Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Conservation

  • amphibian conservation
  • biodiversity conservation
  • biological conservation
  • bird conservation
  • breast conservation
  • carnivore conservation
  • de conservation
  • ecosystem conservation
  • effective conservation
  • elephant conservation
  • energy conservation
  • environmental conservation
  • evolutionary conservation
  • fish conservation
  • forest conservation
  • functional conservation
  • global conservation
  • global mass conservation
  • good conservation
  • high conservation
  • integrate conservation
  • long-term conservation
  • mass conservation
  • momentum conservation
  • nature conservation
  • plant conservation
  • primate conservation
  • resource conservation
  • sequence conservation
  • situ conservation
  • soil conservation
  • species conservation
  • structural conservation
  • successful conservation
  • water conservation
  • wildlife conservation

  • Terms modified by Conservation

  • conservation action
  • conservation activity
  • conservation agencies
  • conservation agenda
  • conservation agreement
  • conservation approach
  • conservation area
  • conservation assessment
  • conservation attention
  • conservation benefit
  • conservation biogeography
  • conservation biological control
  • conservation biologist
  • conservation biology
  • conservation challenge
  • conservation community
  • conservation concern
  • conservation context
  • conservation decision
  • conservation ecology
  • conservation education
  • conservation education program
  • conservation effort
  • conservation equation
  • conservation genetics
  • conservation goal
  • conservation implication
  • conservation importance
  • conservation initiative
  • conservation interest
  • conservation intervention
  • conservation investment
  • conservation issue
  • conservation issues
  • conservation laryngeal surgery
  • conservation law
  • conservation management
  • conservation managers
  • conservation measure
  • conservation movement
  • conservation need
  • conservation network
  • conservation objective
  • conservation organization
  • conservation outcome
  • conservation pattern
  • conservation perspective
  • conservation plan
  • conservation planner
  • conservation planning
  • conservation policy
  • conservation potential
  • conservation practice
  • conservation practitioner
  • conservation priority
  • conservation problem
  • conservation program
  • conservation programme
  • conservation project
  • conservation property
  • conservation purpose
  • conservation quantity
  • conservation requirement
  • conservation research
  • conservation reserve
  • conservation resource
  • conservation science
  • conservation scientists
  • conservation significance
  • conservation status
  • conservation strategy
  • conservation success
  • conservation surgery
  • conservation target
  • conservation therapy
  • conservation tillage
  • conservation tool
  • conservation treatment
  • conservation union
  • conservation unit
  • conservation value

  • Selected Abstracts


    Integrated conservation and development program planning pivots on a critical exchange. In establishing protected areas, part of the subsistence base of resident people is enclosed. Residents are then offered assistance in meeting needs emerging from the enclosure. The elicitation and interpretation of need in such programs forms a technology of governance. This article analyzes differing linguistic ideologies underpinning needs production in Madagascar's Ranomafana National Park Project, arguing that the technology of needs production is part of a green neoliberal rationality through which the Malagasy state and its citizens are being transformed, and from which an increasingly sophisticated countergovernmentality grows. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2006
    Philip W. Hedrick
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 2 2001
    Elena Lioubimtseva
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Basharat A. Pitafi
    Abstract: Conserving the watershed can help to preserve ground water recharge. Preventing overuse of available water through pricing reforms can also substantially increase the value of an aquifer. Inasmuch as users are accustomed to low prices, efficiency pricing may be politically infeasible, and watershed conservation may be considered as an alternative. We estimate and compare welfare gains from pricing reform and watershed conservation for a water management district in Oahu that obtains its water supply from the Pearl Harbor aquifer. We find that pricing reform is welfare superior to watershed conservation unless the latter is able to prevent very large recharge losses. Watershed conservation that yields net gains in combination with pricing reform may cause net losses without the pricing reform. If adoption of watershed conservation delays the implementation of pricing reform, the benefits of the latter are significantly reduced. [source]


    Miki Shirakihara
    Abstract We conducted aerial surveys of dugongs (Dugong dugon) using the line-transect method and snorkeling surveys of dugong feeding trails in 1998 and 1999 around Okinawa Island (26°30,N, 128°00,E) and the Sakishima Islands, southern Japan. A total of ten dugongs were sighted and feeding trails were confirmed in the sea grass beds off the east coast of Okinawa Island. In the Sakishima Islands, however, no dugongs were observed, and there was no evidence of feeding trails despite the existence of apparently suitable sea grass beds for feeding. The results of these surveys and other available information suggest that Okinawan dugongs represent a small, geographically isolated population. Our sightings of dugongs during the daytime, offshore of sea grass beds where feeding trails were recorded, suggest that Okinawan dugongs principally feed at night when human activities are limited. Survival of this remnant dugong population is threatened by habitat degradation and occasional entanglement mortality in fishing nets. [source]


    Abstract Despite a number of benefits, marine reserves provide neither incentives for fishermen to protect biodiversity nor compensation for financial loss due to the designation of the reserves. To obtain fishermen's support for marine reserves, some politicians have suggested that managers of new marine reserves should consider subsidizing or compensating those fishermen affected by the new operations. The objective of this paper is to apply principal,agent theory, which is still infrequently applied to fisheries, to define the optimal reserve area, fishing effort, and transfer payments in the context of symmetric and asymmetric information between managers and fishermen. The expected optimal reserve size under asymmetric information is smaller than that under symmetric information. Fishing efforts encouraged with a transfer payment are always less compared to those without payment. This reflects the fact that as the manager induces the fishermen to participate in the conservation program, the fishermen will take into account their effects on fish stock by decreasing their effort. Examples are also supplied to demonstrate these concepts. [source]


    D. AMI
    Abstract The purpose of this paper is to introduce the impact of fishing activity on a marine ecosystem. The fishing activity is considered not only through annual harvest but also through a second component, called the degree of protection of the fishery environment. This characterizes the environmental impact of fishing. A stochastic dynamic programming problem is presented in infinite horizon, where a sole owner seeks to maximize a discounted expected profit. The main hypothesis states that the stock,recruitment relationship is stochastic and that both components of the fishing activity have an impact on the probability law of the state of the fishery environment. The optimal fishing policy is obtained and compared with standard models. This optimal policy has the following properties: is not a constant escapement policy and indicates an element of self-protection by the fishery manager. The paper ends with a discussion on the existence of degrees of protection of the fishery environment that take into account the environmental conservation and preservation of economic activity. [source]


    ABSTRACT. To investigate the role of explicit and implicit assumptions in different models of weak and strong sustain-ability, the Solow/Hartwick model of intergenerational equity with nonrenewable resources is gradually extended to include renewable resources, endogenous technical progress, and stock pollution. This reveals the fundamental role of endogenous technical progress for sustainable development, the inconsistency of implicit sustainability assumptions in various models, as well as the existence of a Hartwick rule for Daly's steady-state economy. Moreover, it shows that the concepts of Solow sustainability and strong sustainability coincide as a special case of weak sustainability. The latter integrates economic and environmental concerns and aims at maintaining the welfare potential of an economy over time. It does not rule out economic growth by assumption. Rather, the analysis shows that environmental conservation and economic growth can be compatible with each other, without jeopardizing social welfare. Finally, the analysis shows that the discussion of sustain-ability models cannot be restricted to the explicit differences that are usually pointed out by their authors and commentators. Rather, implicit assumptions must be made explicit. [source]

    Auditing Conservation in an Age of Accountability

    CONSERVATION, Issue 3 2003
    "What are your results?", Instead of seeing conservation as just a good cause, people are starting to ask
    First page of article [source]

    More than Meets the Eye: Behavior and Conservation

    CONSERVATION, Issue 3 2003
    For years, behavioral ecologists have meticulously studied the subtleties of wildlife behavior.
    First page of article [source]

    Conservation and Conflict Mitigating the Effects of War on Biodiversity

    CONSERVATION, Issue 1 2003
    Article first published online: 8 MAR 200
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Tapping the Ivory Tower How Academic-Agency Partnerships Can Advance Conservation

    CONSERVATION, Issue 3 2001
    P. Dee Boersma
    First page of article [source]

    Confronting Uncertainty and Missing Values in Environmental Value Transfer as Applied to Species Conservation

    conservación de especies; error de transferencia; incertidumbre; transferencia de valor ambiental; valores de no uso Abstract:,The nonuse (or passive) value of nature is important but time-consuming and costly to quantify with direct surveys. In the absence of estimates of these values, there will likely be less investment in conservation actions that generate substantial nonuse benefits, such as conservation of native species. To help overcome decisions about the allocation of conservation dollars that reflect the lack of estimates of nonuse values, these values can be estimated indirectly by environmental value transfer (EVT). EVT uses existing data or information from a study site such that the estimated monetary value of an environmental good is transferred to another location or policy site. A major challenge in the use of EVT is the uncertainty about the sign and size of the error (i.e., the percentage by which transferred value exceeds the actual value) that results from transferring direct estimates of nonuse values from a study to a policy site, the site where the value is transferred. An EVT is most useful if the decision-making framework does not require highly accurate information and when the conservation decision is constrained by time and financial resources. To account for uncertainty in the decision-making process, a decision heuristic that guides the decision process and illustrates the possible decision branches, can be followed. To account for the uncertainty associated with the transfer of values from one site to another, we developed a risk and simulation approach that uses Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the net benefits of conservation investments and takes into account different possible distributions of transfer error. This method does not reduce transfer error, but it provides a way to account for the effect of transfer error in conservation decision making. Our risk and simulation approach and decision-based framework on when to use EVT offer better-informed decision making in conservation. Resumen:,El valor de no uso (o pasivo) de la naturaleza es importante pero su cuantificación con muestreos pasivos consume tiempo y es costosa. En ausencia de estimaciones de estos valores, es probable que haya menos inversión en acciones de conservación que generen beneficios de no uso sustanciales, tal como la conservación de especies nativas. Para ayudar a superar decisiones respecto a la asignación de dólares para conservación que reflejan la carencia de estimaciones de los valores de no uso, estos valores pueden ser estimados indirectamente por la transferencia de valor ambiental (TVA). La transferencia de valor ambiental utiliza datos existentes o información de un sitio de estudio de tal manera que el valor monetario estimado de un bien ambiental es transferido a otro sitio. Un reto mayor en el uso de TVA es la incertidumbre sobre la señal y el tamaño del error (i.e., el porcentaje en que el valor transferido excede al valor actual) que resulta de la transferencia de estimaciones directas de los valores de no uso de un sitio de estudio a uno político, el sitio adonde el valor es transferido. Una TVA es más útil si el marco de toma de decisiones no requiere información muy precisa y cuando la decisión de conservación está restringida por tiempo y recursos financieros. Para tomar en cuenta la incertidumbre en el proceso de toma de decisiones, se puede seguir una decisión heurística que guie el proceso de decisión e ilustre sobre las posibles ramificaciones de la decisión. Para tomar en cuenta la incertidumbre asociada con la transferencia de valores de un sitio a otro, desarrollamos un método de riesgo y simulación que utiliza simulaciones Monte Carlo para evaluar los beneficios netos de las inversiones de conservación y que considera posibles distribuciones diferentes de la transferencia de error. Este método no reduce el error de transferencia, pero proporciona una manera para considerar el efecto del error de transferencia en la toma de decisiones de conservación. Nuestro método de riesgo y simulación y el marco de referencia basado en decisones sobre cuando utilizar TVA permiten la toma de decisiones en conservación más informadas. [source]

    Adapting Human Societies to Conservation

    David Johns
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Biodiversity Conservation in Agricultural Landscapes: Challenges and Opportunities of Coffee Agroforests in the Western Ghats, India

    agroforestería de café; Ghats Occidentales; medios de vida; mosaicos paisajísticos; proyectos integrados de conservación y desarrollo Abstract:,The new approaches advocated by the conservation community to integrate conservation and livelihood development now explicitly address landscape mosaics composed of agricultural and forested land rather than only protected areas and largely intact forests. We refer specifically to a call by Harvey et al. (2008) to develop a new approach based on six strategies to integrate biodiversity conservation with sustainable livelihoods in Mesoamerican landscape mosaics. We examined the applicability of this proposal to the coffee agroforests of the Western Ghats, India. Of the six strategies, only one directly addresses livelihood conditions. Their approach has a clear emphasis on conservation and, as currently formulated risks repeating the failures of past integrated conservation and development projects. It fails to place the aspirations of farmers at the core of the agenda. Thus, although we acknowledge and share the broad vision and many of the ideas proposed by this approach, we urge more balanced priority setting by emphasizing people as much as biodiversity through a careful consideration of local livelihood needs and aspirations. Resumen:,Los nuevos enfoques recomendados por la comunidad de conservación para integrar la conservación y el desarrollo ahora abordan explícitamente los mosaicos paisajísticos compuestos de tierras agrícolas y forestales en lugar de solo áreas protegidas y bosques casi intactos. Basado en seis estrategias para integrar la conservacion de la biodiversidad con modos de vida sustentables en los mosaicos paisajisticos de Mesoamerica. Nos referimos específicamente a la llamada de Harvey et al. (2008) para desarrollar un enfoque nuevo basado en seis estrategias para congraciar la conservación de la biodiversidad con modos de vida sustentables en los mosaicos paisajísticos de Mesoamérica. Examinamos la aplicabilidad de esta propuesta en los agrobosques de café de los Ghats occidentales en la India. Solo una de las seis estrategias mencionadas aborda directamente las condiciones de vida. La propuesta tiene un claro énfasis en la conservación y, tal como está formulada actualmente, falla en colocar las aspiraciones de los campesinos en el centro de la agenda. Corre pues el riesgo de repetir los fracasos de pasados proyectos integrados de conservación y desarrollo. Por lo tanto, aunque reconocemos y compartimos la amplia visión y muchas de las ideas de esta llamada, insistimos en una definición de prioridades balanceada que enfatice a la gente tanto como a la biodiversidad mediante una consideración cuidadosa de las necesidades y aspiraciones de los habitantes locales. [source]

    Trade-Offs between Species Conservation and the Size of Marine Protected Areas

    áreas marinas protegidas; conservación de la biodiversidad; relaciones especies,área Abstract:,Moving from single-species- to ecosystem-based management requires an understanding of how community-level attributes such as diversity change with area. We used survey data from bottom trawls to examine spatial patterns of species richness in U.S. Pacific coastal fishes. Specifically, we generated and compared species,area relationships (SARs) for species classified into several groups on the basis of maximum body size, trophic level, diet, maximum depth, geographic affinity, and taxonomic order. Because SARs among groups were not parallel and z values varied significantly for several groups, groups of species were under- or overrepresented (depending on the size of the area) relative to their proportions in the entire community (i.e., entire U.S. Pacific coast). In this way, differences in SARs help demonstrate trade-offs between species representation and coastal area and suggest strategies (such as targeting the protection of habitats and locations where a particular species or groups of species are maximized) that may minimize the size of marine protected areas (MPAs) but protect diversity at the level of the community and functional group. Resumen:,El traslado del manejo de una sola especie al manejo basado en ecosistemas requiere del entendimiento de los cambios en atributos de la comunidad como el cambio de diversidad con el área. Utilizamos datos de muestreo de redes de arrastre para examinar patrones espaciales de la riqueza de especies en peces costeros del Pacífico en E. U. A. Específicamente, generamos y comparamos relaciones especies,área (REAs) para especies clasificadas en varios grupos con base en la talla máxima, nivel trófico, profundidad máxima, afinidad geográfica y orden taxonómico. Debido a que las REAs entre grupos no fueron paralelas y que los valores de z variaron significativamente para varios grupos, los grupos de especies estuvieron sub- o sobre- representados (dependiendo del tamaño del área) en relación con sus proporciones en toda la comunidad (i.e., toda la costa del Pacífico en E. U. A.). De esta manera, las diferencias en REAs ayudan a demostrar el balance entre la representación de especies y el área costera y sugieren estrategias (como la protección de hábitats y localidades donde se maximiza una especie o grupo de especies) que pueden minimizar el tamaño de áreas marinas protegidas pero proteger la diversidad al nivel de la comunidad y grupo funcional. [source]

    Academic Research Training for a Nonacademic Workplace: a Case Study of Graduate Student Alumni Who Work in Conservation

    educación en conservación; formación de graduados; habilidades para el trabajo; programas universitarios Abstract:,Graduate education in conservation biology has been assailed as ineffective and inadequate to train the professionals needed to solve conservation problems. To identify how graduate education might better fit the needs of the conservation workplace, we surveyed practitioners and academics about the importance of particular skills on the job and the perceived importance of teaching those same skills in graduate school. All survey participants (n = 189) were alumni from the University of California Davis Graduate Group in Ecology and received thesis-based degrees from 1973 to 2008. Academic and practitioner respondents clearly differed in workplace skills, although there was considerably more agreement in training recommendations. On the basis of participant responses, skill sets particularly at risk of underemphasis in graduate programs are decision making and implementation of policy, whereas research skills may be overemphasized. Practitioners in different job positions, however, require a variety of skill sets, and we suggest that ever-increasing calls to broaden training to fit this multitude of jobs will lead to a trade-off in the teaching of other skills. Some skills, such as program management, may be best developed in on-the-job training or collaborative projects. We argue that the problem of graduate education in conservation will not be solved by restructuring academia alone. Conservation employers need to communicate their specific needs to educators, universities need to be more flexible with their opportunities, and students need to be better consumers of the skills offered by universities and other institutions. Resumen:,La educación en biología de la conservación a nivel licenciatura ha sido calificada como ineficaz e inadecuada para formar a los profesionales que se requieren para resolver problemas de conservación. Para identificar cómo la educación a nivel licenciatura puede satisfacer las necesidades del ámbito laboral en conservación, sondeamos a profesionales y académicos sobre la importancia de habilidades particulares del trabajo y la percepción de la importancia de esas mismas habilidades en la universidad. Todos los participantes en el sondeo (n = 189) fueron alumnos del Grupo de Graduados en Ecología de la Universidad de California en Davis y obtuvieron el grado basado en tesis entre 1973 y 2008. Los académicos y profesionales encuestados difirieron claramente en sus habilidades, aunque hubo considerablemente mayor acuerdo en las recomendaciones de capacitación. Con base en las respuestas de los participantes, los conjuntos de habilidades en riesgo de no ser consideradas en los programas educativos son la toma de decisiones y la implementación de políticas, mientras que las habilidades de investigación tienden a ser sobre enfatizadas. Sin embargo, los profesionales en diferentes puestos de trabajo requieren una variedad de conjuntos de habilidades, y sugerimos que los constantes llamados a ampliar la capacitación para responder a esta multitud de labores conducirán a un desbalance en la enseñanza de otras habilidades. Algunas habilidades, como el manejo de programas, pueden desarrollarse en proyectos colaborativos o de capacitación en el trabajo. Argumentamos que el problema de la educación en biología de la conservación a nivel licenciatura no se resolverá solo con la reestructuración de la academia. Los empleadores deben comunicar sus requerimientos específicos a los educadores, las universidades deben ser más flexibles con sus oportunidades y los estudiantes necesitan ser mejores consumidores de las habilidades ofrecidas por las universidades y otras instituciones. [source]

    The Potential for Species Conservation in Tropical Secondary Forests

    especialización de hábitat; biodiversidad forestal; bosque secundario; bosque tropical; sucesión Abstract:,In the wake of widespread loss of old-growth forests throughout the tropics, secondary forests will likely play a growing role in the conservation of forest biodiversity. We considered a complex hierarchy of factors that interact in space and time to determine the conservation potential of tropical secondary forests. Beyond the characteristics of local forest patches, spatial and temporal landscape dynamics influence the establishment, species composition, and persistence of secondary forests. Prospects for conservation of old-growth species in secondary forests are maximized in regions where the ratio of secondary to old-growth forest area is relatively low, older secondary forests have persisted, anthropogenic disturbance after abandonment is relatively low, seed-dispersing fauna are present, and old-growth forests are close to abandoned sites. The conservation value of a secondary forest is expected to increase over time, as species arriving from remaining old-growth forest patches accumulate. Many studies are poorly replicated, which limits robust assessments of the number and abundance of old-growth species present in secondary forests. Older secondary forests are not often studied and few long-term studies are conducted in secondary forests. Available data indicate that both old-growth and second-growth forests are important to the persistence of forest species in tropical, human-modified landscapes. Resumen:,A raíz de la pérdida generalizada de los bosques maduros en el trópico, los bosques secundarios probablemente jugarán un mayor papel en la conservación de la biodiversidad forestal. Consideramos una jerarquía compleja de factores que interactúan en el espacio y tiempo para determinar el potencial de conservación de los bosques tropicales secundarios. Más allá de las características de los fragmentos de bosque locales, la dinámica espacial y temporal del paisaje influye en el establecimiento, la composición de especies y la persistencia de bosques secundarios. Los prospectos para la conservación de especies primarias en los bosques secundarios se maximizan en regiones donde la proporción de superficie de bosque maduro-bosque secundario es relativamente baja, los bosques secundarios más viejos han persistido, la perturbación antropogénica después del abandono es relativamente baja, hay presencia de fauna dispersora de semillas y donde hay bosques primarios cerca de sitios abandonados. Se espera que el valor de conservación de un bosque secundario incremente en el tiempo, a medida que se acumulan especies provenientes de los fragmentos de bosque primario remanentes. Muchos estudios están pobremente replicados, lo que impide evaluaciones robustas del número y abundancia de especies primarias presentes en bosques secundarios. Los bosques secundarios más viejos generalmente no son estudiados y son pocos los estudios a largo plazo en bosques secundarios. Los datos disponibles indican que tanto los bosques primarios como los secundarios son importantes para la persistencia de especies forestales en paisajes tropicales modificados por humanos. [source]

    The Need to Rationalize and Prioritize Threatening Processes Used to Determine Threat Status in the IUCN Red List

    carnivora; competencia; estatus de conservación; procesos amenazantes Abstract:,Thorough evaluation has made the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List the most widely used and accepted authority on the conservation status of biodiversity. Although the system used to determine risk of extinction is rigorously and objectively applied, the list of threatening processes affecting a species is far more subjectively determined and has not had adequate review. I reviewed the threats listed in the IUCN Red List for randomly selected groups within the three most threatened orders of mammals: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, and Primates. These groups are taxonomically related and often ecologically similar, so I expected they would suffer relatively similar threats. Hominoid primates and all other terrestrial fauna faced similar threats, except for bovine artiodactyls and large, predatory carnivores, which faced significantly different threats. Although the status of bovines and hominoids and the number of threats affecting them were correlated, this was not the case for large carnivores. Most notable, however, was the great variation in the threats affecting individual members of each group. For example, the endangered European bison (Bison bonasus) has no threatening processes listed for it, and the lion (Panthera leo) is the only large predator listed as threatened with extinction by civil war. Some threatening processes appear spurious for the conservation of the species, whereas other seemingly important factors are not recorded as threats. The subjective nature of listing threatening processes, via expert opinion, results in substantial biases that may be allayed by independent peer review, use of technical manuals, consensus among multiple assessors, incorporation of probability modeling via decision-tree analysis, and adequate coordination among evaluators. The primary focus should be on species-level threats rather than population-level threats because the IUCN Red List is a global assessment and smaller-scale threats are more appropriate for national status assessments. Until conservationists agree on the threats affecting species and their relative importance, conservation action and success will be hampered by scattering scarce resources too widely and often by implementing conflicting strategies. Resumen:,La evaluación exhaustiva ha hecho que la Lista Roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN) sea la autoridad más aceptada y ampliamente utilizada respecto al estatus de conservación de la biodiversidad. Aunque el sistema utilizado para determinar el riesgo de extinción es aplicado rigurosa y objetivamente, la lista de procesos amenazantes que afectan a las especies es determinado muy subjetivamente y no es revisado adecuadamente. Revisé las amenazas consideradas en la Lista Roja UICN para grupos seleccionados aleatoriamente en los tres órdenes de mamíferos más amenazados: Artyodactila, Carnivora y Primates. Estos grupos están relacionados taxonómicamente y a menudo son ecológicamente similares, así que esperaba que tuvieran amenazas relativamente similares. Los primates homínidos y toda la demás fauna terrestre enfrentan amenazas similares, excepto por los bovinos artiodáctilos y los carnívoros depredadores mayores, que enfrentan amenazas significativamente diferentes. Aunque el estatus de los bovinos y homínidos y el número de amenazas que los afectan estuvieron correlacionados, este no fue el caso para los carnívoros mayores. Sin embargo, lo más notable fue la gran variación en las amenazas que afectan a miembros individuales de cada grupo. Por ejemplo, no hay procesos amenazantes enlistados para el bisonte europeo (Bison bonasus), y el león (Panthera leo) es el único depredador mayor enlistado como amenazado de extinción por la guerra civil. Algunos procesos amenazantes parecen espurios para la conservación de las especies, mientras que otros factores aparentemente importantes no están registrados como amenazas. La naturaleza subjetiva de los procesos de enlistado, por medio de la opinión de expertos, resulta en sesgos sustanciales que pueden disiparse por la revisión independiente por pares, el uso de manuales técnicos, el consenso de múltiples asesores, la incorporación del modelado probabilístico mediante análisis de árboles de decisión y la adecuada coordinación entre evaluadores. El enfoque principal debería ser sobre amenazas a nivel de especies en lugar de amenazas a nivel de poblaciones porque la Lista Roja UICN es una evaluación global y las amenazas a menor escala son más apropiadas para evaluaciones nacionales de estatus. Hasta que los conservacionistas estén de acuerdo sobre las amenazas que afectan a las especies y su importancia relativa, las acciones de conservación y su éxito estarán obstaculizados por la dispersión demasiado amplia de recursos limitados y a menudo por la implementación de estrategias contrapuestas. [source]

    Equating Forest Conservation with Hornbill Conservation

    Thomas B. Smith
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Quantification of Extinction Risk: IUCN's System for Classifying Threatened Species

    definición de prioridades de conservación; especies amenazadas; Lista Roja UICN; riesgo de extinción Abstract:,The International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species was increasingly used during the 1980s to assess the conservation status of species for policy and planning purposes. This use stimulated the development of a new set of quantitative criteria for listing species in the categories of threat: critically endangered, endangered, and vulnerable. These criteria, which were intended to be applicable to all species except microorganisms, were part of a broader system for classifying threatened species and were fully implemented by IUCN in 2000. The system and the criteria have been widely used by conservation practitioners and scientists and now underpin one indicator being used to assess the Convention on Biological Diversity 2010 biodiversity target. We describe the process and the technical background to the IUCN Red List system. The criteria refer to fundamental biological processes underlying population decline and extinction. But given major differences between species, the threatening processes affecting them, and the paucity of knowledge relating to most species, the IUCN system had to be both broad and flexible to be applicable to the majority of described species. The system was designed to measure the symptoms of extinction risk, and uses 5 independent criteria relating to aspects of population loss and decline of range size. A species is assigned to a threat category if it meets the quantitative threshold for at least one criterion. The criteria and the accompanying rules and guidelines used by IUCN are intended to increase the consistency, transparency, and validity of its categorization system, but it necessitates some compromises that affect the applicability of the system and the species lists that result. In particular, choices were made over the assessment of uncertainty, poorly known species, depleted species, population decline, restricted ranges, and rarity; all of these affect the way red lists should be viewed and used. Processes related to priority setting and the development of national red lists need to take account of some assumptions in the formulation of the criteria. Resumen:,La Lista Roja de Especies Amenazadas de la UICN (Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza) fue muy utilizada durante la década de l980 para evaluar el estatus de conservación de especies para fines políticos y de planificación. Este uso estimuló el desarrollo de un conjunto nuevo de criterios cuantitativos para enlistar especies en las categorías de amenaza: en peligro crítico, en peligro y vulnerable. Estos criterios, que se pretendía fueran aplicables a todas las especies excepto microorganismos, eran parte de un sistema general para clasificar especies amenazadas y fueron implementadas completamente por la UICN en 2000. El sistema y los criterios han sido ampliamente utilizados por practicantes y científicos de la conservación y actualmente apuntalan un indicador utilizado para evaluar el objetivo al 2010 de la Convención de Diversidad Biológica. Describimos el proceso y el respaldo técnico del sistema de la Lista Roja de la IUCN. Los criterios se refieren a los procesos biológicos fundamentales que subyacen en la declinación y extinción de una población. Pero, debido a diferencias mayores entre especies, los procesos de amenaza que los afectan y la escasez de conocimiento sobre la mayoría de las especies, el sistema de la UICN tenía que ser amplio y flexible para ser aplicable a la mayoría de las especies descritas. El sistema fue diseñado para medir los síntomas del riesgo de extinción, y utiliza cinco criterios independientes que relacionan aspectos de la pérdida poblacional y la declinación del rango de distribución. Una especie es asignada a una categoría de amenaza si cumple el umbral cuantitativo por lo menos para un criterio. Los criterios, las reglas acompañantes y las directrices utilizadas por la UICN tienen la intención de incrementar la consistencia, transparencia y validez de su sistema de clasificación, pero requiere algunos compromisos que afectan la aplicabilidad del sistema y las listas de especies que resultan. En particular, se hicieron selecciones por encima de la evaluación de incertidumbre, especies poco conocidas, especies disminuidas, declinación poblacional, rangos restringidos y rareza; todas estas afectan la forma en que las listas rojas deberían ser vistas y usadas. Los procesos relacionados con la definición de prioridades y el desarrollo de las listas rojas nacionales necesitan considerar algunos de los supuestos en la formulación de los criterios. [source]

    From the Mountains to the Sea: Where Is Freshwater Conservation in the SCB Agenda?

    Ken Vance-Borland
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Debating the Ecosystem Service Rationale for Conservation: Response to Kremen et al.

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Where's the Conservation in Conservation Genetics?

    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Conservation, Neoliberalism, and Social Science: a Critical Reflection on the SCB 2007 Annual Meeting in South Africa

    Bram E. Büscher
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Ecological Future of the North American Bison: Conceiving Long-Term, Large-Scale Conservation of Wildlife

    Bison bison; conservación de especies; Declaración de Vermejo; metas de conservación; representación ecológica Abstract:,Many wide-ranging mammal species have experienced significant declines over the last 200 years; restoring these species will require long-term, large-scale recovery efforts. We highlight 5 attributes of a recent range-wide vision-setting exercise for ecological recovery of the North American bison (Bison bison) that are broadly applicable to other species and restoration targets. The result of the exercise, the "Vermejo Statement" on bison restoration, is explicitly (1) large scale, (2) long term, (3) inclusive, (4) fulfilling of different values, and (5) ambitious. It reads, in part, "Over the next century, the ecological recovery of the North American bison will occur when multiple large herds move freely across extensive landscapes within all major habitats of their historic range, interacting in ecologically significant ways with the fullest possible set of other native species, and inspiring, sustaining and connecting human cultures." We refined the vision into a scorecard that illustrates how individual bison herds can contribute to the vision. We also developed a set of maps and analyzed the current and potential future distributions of bison on the basis of expert assessment. Although more than 500,000 bison exist in North America today, we estimated they occupy <1% of their historical range and in no place express the full range of ecological and social values of previous times. By formulating an inclusive, affirmative, and specific vision through consultation with a wide range of stakeholders, we hope to provide a foundation for conservation of bison, and other wide-ranging species, over the next 100 years. Resumen:,Muchas especies de mamíferos de distribución amplia han experimentado declinaciones significativas durante los últimos 200 años; la restauración de estas especies requerirá esfuerzos de recuperación a largo plazo y a gran escala. Resaltamos 5 atributos de un reciente ejercicio de gran visión para la recuperación ecológica del bisonte de Norte América (Bison bison) que son aplicables en lo general a otras especies y objetivos de restauración. El resultado del ejercicio, la "Declaración de Vermejo", explícitamente es (1) de gran escala, (2) de largo plazo, (3) incluyente, (4) satisfactor de valores diferentes y (5) ambicioso. En parte, establece que "En el próximo siglo, la recuperación ecológica del Bisonte de Norte América ocurrirá cuando múltiples manadas se desplacen libremente en los extensos paisajes de todos los hábitats importantes en su rango de distribución histórica, interactúen de manera significativa ecológicamente con el conjunto más completo de otras especies nativas e inspiren, sostengan y conecten culturas humanas." Refinamos esta visión en una tarjeta de puntuación que ilustra cómo las manadas de bisonte individuales pueden contribuir a la visión. También desarrollamos un conjunto de mapas y analizamos las distribuciones actuales y potencialmente futuras del bisonte con base en la evaluación de expertos. Aunque actualmente existen más de 500,000 bisontes en Norte América, estimamos que ocupan <1% de su distribución histórica y no expresan el rango completo de valores ecológicos y culturales de otros tiempos. Mediante la formulación de una visión incluyente, afirmativa y específica basada en la consulta a una amplia gama de interesados, esperamos proporcionar un fundamento para la conservación del bisonte, y otras especies de distribución amplia, para los próximos 100 años. [source]

    Ecosystem-Service Science and the Way Forward for Conservation

    P. R. Armsworth
    First page of article [source]

    Losing the Dark: a Case for a National Policy on Land Conservation

    Robert F. Baldwin
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    The Contribution of Long-Term Research at Gombe National Park to Chimpanzee Conservation

    chimpancé; conservación de simios mayores; Parque Nacional Gombe; Tanzania Abstract:,Long-term research projects can provide important conservation benefits, not only through research specifically focused on conservation problems, but also from various incidental benefits, such as increased intensity of monitoring and building support for the protection of an area. At Gombe National Park, Tanzania, long-term research has provided at least four distinct benefits to wildlife conservation. (1) Jane Goodall's groundbreaking discoveries of chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) tool use, hunting, and complex social relationships in what was then a game reserve drew attention to the area and created support for upgrading Gombe to national park status in 1968. (2) The highly publicized findings have earned Gombe and Tanzania the attention of a worldwide public that includes tourists and donors that provide financial support for Gombe, other parks in Tanzania, and chimpanzee conservation in general. (3) Crucial information on social structure and habitat use has been gathered that is essential for effective conservation of chimpanzees at Gombe and elsewhere. (4) A clear picture of Gombe's chimpanzee population over the past 40 years has been determined, and this has helped identify the greatest threats to the viability of this population, namely disease and habita loss outside the park. These threats are severe and because of the small size of the population it is extremely vulnerable. Research at Gombe has led to the establishment of conservation education and development projects around Gombe, which are needed to build local support for the park and its chimpanzees, but saving these famous chimpanzees will take a larger integrated effort on the part of park managers, researchers, and the local community with financial help from international donors. Resumen:,Los proyectos de investigación de largo plazo pueden proporcionar beneficios importantes a la conservación, no solo a través de investigación enfocada específicamente a problemas de conservación, sino también a través de varios beneficios incidentales, como una mayor intensidad de monitoreo y construcción de soporte para la protección de un área. En el Parque Nacional Gombe, Tanzania, la investigación a largo plazo ha proporcionado por lo menos cuatro beneficios a la conservación de vida silvestre. (1) Los descubrimientos innovadores de Jane Goodall sobre el uso de herramientas, la cacería y las complejas relaciones sociales de chimpancés en lo que entonces era una reserva de caza atrajeron la atención al área y crearon el soporte para cambiar a Gombe a estatus de parque nacional en 1968. (2) Los hallazgos muy publicitados han ganado para Gombe y Tanzania la atención del público en todo el mundo incluyendo turistas y donadores que proporcionan soporte financiero a Gombe, otros parques en Tanzania y a la conservación de chimpancés en general. (3) Se ha reunido información crucial sobre la estructura social y el uso del hábitat que ha sido esencial para la conservación efectiva de chimpancés en Gombe y otros sitios. (4) Se ha determinado un panorama claro de la población de chimpancés en Gombe durante los últimos 40 años, y esto a ayudado a identificar las mayores amenazas a la viabilidad de esta población, a saber enfermedades y pérdida de hábitat fuera del parque. Estas amenazas son severas y la población es extremadamente vulnerable por su tamaño pequeño. La investigación en Gombe ha llevado al establecimiento de proyectos de desarrollo y de educación para la conservación en los alrededores del parque, lo cual es necesario para encontrar soporte local para el parque y sus chimpancés, pero el rescate de estos famosos chimpancés requerirá de un esfuerzo más integrado de parte de los manejadores del parque, investigadores y la comunidad local con la ayuda financiera de donadores internacionales. [source]

    Hunting for Consensus: Reconciling Bushmeat Harvest, Conservation, and Development Policy in West and Central Africa

    First page of article [source]