Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Conscientiousness

  • low conscientiousness

  • Selected Abstracts


    We examined the extent to which cognitive ability, Conscientiousness, and Openness to Experience predict decision-making performance prior to and after unforeseen changes in the task context. Seventy-three undergraduates made decisions on a series of 75 problems during a 3-hour computerized simulation. Unbeknownst to participants, the rules used in determining correct decisions changed after problems 25 and 50. Effects of the individual differences on decision-making performance became significantly stronger after the changes. Only cognitive ability explained variance in prechange performance. Individuals with higher cognitive ability made better decisions. After the change, the cognitive ability effect increased and the effects of Conscientiousness and Openness became statistically significant. As expected, those with high Openness made better decisions. Unexpectedly, those with low Conscientiousness made better decisions. Subsequent analyses revealed that this surprising effect for Conscientiousness was due to the traits reflecting dependability (i.e., order, dutiful-ness, deliberation) rather than volition (i.e., competence, achievement striving, self-discipline). [source]

    Right-wing authoritarianism, Big Five and perceived threat to safety

    Francesca Dallago
    Abstract Using structural equations modelling, we performed a secondary analysis of the data collected by the Italian Observatory of the North West (Italian national sample, N,=,976) to investigate the direct, mediated and moderated relations connecting the Big Five personality factors and perceived personal and societal threat to safety with right-wing authoritarianism (RWA). Openness, Conscientiousness and perceived societal threat to safety exerted additive effects on RWA; the relation between Openness and RWA was partially mediated by societal threat to safety and that between societal threat to safety and RWA was moderated by Openness. Limitations and possible developments of this research are discussed. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The relationship between ,workaholism', basic needs satisfaction at work and personality

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen
    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine correlates of ,workaholism' components (Work Involvement, Drive, Enjoyment of Work). A cross-occupational sample of 661 Norwegian employees in six different organizations completed a web-based survey measuring ,workaholism', basic needs satisfaction at work and personality. Needs satisfaction at work was positively related to Enjoyment of Work, and negatively to Drive. Conscientiousness was positively related to all ,workaholism' components; Extraversion and Openness to Work Involvement and Enjoyment of Work; and Neuroticism to Drive. Negative relations were found between Neuroticism and Enjoyment of Work, and Agreeableness and Drive. Although the associations were rather weak, the findings give reason to differentiate between enthusiastic and non-enthusiastic ,workaholic' characteristics, which were consistent with predictions taken from central theories on ,workaholism'. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality traits and health-risk behaviours in university students

    Ryan Y. Hong
    Abstract Relations between personality and health-risk behaviours in university undergraduates were examined using multiple measures of personality across multiple samples (N,=,1151). Big Five personality variables, at both factor and facet levels, were used to predict three specific health-risk behaviours: (a) tobacco consumption, (b) alcohol consumption and (c) speeding in an automobile. Our findings showed that low Conscientiousness and low Agreeableness were uniformly associated with this cluster of potentially health damaging behaviours. Extraversion was additionally associated with alcohol use. Interaction effects were found between Conscientiousness and Agreeableness on smoking and (for men only) on drinking. Other personality variables not centrally related to the Big Five, such as Risk-Taking (high) and Integrity (low), were also implicated in the present health-risk behaviours. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Conscientiousness and achievement motivation predict performance

    Michelle Richardson
    Abstract A prospective survey was conducted to identify predictors of university students' grade point average (GPA) using separate samples of female (N,=,472) and male (N,=,142) students over 9 months. Big five personality traits and achievement motivation were measured. Correlations show that conscientiousness (C) and achievement motivation explained variation in GPA. Latent variable structural equation modelling showed that the effect of C on GPA is fully mediated by achievement motivation for both female and male students. Invariant factor and structural mediation models across the female and male groups are also reported. Finally, the mediation model is shown to remain significant after scholastic achievement is controlled. The findings are interpreted within the framework of Neo-Socioanalytic theory. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sex differences in school performance as a function of conscientiousness, imagination and the mediating role of problem behaviour

    Filip De Fruyt
    The roles of Conscientiousness and Imagination in explaining sex differences in school performance were examined in two Flemish samples of school children using parental and teacher ratings of school performance (N,=,599) and school grades (N,=,448). Both personality domains predicted parental ratings of school performance and grades. In one sample, girls received slightly higher parental ratings of language achievement and overall performance ratings by teachers. However, controlling for Conscientiousness and Imagination facets, boys scored slightly higher for math and history. In this sample, lower externalising behaviour partially mediated the relation between Conscientiousness facets and school performance in girls but not in boys, but this pattern was not replicated in the second sample. We concluded that sex differences in school performance were small and many could be accounted for by personality traits. In some cases, however, personality traits acted to amplify sex differences in school performance. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Taxonomy and structure of the Polish personality lexicon

    Piotr Szarota
    Abstract We identified 1839 person-descriptive adjectives from a Polish dictionary, and 10 judges classified those adjectives into five descriptive categories. Two hundred ninety adjectives (16 per cent) were classified by most judges as ,Dispositions' (i.e. relatively stable personality traits and abilities). We examined the structure of those 290 adjectives in self-ratings from 350 respondents. In the five-factor solution, two dimensions closely resembled Big Five Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and two others represented rotated variants of Extraversion and Emotional Stability. The fifth factor was dominated by Intellect, containing little Imagination and no Unconventionality content. A six-factor solution closely resembled the cross-language HEXACO structure (but with ,Intellect' rather than ,Openness to Experience'). Analyses of 369 peer ratings revealed five- and six-factor solutions nearly identical to those of self-ratings. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Big Five personality development in adolescence and adulthood

    Susan J. T. Branje
    Abstract The present article examines Big Five personality development across adolescence and middle adulthood. Two adolescents and their fathers and mothers from 285 Dutch families rated their own and their family members' personality. Using accelerated longitudinal growth curve analyses, mean level change in Big Five factors was estimated. For boys, Extraversion and Openness decreased and for girls, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness increased. Whereas mothers' Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness increased, fathers' Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Emotional Stability decreased. Differences in self- and other-reported personality change were found, as well as interindividual differences in personality change. Results confirm that personality change is possible across the life course but these changes are not similar for all individuals and depend on the type of observer. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, identity styles and authoritarianism: an integrative study among late adolescents

    Bart Duriez
    Abstract The relations between five personality factors, three identity styles, the prejudice dispositions of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO) and racial prejudice were investigated in a Flemish-Belgian late adolescent sample (N,=,328). Results show that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness relate to racial prejudice but that these relations were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. In addition, results show that whereas RWA relates to Conscientiousness and lack of Openness to Experience, SDO relates to lack of Agreeableness and lack of Openness to Experience. The relation between Conscientiousness and RWA and between Openness to Experience and SDO was fully mediated by the identity styles. However, Openness to Experience had a direct influence on RWA and Agreeableness had a direct influence on SDO. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Adolescent personality, problem behaviour and the quality of the parent,adolescent relationship,

    Willeke A. Manders
    Abstract The relationship between adolescent personality and problem behaviour has been well established. However, relatively little attention has been given to the role of the social environment in the association between adolescent personality and problem behaviour. We tested the mediating and moderating role of the quality of the parent,adolescent relationship in the associations between adolescents' personality traits and problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 140 adolescents (11 to 18 years of age) and both their parents. Results supported a mediating role of the father/mother,adolescent relationship in the associations between Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness and externalizing problem behaviour. The father/mother,adolescent relationships did not mediate the associations between personality traits and internalizing problem behaviour. We also found support for a moderating role of the father/mother,adolescent relationships in the association between Emotional Stability and both externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours. Other moderated effects were specific for parent, personality trait and type of problem behaviour. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Taxonomy and structure of Croatian personality-descriptive adjectives

    Boris Mla
    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive taxonomy of Croatian personality-descriptive terms, organized in three studies. In the first study three judges searched through a standard dictionary of the Croatian language for person-descriptive terms. In the second study, personality-descriptive adjectives were classified by seven judges into 13 different categories of descriptors. In the third study, the 483 adjectives that the majority of judges in the second study classified as dispositions were rated for self-descriptions by 515 University of Zagreb students and for peer-descriptions by 513 students' best acquaintances. Self- and peer ratings were factor analysed separately and the Croatian emic lexical factors from both data sets were interpreted to be similar to the Big-Five factors: Agreeableness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Intellect, and Emotional Stability. The inspection of factor content of the Croatian emic factors and their relation to imported Big-Five measures revealed high correspondences for all five Croatian factors although the relation between the Croatian and the imported factors of Emotional Stability and Agreeableness was somewhat more complex. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, Social Dominance Orientation, or Right-Wing Authoritarianism?

    Bo Ekehammar
    Whereas previous research has studied the relation of either (i) personality with prejudice, (ii) personality with social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), or (iii) SDO and RWA with prejudice, the present research integrates all approaches within the same model. In our study (N,=,183), various causal models of the relationships among the Big Five, SDO, RWA, and Generalized Prejudice are proposed and tested. Generalized Prejudice scores were obtained from a factor analysis of the scores on various prejudice instruments (racism, sexism, prejudice toward homosexuals, and mentally disabled people), which yielded a one-factor solution. The best-fitting causal model, which was our suggested hypothetical model, showed that Big Five personality had no direct effect on Generalized Prejudice but an indirect effect transmitted through RWA and SDO, where RWA seems to capture personality aspects to a greater extent than SDO. Specifically, Generalized Prejudice was affected indirectly by Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness through RWA, and by Agreeableness through SDO, whereas Neuroticism had no effect at all. The results are discussed against the background of previous research and the personality and social psychology approaches to the study of prejudice. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, cognition, and university students' examination performance

    Pru Phillips
    A prospective study explored the relationship between personality traits (as defined by the five factor model), type of motivation (as defined by self-determination theory), and goal-specific cognitions (including those specified by the theory of planned behaviour) as antecedents of degree performance amongst undergraduate students. A sample of 125 students completed a questionnaire two to three months before their final examinations. Structural equation modelling was used to explore relationships. Intention and perceived behavioural control explained 32% of the variance in final degree marks, with intention being the strongest predictor. Controlling for theory of planned behaviour variables, anticipated regret, good-student identity, controlled extrinsic motivation, Conscientiousness, and Openness had direct significant effects on intention. In total, 65% of the variance in intention was explained. The resultant model illustrates how personality traits may affect examination performance by means of mediators such as intention, anticipated regret, student identity, and autonomous intrinsic motivation. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality traits and parenting: neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience as discriminative factors

    Riitta-Leena Metsäpelto
    This study used variable- and person-oriented approaches to examine the relationship between personality traits (at age 33) and parenting (at age 36) among 94 mothers and 78 fathers. The SEM revealed that Openness to Experience (O), low Neuroticism (N), and Extraversion (E) were related to parental nurturance; low O to parental restrictiveness; and low N to parental knowledge about the child's activities. Cluster analysis based on the three parenting factors yielded six gender-related parenting types with distinguishable personality profiles. Authoritative parents (mostly mothers) and emotionally involved parents (mostly fathers), who were high in nurturance and high to moderate in parental knowledge, were high in E and high to moderate in O. Authoritarian parents (mostly fathers) and emotionally detached parents (mostly mothers), who were low in nurturance, high to moderate in restrictiveness, and moderate to low in parental knowledge, were low in O and E. Permissive parents, who were low in restrictiveness and parental knowledge and moderate in nurturance, were high in N, E, and O. Engaged parents, who were high in nurturance, restrictiveness, and parental knowledge, were moderate in all personality traits. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness did not differ between the parenting types. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Humor Styles Questionnaire: personality and educational correlates in Belgian high school and college students,

    Vassilis Saroglou
    Studies often treat sense of humour as a unidimensional construct. Recently, however, four different humour styles have been hypothesized and validated by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ). In the present two studies, first, the HSQ received cross-cultural validation among French-speaking Belgian students (94 high school and 87 college students). Second, apart from some similarities (Extraversion, low need for closure), the four humour styles were found to be differently related to personality. Social and self-enhancing humour styles were positively related to Agreeableness, Openness, and self-esteem, whereas hostile humour was negatively related to Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Self-defeating humour was negatively related to Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, security in attachment, and self-esteem. Finally, students' humour styles were neither direct nor indirect predictors of school performance, but self-defeating and hostile humour styles were typical of students with low school motivation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Analysis of genetic influences on the consistency and variability of the Big Five across different stressful situations

    Gerty Lensvelt-Mulders
    Several studies have demonstrated that individual differences in personality traits, known as the Big Five, have a genetic component. These personality traits are considered important predictors of everyday behaviour. In addition to personality traits there are also factors in the environment that govern behaviour. This dual influence on behaviour is statistically reflected in a P,×,S interaction. This study examines the genetic and environmental influences on the interactions between a person and his daily life environment for the Big Five. Fifty-seven identical twin pairs and 43 fraternal twin pairs participated in this study. Trait related behaviour was measured in 30 different situations with the aid of an SR inventory. The heritability coefficients for the main effect of P were in the normal range, varying between 0.35 for Agreeableness and 0.53 for Conscientiousness. The heritability coefficients for the P,×,S interactions were moderately high, explaining between 26% and 69% of the total P,×,S variance. The consequences of these results for general and behavioural genetic research on the Big Five will be discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The structure of the French personality lexicon

    Kathleen Boies
    The structure of the French personality lexicon was investigated. Self-ratings on the 388 most frequently used French personality-descriptive adjectives were obtained from 415 French-speaking people. The scree plot of eigenvalues indicated six large factors. In the varimax-rotated six-factor solution, the four largest factors, in order of size, corresponded fairly closely to the Big Five dimensions of Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. The fifth factor was similar to the Honesty dimension found in several other languages. The sixth factor was defined by Imagination-related terms, but not by Intellect-related terms. Solutions involving one to five factors were also investigated and correlations between the factors that emerged from these different solutions are presented. The results are discussed in relation to other lexical studies of personality structure. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Individual differences in preschool children: temperament or personality?

    Cathy L. Grist
    Abstract Individual differences among adults have generally been conceptualized in terms of personality theory and traits. In contrast, individual differences among very young children (birth to kindergarten) have generally been conceptualized in terms of temperament theory and traits. The present study compares and contrasts measures of temperament and personality in a sample of preschool children. Temperament traits were assessed with a well-established measure (the Rothbart CBQ), and a new preschool rating instrument was used to assess personality traits from the five-factor framework (M5-PS). Indeed, a key purpose of this study was to further the development of the M5-PS. Data were gathered on 122 preschool children who were rated by their teachers. Significant correlations were found between the temperament trait Surgency and the personality trait Extraversion, between the temperament trait Negative Affect and the personality trait Neuroticism, and between the temperament trait Effortful Control and the personality trait Conscientiousness. The overall pattern of correlational data suggests that individual differences in preschool children can be adequately described using the five-factor theory, and that this framework may effectively subsume traditional theories of temperament. Preliminary support for the reliability and validity of the M5-PS is offered. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Neuroticism and conscientiousness as predictors of emotional, external, and restrained eating behaviors

    Patrick C.L. Heaven
    Abstract Objective We investigated the extent to which different forms of eating behavior as assessed by the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire are related to facets of the Big Five personality domains. Method Respondents were 167 psychology students (126 females and 41 males) who volunteered for the study. Results Body mass index (BMI) and gender had significant main effects on eating behaviors. These results were moderated by a significant BMI × Gender interaction on emotional eating. Eating behaviors were significantly related to the personality facets associated with Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. Discussion The results are discussed with reference to previous research on eating behaviors and the nature of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness. © 2001 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 30: 161,166, 2001. [source]

    Symbolic Attributes and Organizational Attractiveness: The moderating effects of applicant personality

    Bert Schreurs
    The present study examined the moderating influence of the Big Five personality factors in the relationship between five symbolic, trait-based inferences about organizations (Sincerity, Excitement, Competence, Prestige, and Ruggedness) and organizational attractiveness. Drawing on the similarity-attraction paradigm, six hypotheses were formulated, stating that the relationship between trait-based inferences and organizational attractiveness would be stronger for persons who perceive the organization as similar to them. Results of moderated regression analyses on data from a sample of 245 prospective applicants for the Belgian military revealed two significant two-way interactions, showing that Sincerity was positively related to organizational attractiveness only for individuals high on Conscientiousness, and that the relationship between Excitement and organizational attractiveness is more positive for individuals high on Openness to Experience. Practical implications, strengths and limitations, as well as directions for further research are presented. [source]

    Job Requirements Biodata as a Predictor of Performance in Customer Service Roles

    Elizabeth Allworth
    A job requirements approach to biodata item specification, similar to the content-valid job analysis approach developed by Pannone (1984), is used to predict customer service. Applicants rate the extent to which their current and previous jobs involve tasks and behaviours that have been identified through an analysis of the target job. On a sample of 245 employees in an international hotel, the criterion-related validity of job requirements biodata compares favourably with traditional construct-oriented biodata measures of customer service, cognitive ability and personality (Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Extroversion). The job requirements approach provides a simple, direct and content-valid method of biodata item specification. As the approach can also be tailored for particular jobs or organizations, validity is also potentially optimized. [source]

    Predicting General Well-Being From Emotional Intelligence and Three Broad Personality Traits

    Malika Singh
    This paper examined the joint predictive effects of trait emotional intelligence (trait-EI), Extraversion, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism on 2 facets of general well-being and job satisfaction. An employed community sample of 123 individuals from the Indian subcontinent participated in the study, and completed measures of the five-factor model of personality, trait-EI, job satisfaction, and general well-being facets worn-out and up-tight. Trait-EI was related but distinct from the 3 personality variables. Trait-EI demonstrated the strongest correlation with job satisfaction, but predicted general well-being no better than Neuroticism. In regression analyses, trait-EI predicted between 6% and 9% additional variance in the well-being criteria, beyond the 3 personality traits. It was concluded that trait-EI may be useful in examining dispositional influences on psychological well-being. [source]

    The Impact of Contextual Self-Ratings and Observer Ratings of Personality on the Personality,Performance Relationship,

    Erika Engel Small
    This study examined 2 possible ways of increasing the predictive validity of personality measures: using observer (i.e., supervisor and coworker) ratings and work-specific self-ratings of Big Five personality factors. Results indicated that among general self-ratings of Big Five personality dimensions, Conscientiousness was the best predictor of in-role performance, and Agreeableness and Emotional Stability were the best predictors of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Observer ratings of personality accounted for incremental variance in job performance (in-role performance and OCB) beyond that accounted for by general self-ratings. However, contrary to our expectations, work-specific (i.e., contextual) self-ratings of personality generally did not account for incremental variance in job performance beyond that accounted for by general self-ratings. [source]

    Examining antisocial behavior through the lens of the five factor model of personality

    Joshua D. Miller
    The current study attempts to provide greater precision in understanding how personality is related to antisocial behavior. Specifically, we examined the relations between the facets (subordinate traits) from three domains (superordinate dimensions): Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, of the Five Factor Model and five outcome variables: stability of conduct problems, variety of conduct problems, onset of conduct problems, aggression, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. These relations were examined in a community sample of 481 individuals. These three personality dimensions were chosen for exploration due to their consistent relations, at the domain level, with antisocial behaviors. The results from this study suggest that the facets from the dimension of Agreeableness are the most consistently related to all five outcomes. However, the facets from all three domains made significant contributions. Overall, three personality traits stood out as being the strongest and most consistent predictors: low straightforwardness, low compliance, and low deliberation. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 29:497,514, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Personal Characteristics and Resilience to Economic Hardship and Its Consequences: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Illustrations

    M. Brent Donnellan
    ABSTRACT This article describes a theoretical model that links personal characteristics with resilience to economic hardship and its psychological and interpersonal consequences. This transactional model integrates social influence and social selection perspectives concerning the relation between socioeconomic circumstances and the development of individuals and families. In addition, this article discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to investigating the effects of personal characteristics in this context. Finally, initial empirical support for some of the key predictions from the proposed model are provided using longitudinal data collected from a sample of Midwestern families. Specifically, adolescent academic achievement, self-reports of Conscientiousness, and self-reports of low Neuroticism during adolescence predicted relevant outcomes in adulthood such as less economic pressure, more satisfying romantic relationships, and less harsh parenting behaviors. These preliminary findings support the hypothesized model and extend research concerning the life course outcomes associated with personal characteristics. [source]

    Interactive Effects of Traits on Adjustment to a Life Transition

    Anat Bardi
    ABSTRACT A longitudinal design was used to test theoretically derived interactive effects of traits on adjustment to relocation 1, 8, and 15 months after relocation of elderly women. Openness interacted with Neuroticism and with Extraversion in affecting changes in distress after relocation by amplifying the basic emotional tendencies of Neuroticism and Extraversion. These were delayed effects, occurring only 15 months after relocation. Openness also interacted with Neuroticism in predicting changes in psychological well-being with the effects occurring primarily early in postmove adjustment. In addition, Extraversion interacted with Conscientiousness and with Agreeableness in predicting changes in distress, such that the beneficial effects of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were evident only for individuals low on Extraversion. These effects were consistent across time, showing long-term effects. Overall, the findings demonstrate the multiplicity of ways in which trait interactions predict dynamic adjustment to a life transition. [source]

    Putting the Five-Factor Model Into Context: Evidence Linking Big Five Traits to Narrative Identity

    Peter Raggatt
    ABSTRACT The study examined relationships between the Big Five personality traits and thematic content extracted from self-reports of life history data. One hundred and five "mature age" university students (M=30.1 years) completed the NEO PI-R trait measure, and the Personality Web Protocol. The protocol examines constituents of identity by asking participants to describe 24 key "attachments" from their life histories (significant events, people, places, objects, and possessions). Participants sorted these attachments into clusters and provided a self-descriptive label for each cluster (e.g., "adventurous self"). It was predicted that the thematic content of these cluster labels would be systematically related to Big Five trait scores (e.g., that labels referring to strength or positive emotions would be linked to Extraversion). The hypothesized links were obtained for each of the Big Five trait domains except Conscientiousness. Results are discussed with a view to broadening our understanding of the Five-Factor Model in relation to units of personality other than traits. [source]

    Relationship Quality, Trait Similarity, and Self-Other Agreement on Personality Ratings in College Roommates

    John E. Kurtz
    Previous research has shown that the level of self-other agreement for personality trait ratings increases with the length of acquaintanceship between the target and the informant. These findings emerge exclusively from studies of well-acquainted pairs in natural relationships and relative strangers interacting in laboratory and classroom settings. The present study examines self-other correlations for trait ratings using the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) with 103 pairs of previously unacquainted female college roommates. Assessments were obtained at approximately 2 weeks and again at approximately 15 weeks subsequent to the roommates' initial introduction. Self-other correlations increased for all five NEO-FFI scores and agreement correlations for Conscientiousness were significantly higher than for Extraversion at both occasions. Differences in relationship quality did not moderate self-other agreement for any of the traits. However, better relationship quality was associated with higher other-ratings of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and lower other-ratings of Neuroticism after controlling for self-ratings on the same trait. Higher similarity in self-ratings of Neuroticism and Openness was associated with higher self-other agreement for these ratings, and similarity in Conscientiousness was associated with higher relationship quality. These results are considered in light of existing theories of differential trait observability and the effects of unique contexts on trait perception. [source]

    Personality Judgments in Adolescents' Families: The Perceiver, the Target, Their Relationship, and the Family

    Susan J. T. Branje
    The present study investigated whether personality judgments involve different processes in a family setting than in a nonfamily setting. We used the Social Relations Model to distinguish the effects of perceiver, target, perceiver-target relationship, and family on personality judgments. Family members of families with adolescents judged their own and the other members' Big Five factors. Judgments were found to depend on the relevance of personality factors within the family setting: Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were judged most consistently. Large relationship variance indicated that parents adjust their judgments to the target family member; large perceiver variance indicated that adolescents judge family members' personalities rather similarly. However, a comparison of self- and other-judgments showed adolescents' judgments to be no more related to their self-perceptions than parents' judgments. We concluded that the relevance of personality factors may differ on specific tasks within a setting. [source]

    General and Specific Traits of Personality and Their Relation to Sleep and Academic Performance

    Elizabeth K. Gray
    ABSTRACT Few studies have examined the links between personality variables and sleep and their combined effect on specific real-world outcomes. Participants in this study completed numerous personality, sleep, and performance measures; we examined the associations among these measures. Personality was assessed using the Five-Factor Model. The personality trait of Conscientiousness (especially its facet of Achievement Striving) was a substantial predictor of academic performance. Analyses of the sleep variables revealed three distinct constructs: quantity, quality, and schedule. Sleep quantity showed few interesting correlates. In contrast, sleep quality was associated with greater well-being and improved psychological functioning, whereas sleep schedule (i.e., average rising and retiring times) was significantly related to Conscientiousness, such that conscientious individuals maintain earlier schedules. [source]