    Cette recherche a examiné la validité d'un centre d'évaluation pour la sélection de pilotes. Les scores de N = 1,036 participants ont été utilisés pour étudier la validité de construit. Un sous-échantillon de participants performants a été suivi et les évaluations des pairs ont été retenus comme mesures du critère. Les résultats démontrent une première évidence de validité de construit et de critère pour cet outil d'évaluation des compétences interpersonnelles et liées à la performance. Par ailleurs, les résultats ont aussi montré que le type d'évaluateur (psychologue vs pilote) modère la validité prédictive des scores du centre d'évaluation. Cet effet "type d'évaluateur" dépend de la sorte de variables prédictives. Les résultats sont discutés et des implications pratiques sont suggérées. This study examined the validity of an assessment center in pilot selection as a new field of application. Assessment center ratings of N= 1,036 applicants were used to examine the construct validity. A subsample of successful applicants was followed up and peer ratings were chosen as criterion measures. The results provide first evidence of the construct and criterion validity of this assessment center approach for rating interpersonal and performance-related skills. Furthermore the type of assessor (psychologist versus pilot) moderates the predictive validity of the assessment center ratings. This type-of-assessor effect depends on the kind of predictor variables. The results are discussed and practical implications are suggested. [source]

    Novel Imaging Analysis System to Measure the Spatial Dimension of Engineered Tissue Construct

    ARTIFICIAL ORGANS, Issue 2 2010
    Kyoung-Hwan Choi
    Abstract The measurement of the spatial dimensions of tissue-engineered constructs is very important for their clinical applications. In this study, a novel method to measure the volume of tissue-engineered constructs was developed using iterative mathematical computations. The method measures and analyzes three-dimensional (3D) parameters of a construct to estimate its actual volume using a sequence of software-based mathematical algorithms. The mathematical algorithm is composed of two stages: the shape extraction and the determination of volume. The shape extraction utilized 3D images of a construct: length, width, and thickness, captured by a high-quality camera with charge coupled device. The surface of the 3D images was then divided into fine sections. The area of each section was measured and combined to obtain the total surface area. The 3D volume of the target construct was then mathematically obtained using its total surface area and thickness. The accuracy of the measurement method was verified by comparing the results with those obtained from the hydrostatic weighing method (Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science [KRISS], Korea). The mean difference in volume between two methods was 0.0313 ± 0.0003% (n = 5, P = 0.523) with no significant statistical difference. In conclusion, our image-based spatial measurement system is a reliable and easy method to obtain an accurate 3D volume of a tissue-engineered construct. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: Practical Synthesis of a New Analytical Construct: Thiopyrimidine Safety-Catch Linker for Facile Monitoring of Solid-Phase Chemistry.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 4 2001
    Olivier Lorthioir
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 100 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Emotion Regulation as a Scientific Construct: Methodological Challenges and Directions for Child Development Research

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 2 2004
    Pamela M. Cole
    Emotion regulation has emerged as a popular topic, but there is doubt about its viability as a scientific construct. This article identifies conceptual and methodological challenges in this area of study and describes exemplar studies that provide a substantive basis for inferring emotion regulation. On the basis of those studies, 4 methods are described that provide compelling evidence for emotion regulation: independent measurement of activated emotion and purported regulatory processes; analysis of temporal relations; measurement across contrasting conditions; and multiple, convergent measures. By offering this perspective, this article aims to engage thoughtful debate and critical analysis, with the goal of increasing methodological rigor and advancing an understanding of emotion regulation as a scientific construct. [source]

    Factorial Invariance Within Longitudinal Structural Equation Models: Measuring the Same Construct Across Time

    Keith F. Widaman
    Abstract, Charting change in behavior as a function of age and investigating longitudinal relations among constructs are primary goals of developmental research. Traditionally, researchers rely on a single measure (e.g., scale score) for a given construct for each person at each occasion of measurement, assuming that measure reflects the same construct at each occasion. With multiple indicators of a latent construct at each time of measurement, the researcher can evaluate whether factorial invariance holds. If factorial invariance constraints are satisfied, latent variable scores at each time of measurement are on the same metric and stronger conclusions are warranted. This article discusses factorial invariance in longitudinal studies, contrasting analytic approaches and highlighting strengths of the multiple-indicator approach to modeling developmental processes. [source]

    Is Complicated Grief a Valid Construct?

    George A. Bonanno
    Important progress has been made in conceptualizing and demonstrating effective interventions for complicated grief (CG). The author argues, however, that the CG construct is still poorly understood, and that there remain several important but unanswered questions about the construct's basic validity. Recent research is reviewed that provides preliminary evidence for the CG's incremental validity over other forms of grief-related psychopathology. However, further evidence of incremental validity is still needed. Several prospective studies are also reviewed that support the discriminant validity of CG in relation to more enduring depressive symptoms. However, most studies of CG have failed to make this distinction and have tended to confound CG with longer-term depressive states. The author argues that future research on CG, including intervention studies, needs to allot greater attention to these validity issues. [source]

    An Inexpensive, Easily Constructed, Reusable Task Trainer for Simulating Ultrasound-Guided Pericardiocentesis

    Daniel Girzadas
    Pericardiocentesis is a low frequency, high-risk procedure integral to the practice of emergency medicine.1, 2 Ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis is the preferred technique for providing this critical care.3 Traditionally, emergency physicians learned pericardiocentesis real time, at the beside, on critically ill patients. Medical education is moving toward simulation for training and assessment of procedures such as pericardiocentesis, because it allows learners to practice time-sensitive skills without risk to patient or learner.4 There are mannequin-based simulators capable of supporting landmark-guided pericardiocentesis, but they are expensive. No commercially available simulation models enable physicians to practice pericardiocentesis under ultrasound guidance. We have developed an ultrasound-guided pericardiocentesis task trainer that allows the physician to insert a needle under ultrasound guidance, pierce the "pericardial sac" and aspirate "blood". Our model can be simply constructed in a home kitchen and the overall preparation time is one hour. Our model costs $20.00 (US, 2008). Materials needed for the construction include 12 ounces of plain gelatin, one large balloon, one golf ball, food coloring, non-stick cooking spray, one wooden cooking skewer, BetadineÔ, and a 3-quart sized Tupperware container. Refrigeration and a heat source for cooking are also required. Once prepared, the model is usable for two weeks at room temperature and may be preserved an additional week if refrigerated. When the model shows signs of wear, it can be easily remade, by simply recycling the existing materials. 1. Ann Emerg Med. 2001, 37:745,770. 2. Acad Emerg Med. 2008, 15:1046,1057. 3. Crit Care Med. 2007, 35:S290,304. 4. Ann Emerg Med. 2008, 15:1117,1129. [source]

    ChemInform Abstract: 0-D and 1-D Inorganic,Organic Composite Polyoxotungstates Constructed from in situ Generated MonocopperII -Substituted Keggin Polyoxoanions and CopperII,Organoamine Complexes.

    CHEMINFORM, Issue 51 2008
    Jun-Wei Zhao
    Abstract ChemInform is a weekly Abstracting Service, delivering concise information at a glance that was extracted from about 200 leading journals. To access a ChemInform Abstract of an article which was published elsewhere, please select a "Full Text" option. The original article is trackable via the "References" option. [source]

    Complementation of melanocyte development in SOX10 mutant neural crest using lineage-directed gene transfer

    Ling Hou
    Abstract An in vitro gene complementation approach has been developed to dissect gene function and regulation in neural crest (NC) development and disease. The approach uses the avian RCAS virus to express genes in NC cells derived from transgenic mice expressing the RCAS receptor TVA, under the control of defined promoter elements. Constructs for creating TVA transgenic mice were developed using site-specific recombination GATEWAY (GW), compatible vectors that can also be used to facilitate analysis of genomic fragments for transcriptional regulatory elements. By using these GW vectors to facilitate cloning, transgenic mouse lines were generated that express TVA in SOX10-expressing NC stem cells under the control of the Pax3 promoter. The Pax3-tv-a transgene was bred onto a Sox10 -deficient background, and the feasibility of complementing genetic NC defects was demonstrated by infecting the Pax3-tv-a cells with an RCAS- Sox10 expression virus, thereby rescuing melanocyte development of Sox10 -deficient NC cells. This system will be useful for assessing genetic hierarchies in NC development. Developmental Dynamics 229:54,62, 2004. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]