Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Confidence

  • consumer confidence
  • diagnostic confidence
  • greater confidence
  • high confidence
  • increase confidence
  • increased confidence
  • investor confidence
  • little confidence
  • participant confidence
  • patient confidence
  • public confidence
  • statistical confidence
  • student confidence

  • Terms modified by Confidence

  • confidence band
  • confidence bands
  • confidence bound
  • confidence indicator
  • confidence interval
  • confidence interval coverage
  • confidence judgement
  • confidence level
  • confidence limit
  • confidence regions
  • confidence scale
  • confidence score
  • confidence set

  • Selected Abstracts


    Coline Covington
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Enhancing Knowledge Transfer in Classroom Versus Online Settings: The Interplay Among Instructor, Student, Content, and Context

    Louise Nemanich
    ABSTRACT This article integrates management education and organizational learning theories to identify the factors that drive the differences in student outcomes between the online and classroom settings. We draw upon theory on knowledge transfer barriers in organizations to understand the interlinking relationships among presage conditions, deep learning process, and product in the 3P model of student learning. We test our model in the context of undergraduate education and find that confidence in the instructor's expertise, perceived content relevance, and the social richness of the classroom learning environment enhance student enjoyment of the course. Confidence in instructor's expertise and perceived content relevance also contribute to greater understanding of causal relationships among course concepts. Enjoyment is positively associated with learning performance in the classroom, but not online, and student ability is positively associated with learning performance in the online context, but not in the classroom. Our results have implications for course designs in the traditional classroom context and the more innovative online environment. [source]

    Dynamic distribution modelling: predicting the present from the past

    ECOGRAPHY, Issue 1 2009
    Stephen G. Willis
    Confidence in projections of the future distributions of species requires demonstration that recently-observed changes could have been predicted adequately. Here we use a dynamic model framework to demonstrate that recently-observed changes at the expanding northern boundaries of three British butterfly species can be predicted with good accuracy. Previous work established that the distributions of the study species currently lag behind climate change, and so we presumed that climate is not currently a major constraint at the northern range margins of our study species. We predicted 1970,2000 distribution changes using a colonisation model, MIGRATE, superimposed on a high-resolution map of habitat availability. Thirty-year rates and patterns of distribution change could be accurately predicted for each species (, goodness-of-fit of models >0.64 for all three species, corresponding to >83% of grid cells correctly assigned), using a combination of individual species traits, species-specific habitat associations and distance-dependent dispersal. Sensitivity analyses showed that population productivity was the most important determinant of the rate of distribution expansion (variation in dispersal rate was not studied because the species are thought to be similar in dispersal capacity), and that each species' distribution prior to expansion was critical in determining the spatial pattern of the current distribution. In future, modelling approaches that combine climate suitability and spatially-explicit population models, incorporating demographic variables and habitat availability, are likely to be valuable tools in projecting species' responses to climatic change and hence in anticipating management to facilitate species' dispersal and persistence. [source]

    Behavioral Adaptation, Confidence, and Heuristic-Based Explanations of the Probing Effect

    Timothy R. Levine
    Researchers have found that asking probing questions of message sources does not enhance deception detection accuracy. Probing does, however, increase recipient and observer perceptions of source honesty, a finding we label the probing effect. This project examined 3 potential explanations for the probing effect: behavioral adaptation, confidence bias, and a probing heuristic. In Study 1, respondents (N = 337) viewed videotaped interviews in which probes were present or not present, and in which message source behaviors were controlled. Inconsistent with the behavioral adaptation explanation, respondents perceived probed sources as more honest than nonprobed sources, despite the fact that source behaviors were constant across conditions. The data also were inconsistent with the confidence bias explanation. Studies 2 and 3 investigated the probing heuristic explanation. The data from Study 2 (N = 136) were ambiguous, but the results of third study (N = 143) were consistent with the heuristic processing explanation of the probing effect. [source]

    Pharmacists' role in smoking cessation: an examination of current practice and barriers to service provision

    David Edwards PhD student
    Objective This study addressed the potential role of pharmacists in helping their patients to quit smoking by providing a summary of their self-reported levels of current activities, confidence, and readiness to change around the provision of brief advice and support for patients who smoke. In addition to investigating which barriers are perceived to be most important, this study also examined the relative importance of confidence, barriers and practice factors in relation to pharmacists' smoking cessation practices. Method A 58-item questionnaire was mailed to 720 pharmacists. The questionnaire measured demographic and background variables, level of smoking cessation activity (asking, advising, assessing, assisting and arranging including follow-up), confidence in undertaking smoking-cessation activities, readiness to change, perceived importance of barriers to providing smoking-cessation services, and further education or training in relation to smoking cessation. Setting Community pharmacists in South Australia. Key findings Respondents indicated high rates of activity in relation to assessing and assisting patients to quit smoking, with lower rates of advising and arranging including following up. Recording of smoking status was very low. Confidence emerged as the most important predictor of smoking-cessation activities, with pharmacist barriers including fear of alienating patients approaching significance. Reported levels of smoking-specific education and training were low. Conclusions South Australian pharmacists are contributing to the prevention of tobacco-related harms. With additional support there is a greater scope for involvement. Results indicate a need for a team-based, systematic and multifaceted approach to address barriers and enhance pharmacists' confidence. Further implementation research is required to assess the effectiveness of multifaceted pharmacy support programmes on the uptake and sustainability of smoking-cessation services. [source]

    Rings of Steel, Rings of Concrete and Rings of Confidence: Designing out Terrorism in Central London pre and post September 11th

    Jon CoaffeeArticle first published online: 24 FEB 200
    This article is a reaction to the rapid changes many urban areas are undertaking in attempts to counter the contemporary terrorist threat since the devastating events of September 11th. The response of central London authorities both pre- and post- September 11th is used as the lens through which to view attempts to reduce the real and perceived threat of terrorist attack through the adoption of territorial approaches to security, both physical and technological, which are increasingly being utilized at ever-expanding spatial scales. It argues that this situation all too often produces a scenario of ,splintered urbanism' as security rings are thrown up around carefully selected sections of cities deemed most at risk. It further argues for a balance to be struck between competing concerns for freedom of access, mobility and other democratic freedoms, and the need for cities to adopt increasingly militarized security perspectives in their counter-terrorism efforts. Cet article présente une réaction aux rapides changements que de nombreuses zones urbaines entreprennent afin de contrer la menace terroriste actuelle depuis les ravages du 11 septembre. La réponse des autorités du centre de Londres, à la fois avant et après cette date, sert ainsi de loupe permettant d'observer les efforts de minimisation de cette menace d'agression, tant subjective que réelle. Il s'agit de démarches territoriales à l'égard de la sécurité (matérielle et technologique) appliquées de plus en plus souvent à des échelles spatiales sans cesse élargies. De cette situation, naît trop souvent un scénario ,d'urbanisme fragmenté', les anneaux de sécuritéétant jetés autour de portions soigneusement sélectionnées de villes jugées le plus en danger. L'article défend la nécessité de trouver un équilibre entre les préoccupations opposées que sont les liberté d'accès, mobilité ou autres libertés démocratiques et le besoin des villes d'adopter des perspectives sécuritaires de plus en plus militarisées dans leurs tentatives contre le terrorisme. [source]

    Confidence in Religious Leaders in Korea: A Research Note

    Jibum Kim
    Korea may provide an important testing ground for assessing religious growth as a correlate of religious authority. In Korea from 1985 to 1995, all religious groups experienced growth, but from 1995 to 2005 only the Catholic population did so. Favorable images of Korean Catholicism compared to other Korean religions point to one factor that may account for this trend, namely, confidence in religious leaders. Up to now there has been no empirical test measuring confidence in religious leaders among different religious groups in Korea. Using the 2003,2007 Korean General Social Surveys cumulative data, we found a hierarchy of confidence in religious leaders ranging from highest to lowest as follows: Catholics, Protestants, Buddhists, no religion. Our finding may suggest the continued vitality of Catholicism in Korea. [source]

    Confidence and Investors' Reliance on Disciplined Trading Strategies

    Mark W. Nelson
    abstract Researchers and practitioners in accounting and finance often investigate or advocate particular disciplined trading strategies, but little work investigates the determinants of individual investors' trading-strategy reliance. We report two experiments, which provide evidence that the dual-source model of overconfidence (Sniezek and Buckley [1991]) predicts the circumstances in which investors are more likely to rely on disciplined trading strategies. Our results indicate that reliance is more likely when investors trade portfolios of securities rather than trading on a case-by-case basis, particularly when investors have received feedback that their previous (unaided) trading decisions have been unprofitable. These results are driven by the number of shares that investors transact rather than by investors' directional agreement with the recommendations of the trading strategy, suggesting that the effects of a portfolio approach and trading experience occur by mitigating investors' overconfidence. The effects violate an aspect of economic rationality because our experiments ensure that investors in all conditions trade the same set of securities based on the same set of information. [source]

    Confidence and decision type under matched stimulus conditions: overconfidence in perceptual but not conceptual decisions

    Sara Kvidera
    Abstract Within the domain of metacognition, there is disagreement whether different processes underlie evaluations of confidence in perceptual versus conceptual decisions. The relationship between confidence and accuracy for perceptual and conceptual decisions was compared using newly created stimuli that could be used to elicit either decision type. Based on theories of Brunswikian and Thurstonian uncertainties, significant underconfidence for perceptual decisions and overconfidence for conceptual decisions were predicted. Three within-subjects experiments did not support this hypothesis. Participants showed significant overconfidence for perceptual decisions and no overconfidence for conceptual decisions. In addition, significant hard-easy effects were consistently found for both decision types. Incorporating our findings with past results reveals that both over- and underconfidence are attainable on perceptual tasks. This conclusion, in addition to the common presence of hard-easy effects and significant across-task correlations in over/underconfidence, suggests that confidence judgments for the two decision types may depend on largely shared processes. Possible contributions to confidence and over/underconfidence are explored, focusing on response time factors and participants' knowledge bases. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Harnessing experience: exploring the gap between evidence-based medicine and clinical practice

    M. Cameron Hay PhD
    Abstract Rationale, aims and objectives, There is mounting evidence of a gap between Evidence-based Medicine (EBM) and physician clinical practice, in part because EBM is averaged global evidence gathered from exogenous populations which may not be relevant to local circumstances. Local endogenous evidence, collected in particular and ,real world' patient populations may be more relevant, convincing and timely for clinical practice. Evidence Farming (EF) is a concept to provide such local evidence through the systematic collection of clinical experience to guide more effective practice. Methods, We report on the findings of a pilot study of 29 individual and three focus group (n = 10) interviews exploring physicians' evaluations how they use multiple sources of information in clinical decision making and their thoughts on EF. Results, Physicians recognize a gap in translating EBM to practice. Physicians reported that when making clinical decisions, they more often rely on clinical experience, the opinions of colleagues and EBM summarizing electronic clinical resources rather than refer directly to EBM literature. Confidence in making decisions based on clinical experience increases over time, yet few physicians reported having systems for tracking their clinical experience in designing treatment plans and patient outcomes. Most physicians saw EF as a promising way to track experience, thereby making scientific evidence more relevant to their own clinical practices. Conclusion, Clinical experience is relatively neglected by the EBM movement, but if that experience were systematically gathered through an approach such as EF, it would meet a need left unfulfilled by EBM. [source]

    How Nurses Learn Advocacy

    Barbara Jo Foley
    Purpose: To describe how nurses develop the skill of advocating for patients. Design & Methods: Hermeneutic phenomenological research methods. Both reserve and active U.S. Army nurses who cared for patients associated with the military operation in Bosnia were individually interviewed to gain an understanding of their experiences of advocating for patients and how they developed their advocating practices. Findings: The constitutive pattern identified was Developing Advocating Practices. The themes comprising this constitutive pattern were Who I Am, Watching Other Nurses Interact with Patients, and Gaining Confidence. Conclusions: For the nurses in this study, developing advocating practices was more haphazard and situationally dependent than methodically taught in their nursing education programs. Nurses would have a stronger foundation in advocacy if nurse educators consciously teach advocacy and if nurse administrators support new graduates' advocacy in the work environment. [source]

    A preliminary analysis of narratives on the impact of training in solution-focused therapy expressed by students having completed a 6-month training course

    S. SMITH ba (hons) ba pgctlt rmn rnt fhea
    Accessible summary ,,Students who participated in a six month training course in SFBT reported significant changes in their relationships with clients. ,,They reported increased trust in clients as people, increased confidence in their own professional role, and increased enthusiasm for working with clients. ,,Students demonstrated an in-depth knowledge and understanding of solution focused principles and practice, enabling them to own their practice and respond creatively to individual clients. ,,It is suggested that substantive training in solution focused brief therapy may help to enhance the professional role and cultural identity of participants, particularly those from a nursing background. Abstract Solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT) is a therapeutic approach utilized in a wide variety of settings. Its roots are in systemic and family therapy, and the emphasis in practice is on helping clients identify what their life will be like when they no longer have their problem, and how close they are to experiencing that situation now. The literature suggests that SFBT is at least as effective as other forms of psychotherapy. This pilot-study explored the impact of a training course in SFBT on the nurses who took part. Interviews were carried out with participants (n= 8) and narrative accounts were analysed and grouped according to emerging themes. Three major themes were perceived; Trust in clients, Positivity and Confidence, and these were supported by interconnected minor themes relating to the eclectic use of the approach, the use of language within the approach, and the application of SFBT in wider life. It is argued that training in SFBT may have a positive impact on the therapeutic and professional role of nurses, and that further studies are required to explore the impact of SFBT training on the professional and cultural identity of nurses. [source]

    Clinician perceptions of personal safety and confidence to manage inpatient aggression in a forensic psychiatric setting

    T. MARTIN rpn dn
    Inpatient mental health clinicians need to feel safe in the workplace. They also require confidence in their ability to work with aggressive patients, allowing the provision of therapeutic care while protecting themselves and other patients from psychological and physical harm. The authors initiated this study with the predetermined belief that a comprehensive and integrated organizational approach to inpatient aggression was required to support clinicians and that this approach increased confidence and staff perceptions of personal safety. To assess perceptions of personal safety and confidence, clinicians in a forensic psychiatric hospital were surveyed using an adapted version of the Confidence in Coping With Patient Aggression Instrument. In this study clinicians reported the hospital as safe. They reported confidence in their work with aggressive patients. The factors that most impacted on clinicians' confidence to manage aggression were colleagues' knowledge, experience and skill, management of aggression training, use of prevention and intervention strategies, teamwork and the staff profile. These results are considered with reference to an expanding literature on inpatient aggression. It is concluded that organizational resources, policies and frameworks support clinician perceptions of safety and confidence to manage inpatient aggression. However, how these are valued by clinicians and translated into practice at unit level needs ongoing attention. [source]

    The Deal Structuring Stage of the Venture Capitalist Decision-Making Process: Exploring Confidence and Control,

    G. Tyge Payne
    This exploratory study examines the deal structuring stage of the venture capitalist decision-making process. Here, the primary issues of concern are investor confidence and potential control of a venture in relation to the level of financing the investor provides and the structure with which the funding is delivered. Confidence comes in support of the entrepreneur, the venture itself, or a combination of the two, prior to capital transfer, but after the initial "invest or not invest" decision has already occurred. Findings support a multicriteria perspective of the pre-investment decision-making process and a distinct difference between entrepreneur confidence and venture confidence in the deal structuring stage. [source]

    Toward Improved Public Confidence in Farmed Fish Quality: A Canadian Perspective on the Consequences of Diet Selection

    Anthony P. Farrell
    Marine fish oils (MFO) are used in salmon diets to mimic the natural diet, to ensure that essential fatty acid requirements for good fish growth and health are met, and to provide salmon flesh with an omega-3 highly unsaturated fatty acid content that can benefit human health. However, an extensive use of MFO in formulated salmonid diets is perceived as an unsustainable use of wild marine fish stocks. In addition, MFOs have a background level of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) unrelated to aquaculture practices. This review considers recently completed studies using alternative lipid sources of terrestrial origin as replacements for MFO and shows that the composition of conventional finfish diets can be altered to reduce the reliance on MFO while concurrently maintaining fish health as well as reducing background levels of POPs. A challenge still ahead is the need for a concerted and sustained outreach to ensure that the public is aware of such improvements to seafood quality so that the preoccupation of the news media with presenting negative images of fish culture to the public is combated. [source]

    Judging Bias: Juror Confidence and Judicial Rulings on Challenges for Cause

    LAW & SOCIETY REVIEW, Issue 3 2008
    Mary R. Rose
    The judge in a jury trial is charged with excusing prospective jurors who will not be impartial. To assess impartiality, prospective jurors are typically asked whether they can be fair. Using an experimental paradigm, we found that small changes in jurors' self-reported confidence in their ability to be fair affected judges' decisions about bias but did not affect the judgments of either attorneys or jurors. We suggest why a judge's role and unique relationship with jurors is likely to foster a decision strategy based on reported juror confidence, and we discuss the implications of our analysis for current legal debates over jury selection practices. Unexpected patterns in our results also highlight the ways in which perceptions of impartiality are affected, in part, by the social characteristics of the observer. [source]

    The relationship between personal breastfeeding experience and the breastfeeding attitudes, knowledge, confidence and effectiveness of Australian GP registrars

    Wendy Brodribb
    Abstract In conjunction with other health professionals, doctors believe they play an important role in promoting breastfeeding to women. Although many have positive breastfeeding attitudes, significant knowledge deficits often limit their capacity to effectively encourage, support and assist breastfeeding women and their infants. Personal breastfeeding experience (of self or partner) may be the main source of breastfeeding knowledge and skill development and is related to improved knowledge, more positive attitudes and greater confidence. This paper describes the relationship between the cumulative length of personal breastfeeding experience and the breastfeeding knowledge and attitudes of a cohort of Australian general practice (GP) registrars, as well as their confidence and perceived effectiveness assisting breastfeeding women. The Australian Breastfeeding Knowledge and Attitude Questionnaire containing demographic items, a 20-item attitude scale and a 40-item knowledge scale was distributed between February and May 2007 to Australian GP registrars in their final year of training. Participants with more than 52-week cumulative personal (self or partner) breastfeeding experience had the highest mean knowledge score, had more positive attitudes, and were more confident and effective than all other participants. Parents with limited personal experience (,26 weeks) had the poorest breastfeeding attitudes and their knowledge base was similar to participants with no personal experience. Confidence and perceived effectiveness when assisting breastfeeding women rose with increasing cumulative breastfeeding experience. Personal breastfeeding experience per se does not guarantee better breastfeeding knowledge or attitudes although increasing length of experience is related to higher knowledge, attitude, confidence and perceived effectiveness scores. [source]

    Business Cycles and the Role of Confidence: Evidence for Europe,

    Karl Taylor
    Abstract This paper examines whether indicators of consumer and business confidence can predict movements in GDP over the business cycle for four European economies. The empirical methodology used to investigate the properties of the data comprises cross-correlation statistics, implementing an approach developed by den Haan [Journal of Monetary Economics (2000), Vol. 46, pp. 3,30]. The predictive power of confidence indicators is also examined, investigating whether they can predict discrete events, namely economic downturns, and whether they can quantitatively forecast point estimates of economic activity. The results indicate that both consumer and business confidence indicators are procyclical and generally play a significant role in predicting downturns. [source]

    Manikin training for neonatal resuscitation with the laryngeal mask airway

    Donna Gandini MB BS
    Summary Background :,We describe our experience of brief (,15 min) manikin-only training with the laryngeal mask airway (LMATM) for neonatal resuscitation in 80 health care workers. Methods :,Prior to training, 31% had not heard of the LMA, 57% did not know the LMA could be used for neonatal resuscitation and 88% thought it was a disposable device. Results :,The mean (sd) range time to insert the LMA after training was 5 (2, 5,16) s and there were no failed insertions. The preferred technique for neonatal resuscitation, before vs after training, changed from 72 to 14% for the face mask (P < 0.00001), from 6 to 80% for the LMA (P < 0.00001), from 5 to 0% for laryngoscope-guided tracheal intubation (P = 0.04) and from 16 to 5% for unknown (P = 0.02). All considered that training was adequate and the LMA should be available on neonatal resuscitation carts. Confidence in using the LMA increased from 8 to 97% (P < 0.0001). Conclusions :,We conclude that LMA insertion success rates are high and confidence increases after brief manikin-only training. [source]

    Public Confidence and Executive Power: The Symbiosis

    Brian Steele
    First page of article [source]

    Exposure, Threat Appraisal, and Lost Confidence as Predictors of PTSD Symptoms Following September 11, 2001

    Chaya S. Piotrkowski PhD
    Six months after September 11, 2001 (9/11), 124 New York City workers participated in a self-report study of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Although direct exposure to the terrorist attacks of 9/11 was limited, estimates of the prevalence of current PTSD in this mostly ethnic minority population ranged from 7.8% to 21.2%. as measured by the PTSD Checklist (F. W. Weathers, B. T. Litz, D. S. Herman, J. A. Huska, & T. M. Keane, 1993). Consistent with the study hypotheses, direct exposure to the attacks of 9/11, worries about future terrorist attacks (threat appraisal), and reduced confidence in self after 9/11 each predicted symptoms of PTSD, even after controlling for symptoms of anxiety and depression. These results support the idea that a traumatic event's meaning is associated with PTSD symptoms. Gender was not a significant predictor of symptoms, once other demographic variables were controlled. Most respondents who met the criteria for current PTSD had not sought therapy or counseling. [source]

    Burnout and psychiatric morbidity among physicians engaged in end-of-life care for cancer patients: a cross-sectional nationwide survey in Japan

    PSYCHO-ONCOLOGY, Issue 5 2007
    Mariko Asai
    Abstract Purpose: To determine the prevalence of burnout and psychiatric morbidity among physicians engaged in end-of-life care for cancer patients in Japan and to explore associated factors related to end-of-life care. Methods: Questionnaires were mailed to 1436 Japanese clinical oncologists and palliative care physicians with a request to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI), the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), and to report on individual factors, including confidence in patient care. High levels of burnout and psychiatric morbidity were identified using cut-off scores of the MBI and GHQ-12. Results: A total of 697 physicians returned the questionnaires (response rate, 49.6%). Twenty-two percent of the respondents had a high level of emotional exhaustion, 11% had a high level of depersonalization, 62% had a low level of personal accomplishment, and 20% had psychiatric morbidity. Clinical oncologists showed a significantly higher psychiatric morbidity than palliative care physicians. Confidence in having sufficient time to communicate with patients was significantly associated with all the burnout subscales. Conclusions: A low level of personal accomplishment was relatively high among Japanese physicians compared with previous studies. Insufficient confidence in the psychological care of patients was associated with physician burnout rather than involvement in end-of-life care. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Instrument Development of the Confidence in Home Care Services Questionnaire for Use With Elders and Caregivers of Mexican Descent

    Janice D. Crist
    ABSTRACT Mexican American elders use home care services less than non-Hispanic white elders, and a larger study is testing whether lack of confidence in home care services, measured by the Community Service Attitude Inventory, is a factor. In order to further develop the questionnaire for use with Mexican American elders and caregivers, qualitative interviews were conducted with Mexican American elders (n=5), Mexican American caregivers (n=5), and home care providers (n=5). Content analysis of interviews supported 2 dimensions: confidence and fear/worry. The research team developed 29 items from the dimensions. Testing of the items (n=15) suggested content validity and two additional items. The revised questionnaire was translated and tested for language equivalence in Spanish and English, assisted by a local community advisory council (n=9). Through collaboration, bicultural/bilingual teams and community partners refined 1 instrument that can be used to measure one of many barriers to equity in health care services with vulnerable populations. Thematic findings may be incorporated into nurses' interventions as they offer home care services to families. [source]

    The detection of phenotypic differences in the metabolic plasma profile of three strains of Zucker rats at 20 weeks of age using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometry

    Robert S. Plumb
    Analysis of biological fluids using ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) (metabonomics) can allow new insights to be gained into disease processes, with advances in chromatographic techniques enabling the detection of thousands of metabolites. In this work metabonomics has been used to investigate the metabolic processes involved in type II diabetes in the Zucker obese rat. Plasma was analyzed from three different strains, the Zucker (fa/fa) obese, Zucker lean and the lean/(fa) obese cross. Using UPLC/MS, ca. 10,000 ions were detected due to the narrow peak widths and excellent peak shapes achieved with this technology. Confidence in the chromatographic performance was demonstrated by the use of quality control standards. The positive and negative ion total ion chromatograms obtained from the three strains were readily distinguishable using multivariate statistical analysis. The greatest difference was observed between the Zucker lean and Zucker lean/(fa) rats compared to the Zucker (fa/fa) obese rats. Positive ions m/z 220 (4.36,min), 282(3.78,min), 359 (5.33,min) and 405 (7.77,min) were elevated in the plasma derived from Zucker lean rats whilst ions m/z 385 (6.80,min) and 646 (4.36,min) were at a lower concentration compared to the plasma from the Zucker (fa/fa) obese animals. Negative ions elevated in the Zucker lean rats included m/z 212 (2.30,min), 514 (2.85,min), 295 (4.39,min), 329 (3.11,min), 343 (2.86,min) and 512 (2.86,min) with ions m/z 538 (4.18,min), 568 (4.18,min), 568 (5.09,min) and 612 (4.30,min) being raised in the samples derived from Zucker (fa/fa) obese animals. The ion m/z 514 (3.85,min) was found to correspond to taurocholate, providing further support for an involvement of taurine metabolism in diabetes. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Public Confidence in Criminal Justice: The Lessons from Miscarriages of Justice

    Abstract: This article describes how the media understand miscarriages of justice, and how that understanding is distinct from the understanding of miscarriages of justice that determine the Court of Appeal's decisions and enable it to reach the conclusion that a conviction is unsafe. It demonstrates how at particular times the media construct a story of a ,crisis of public confidence' in the criminal justice system, how such a story is periodic and recurrent, and how attempts to control or reduce the likelihood of such a story being developed tend to be unsuccessful, or even counterproductive. [source]

    FDR'S First Fireside Chat: Public Confidence and the Banking Crisis by Amos Kiewe

    Max J. Skidmore
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Evaluation of a Navigation System for ENT with Surgical Efficiency Criteria,

    THE LARYNGOSCOPE, Issue 4 2006
    Gero Strau MD
    Abstract The aim of this study is the evaluation of a navigation system (NaviBase) for ENT surgery. For this purpose, a new methodology for the evaluation of surgical and ergonomic system properties has been developed. The practicability of the evaluation instruments will be examined using the example of the overall assessment of the system in comparison with the current surgical standard and with other systems using clinical efficiency criteria. The evaluation is based on 102 ENT surgical applications; of these, 89 were functional endoscopic sinus surgeries (FESS). The evaluation of surgical and ergonomic performance factors was performed by seven ENT surgeons. To evaluate surgical system properties, the Level of Quality (LOQ) in 89 cases of the FESS was determined. It compares the existing information of the surgeon with that of the navigation system on a scale of 0 to 100 and with a mean value of 50 and places it in a relationship to the clinical impact. The intraoperative change of the planned surgical strategy (Change of Surgical Strategy) was documented. The ergonomic factors of the system with the categories of Overall Confidence (Trust), awareness of the situation (Situation Awareness), influence on the operating team, requirements for specific skills (Skill Set Requirement), and cognitive load (Workload Shift) were recorded for all surgical procedures as Level of Reliance (LOR). In the evaluation of the surgical system properties, an average evaluation of the quality of the information, as an LOQ of 63.59, resulted. Every second application of the navigation system (47.9%), on average, led to a change in the surgical strategy. An extension/enhancement of the indication of the endonasal approach through the use of the navigation system was shown in 7 of 102 (6.8%) cases. The completion of the resection in the FESS was rated by 74% of group I and 11% of group II as better in comparison with the standard approach. Total confidence shows a positive evaluation of 3.35 in the LOR. To supplement the evaluation of the navigation system, the technical parameters were included. The maximum deviation, Amax, of the displayed position of the reference value amounted to 1.93 mm. The average deviation was at 1.29 mm with an SD above all values, sd, of 0.29. The subsequent economic evaluation resulted in an effective average extra expenditure of time of 1.35 minutes per case. The overall evaluation of the system imparts application-relevant information beyond the technical details and permits comparability between different assistance systems. [source]

    Transforming Breach of Confidence?

    THE MODERN LAW REVIEW, Issue 5 2003
    Towards a Common Law Right of Privacy under the Human Rights Act
    This article examines the development of a remedy for unauthorised publication of personal information that has resulted from the fusion of breach of confidence with the limited ,horizontal' application of Article 8 of the ECHR via the Human Rights Act. Its analysis of Strasbourg and domestic post-HRA case law reveals the extent to which confidence has in some areas been radically transformed into a privacy right in all but name; however it also seeks to expose the analytical and normative tensions that arise in the judgments between the values of confidentiality and privacy as overlapping but not coterminous concepts, due in part to the failure to resolve decisively the horizontal effect conundrum. This judicial ambivalence towards the reception of privacy as a legal right into English law may, it will argue, also be seen in the prevailing judicial approach to the resolution of the conflict between privacy and expression interests which, it will suggest, is both normatively and structurally inadequate. [source]

    Assurance of Sustainability Reports: Impact on Report Users' Confidence and Perceptions of Information Credibility

    Kristy Hodge
    This study examines whether (1) assurance, (2) the level of assurance (reasonable vs limited) and (3) the type of assurance practitioner (accountant vs specialist consultant) affect users' perceptions of reliability of sustainability reports. Based on an experimental questionnaire, we find that the provision of assurance improves perceived reliability of the environmental and social information. There are no significant main effects for both the level of assurance and type of assurance practitioner. However, a significant interaction is found between these two experimental factors and report users' perceptions of reliability of such reports. More specifically, report users place more confidence in sustainability reports when the level of assurance provided is reasonable (that is, high but not absolute), and when such assurance is provided by a top tier accountancy firm, compared to when the assurance is provided by a specialist consultant. No such difference is found when the level of assurance provided is limited for either type of assurance practitioner group. The results of this study thus highlight the relevance of assurance for sustainability reporting. [source]

    The Effect of Board-Related Reforms on Investors' Confidence

    Janet Lee
    We survey Australian institutional and individual investors regarding how board-related reforms in the Australian Stock Exchange Corporate Governance Council 2003 recommendations and changes to the Corporations Act 2001 in 2004 affect their confidence as investors. The overall results are consistent with suggestions that individual and institutional investors differ in their corporate governance preferences and expectations. The results reveal that, for both individual and institutional investors, the average investor's confidence is improved by increased independence of the board and its committees, increased disclosures of corporate governance information, and CEO and CFO responsibility for the integrity of financial statements. The effect is strongest for individual investors, who also expect greater time commitments by non-executive directors. Institutional investors appear to have more concern for directors' competence or networking. [source]